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dation of those they follow, are full of incon- thank, or take a second reward, or, at least. venience, for they taint business through to make use in the mean time of the suitor's want of secrecy; and they export honour hopes. Some take hold of suits only for an from a man, and make him a return in envy. occasion to cross some other, or to make an There is a kind of followers, likewise which information, whereof they could not otherwise are dangerous, being indeed espials ; which have apt pretext; without care what become inquire the secrets of the house, and bear of the suit when the turn is served; or, getales of them to others ; yet such men, many nerally, to make otser mer s business a kind times, are in great favour; for they are offi of entertainment to bring in their own; nay, cious, and commonly exchange tales. The some undertake suits with a full
purpose to following by certain estates of men, answer let them fall, to the end to gratify the adverse able to that which a great man himself pro party or competitor. Surely there is in some fesseth (as of soldiers to him that hath been sort a right in every suit; either a right of temployed in the wars, and the like), hath equity, if it be a suit of controversy; or a ever been a thing civil, and well taken even right of desert, if it be a suit of petition. If in monarchies, so it be without too much affection lead a man to favour the wrong side pomp or popularity: but the most honour in justice, let him rather use his countenance able kind of following, is to be followed as to compound the matter than to carry it. If one that apprehendeth to advance virtue and affection lead a man to favour the less worthy desert in all sorts of persons; and yet, where in desert, let him do it without depraving or there is no eminent odds in sufficiency, it is disabling the better deserver. In suits which better to take with the more passable than a man doth not well understand, it is good to with the more able ; and besides, to speak refer them to some friend of trust and judgtruth in base times, active men are of more ment, that they may report whether he may use than virtuous. It is true, that in govern- deal in them with honour ; but let him choose ment, it is good to use men of one rank well his referendaries, for else he may be led equally; for to countenance some extraordi. by the nose. Suitors are so distasted with narily, is to make them insolent, and the rest delays and abuses, that plain dealing in dediscontent; because they may claim a due: nying to deal in suits at first, and reporting but contrariwise in favour, to use men with the success barely, and in challenging no more much indifference and election is good ; for thanks than one hath deserved, is grown not it maketh the person preferred more thankful, only honourable, but also gracious. In suits and the rest more officious; because all is of of favour, the first coming ought to take little favour. It is good discretion not to make place ; : so far forth consideration may be had too much of any man at the first; because of his trust, that if intelligence of the matter tone cannot hold out that proportion. To be could not otherwise have been had but by governed (as we call it) by one is not safe; him, advantage be not taken of the note, but for it shows softness, and gives a freedom to the party left to his other means, and in some scandal and disreputation ; for those that sort recompensed for his discovery. To be would not censure, or speak ill of a man im- ignorant of the value of a suit is simplicity; mediately, will talk more boldly of those that as well to be ignorant of the right thereof is åte so great with them, and thereby wound want of conscience. Secrecy in suits is a their honour; yet to be distracted with many great mean of obtaining; for voicing them to As worse; for it makes men to be of the last be in forwardness may discourage some kind impression, and full of change. To take of suitors, but doth quicken and awake others; advice of some few friends is ever honourable; but timing of the suit is the principal; timing, for lookers on many times see more than I say, not only in respect of the person who gamesters; and the vale best discovereth the should grant it, but in respect of those which hill
. There is little friendship in the world, are like to cross it. Let a man, in the choice and least of all between equals, which was of his mean, rather choose the fittest mean wont to be magnified. That that is, is be than the greatest mean; and rather them tween superior and inferior, whose fortunes that deal in certain things, than those that may comprehend the one the other.
are general. The reparation of a denial
a man show himself neither dejected nor
discontented. “Iniquum petas, ut æquum MANY ill matters and projects are under- feras," is a good rule, where a man hath taken ; and private suits do putrefy the pub- strength of favour; but otherwise, a man lic good. Many good matters are undertaken were better rise in his suit; for he that would with bad minds; I mean not only corrupt have ventured at first to have lost the suitor, minds, but crafty minds, that intend not per. will not, in the conclusion, lose both the formance. Some embrace suits, which never suitor and his own former favour. Nothing mean to deal effectually in them ; but if they is thought so easy a request to a great person See there may be life in the matter, by some as his letter ; and yet, if it be not in a good other mean, they will be content to win a cause, it is so much out of his reputation.
OF STUDIES AND OF FACTION.
There are no worse instruments than these sectores ;" if he bé not apt to beat over mat. general contrivers of suits ; for they are but a ters, and to call upon one thing to prove and kind of poison and infection to public pro- illustrate another, let him study the lawyers? ceeding
cases ; so every defect of the mind may have
a special receipt. OF STUDIES. STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament and
OF FACTION for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in MANY have an opinion not wise, that for a discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment prince to govern his estate, or for a great perand disposition of business; for expert men son to govern his proceedings, according to can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars the respect to factions, is a principal part of one by one; but the general counsels, and policy : whereas, contrariwise, the chiefest the plots and marshaling of affairs come best wisdom is, either in ordering those things from those that are learned. To spend too which are general, and wherein' men of sevemuch time in studies is sloth; to use them ral factions do nevertheless agree, or in dealtoo much for ornament is affectation; to make ing with correspondence to particular persons, judgment wholly by their rules is the humour one by one; but I say not, that the consiof a scholar: they perfect nature, and are per- deration of factions is to be neglected. Mean fected by experience: for natural abilities are 'men, in their rising, must adhere ; but great like natural plants, that need pruning by study; men, that have strength in themselves, were and studies themselves do give forth direc- better to maintain themselves indifferent and tions too much at large, except they be bounded neutral: yet even in beginners, to adhere so in by experience. Crafty men contemn stu- moderately, as he be a man of the one fattiori, dies, simple men admire, and wise men use which is most passable with the other, comthem; for they teach not their own use ; but monly giveth best way. The lower and that is a' wisdom without them, and above weaker faction is the firmer in conjunction ; them, won by observation. Read not to con. and it is often seen, that a few that are stiff tradict and confute, nor to believe and take do tire out a greater number that are more for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, moderate. When one of the factions is ex. .but to weigh and consider. "Some books are tinguished, the remaining subdivideth as
to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and the faction between Lucullus and the rest of some few to be chewed and digested ; that is, the nobles of the senate (which they called some books are to be read only in parts; optimates”) held out awhile against the others to be read, but not curiously; and faction of Pompey and Cæsar; but when the some few to be read wholly, and with dili. senate's authority was pulled down, Cæsar gence and attention. Some books also may “and Pompey soon after brake. The faction be read by deputy, and extracts made of them or party of Antonius and Octavianus Cæsar, by others; but that would be only in the less against Brutus and Cassius, held out likewise important arguments, and the meaner sort of for a time; but when Brútus and Cassius books ; else distilled books are, like common were overthrown, then soon after Antonius distilled "waters, flashy things. Reading and Octavianus brake and subdivided. These maketh a full man; conference a ready man'; "examples are of wars, but the same holdeth and writing an exact man; and, therefore, if in private factions ; and, therefore, those that a man write little, he had need have a great are seconds in factions, do many times, when memory; if he confer little, he had need have the faction subdivideth, prove principals ; but a present wit; and if he read little, he had many times, also, they prove ciphers and need have much cunning, to seem to know cashiered, for many a man's strength is in that he doth not. Histories make men wise; opposition; and when that faileth, he groweth poets, witty, the
mathematic, subtile ; natu out of use. It is commonly seen that men ral philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic once placed, take in with the contrary faction "and rhetoric, able to contend ; “Abeunt stu to that by which they enter ; thinking, bedia in' mores;nay, there is no stand or im- "like, that they have their first sure, and now
pediment in the wit, but may be wrought out " are ready for a new purchase. The traitor in -by fit studies: like as diseases of the body "faction lightly goeth away with it, for when may have appropriate exercises ; bowling is matters have stuck long in balancing, the good for the stone and reins, shooting for the winning of some one man casteth them, and lungs and breast, gentle walking for the he getteth all the thanks. The even carstomach, riding for the head, and the like; -riage between two factions proceedeth not al*80, if a man's wits be wandering, let him ways of moderation, but of a trueness to a study the mathematics; for in demonstra. man's self, with end to make use of both. tions, if his wit be called away never so little, Certainly, in Italy, they hold it a little sus"he must begin again; if his wit be not apt pect in popes, when they have often in their to distinguish or find differences, let him mouth Padre' commune;" and take it to study the schoolmen, for they are'“ Cymint be a sign of one that meaneth to refer all to
OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS, AND OF PRAISE.
the greatness of his own house. Kings had facility. It is a good precept, generally in need beware how they side themselves, and seconding another, yet to add somewhat of make themselves as of a faction or party; for one's own: as if you will grant his opinion, leagues within the state are ever pernicious let it be with some distinction; if you will to monarchies, for they raise an obligation follow bis motion, let it be with condition ; paramount to obligation of sovereignty, and if you allow his counsel, let it be with almake the king “ tanquam unus ex nobis ; leging farther reason. Men had need beware as was to be seen in the league of France. how they be too perfect in compliments ; for When factions are carried too high and too be they never so sufficient otherwise, their violently, it is a sign of weakness in princes, enviers will be sure to give them that attribute, and much to the prejudice both of their to the disadvantage of their greater virtues. authority and business. The motions of fac It is loss also in business to be too full of re. tions under kings ought to be like the mo spects, or to be too curious in observing times tions (as the astronomers speak) of the inferior and opportunities. Solomon saith,“ ře that orbs, which may have their proper motions, considereth the wind shall not sow, and he but yet still are quietly carried by the higher that looketh to the clouds shall not reap." motion of “primum mobile."
A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds. Men's behaviour should be
like their apparel, not too strait or point de OF CEREMONIES AND RESPECTS. vice, but free for exercise or motion He that is only real had need have exceeding great parts of virtue, as the stone had need to
OF PRAISE. be rich that is set without foil; but if a man mark it well, it is in praise and commenda PRAISE is the reflection of virtue, but it is as tion of men, as it is in gettings and gains; the glass, or body which giveth the reflection; for the proverb is true, " That light gains if it be from the common people, it is commake heavy purses ;" for light gains come monly false and naught, and rather followeth thick, whereas great come but now and then: „vain persons than virtuous; for the common so it is true, that small matters win great people understand not many excellent vircommendation, because they are continually tues: the lowest virtues, draw praise from in use and in note; whereas the occasion of them, the middle virtues work in them astoany great virtue cometh but on festivals: nishment or admiration; but of the highest therefore it doth much add to a man's repu virtues they have no sense or perceiving at tation, and is (as Queen Isabella said) like all, but shows and " species virtutibus simi. perpetual letters commendatory, to have good les” serve best with them. Certainly, fame forms: to attain them, it almost sufficeth is like a river that beareth up hings light not to despise them, for so shall a man obo and swollen, and drowns things weighty and serve them in others; and let him trust him- solid; but if persons of quality and judgment self with the rest, for if he labour too much to concur, then it is (as the scripture saith,) express them, he shall lose their grace, which “ Nomen bonum instar unguenti fragrantis;" is to be natural and unaffected. Some men's it filleth all round about, and will not easily behaviour is like a verse, wherein every syl- away; for the odours of ointments are more lable is measured : how can a man compre.
durable than those of flowers. There be so hend great matters that breaketh his mind many false points of praise, that a man may too much to small observations
Not to use
justly hold it in suspect. Some praises proceremonies at all, is to teach others not to use ceed merely of flattery; and if he be an ordithem again, and so diminish respect to him. nary flatterer, he will have certain common self ; especially they are not to be omitted to attributes, which may serve every man; if strangers and formal natures : but the dwell.
he be a cunning flatterer, he will follow the ing upon them, and exalting them above the archflatterer, which is a man's self, and moon, is not only tedious, but doth diminish wherein a man thinketh best of himself, the faith and credit of him that speaks : and, therein the flatterer will uphold him most; certainly, there is a kind of conveying of effec but if he be an impudent flatterer, look tual and imprinting passages amongst com wherein a man is conscious to himself that pliments, which is of singular use, if a man he is most defective, and is most out of coun. can hit upon it. Amongst a man's years, a tenance in himself, that will the flatterer enman shall be sure of familiarity; and, there title him to perforce, “ Spreta conscientia." fore, it is good a little to keep state: amongst Some praises come of good wishes and rea man's inferiors, one shall be sure of reve spects, which is a form due in civility to rence; and, therefore, it is good a little to be kings and great persons, " laudando præcifamiliar. He that is too much in any thing, pere;" when by telling men what they are, so that he giveth another occasion of society, they represent to them what they should be: maketh himself cheap. To apply oneself to some men are praised maliciously to their others is good, so it be with demonstration, hurt, thereby to stir envy and jealousy to. that a man doth it upon regard, and not upon wards them; “pessimum genus inimicorum
OF VAIN.GLORY, AND OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION. 49 laudantium;" insomuch as it was a proverb sharpens iron, so by glory one courage sharpamongst the Grecians, that, “ He that was eneth another. In cases of great enterprise praised to his hurt should have a push rise upon charge and adventure, a composition of upon his nose;" as we say, that a blister will glorious natures doth put life into business ; rise upon one's tongue that tells a lie ; cer and those that are of solid and sober natures tainly, moderate praise, used with opportu. have more of the ballast than of the sail. In nity, and not vulgar, is that which doth the fame of learning the flight will be slow withgood. Solomon saith, “ He that praiseth his out some feathers of ostentation : “Qı de friend aloud rising early, it shall be to him contemnenda gloria libros scribunt, nomen no better than a curse.” Too much magnify suum inscribunt.” Socrates, Aristotle, Ga. ing of man or matter doth irritate contradic- len, were men full of ostentation : certainly, tion, and procure envy and scorn. To praise vain-glory helpeth to perpetuate a man's me. a man's self cannot be decent, except it be in mory ; and virtue was never so beholden to rare cases ; but to praise a man's office or human nature, as it received its due at second profession, he may do it with good grace, and hand. Neither had the fame of Cicero, Sewith a kind of magnanimity. The cardinals neca, Plinius Secundus, borne her age so well of Rome, which are theologues, and friars, if it had not been joined with some vanity in and schoolmen, have a phrase of notable con themselves; like anto varnish, that make tempt and scorn towards civil business ; for ceilings not only shine but last. But all this they call all temporal business of wars, em. while, when I speak of vain-glory, I mean not bassages, judicature, and other employments, of that prop that Tacitus doth attribute sherrerie, which is under sherifferies, as if to Mucianus, “Omnium, quæ dixerat fecethey were but matters for under sheriffs and ratque, arte quadam ostentator ;" for that catchpoles ; though many times those under proceeds not of vanity, but of natural magsherifferies do more good than their high spe- nanimity and discretion, and, in some perculations. St. Paul, when he boasts of him. sons, is not only comely, but gracious ; for self, doth oft interlace, “ I speak like a fool;"* excusations, cessions, modesty itself, well go. but speaking of his calling, he saith, “ mag- verned, are but arts of ostentation ; and nificabo apostolatum meum.'
amongst those arts there is none better than
which is to be liberal of praise and commen.
dation to others, in that wherein a man's self It was prettily devised of Æsop, the fly sat hath any perfection ; for, saith Pliny, very upon the axletree of the chariot-wheel, and wittingly, “ In commending another you do said, “What a dust do I raise !” So are yourself right;" for he that you commend is there some vain persons, that, whatsoever either superior to you in that you commend, goeth alone, or moveth upon greater means, or inferior ; if he be inferior, if he be to be if they have never so little hand in it, they commended, you much more; if he be supethink it is they that carry it. They that are rior, if he be not to be commended, you much glorious must needs be factious; for all bra. less. Vain-glorious men are the scorn of wise very stands upon comparisons. They must men, the admiration of fools, the idols of paneeds be violent to make good their own rasites, and the slaves of their own vaunts. vaunts; neither can they be secret, and, therefore, not effectual; but according to the French proverb, “ beaucoup de bruit, peu de
OF HONOUR AND REPUTATION. fruit;">“ much bruit, little fruit.” Yet, The winning of honour is but the revealing, certainly, there is use of this quality in civil of a man's virtue and worth without disada affairs : where there is an opinion and fame vantage; for some in their actions do woo and to be created, either of virtue or greatness, affect honour and reputation; which sort of these men are good trumpeters. Again, as men are commonly much talked of but in. Titus Livius noteth, in the case of Antiochus wardly little admired : and some, contrari. and the Ætolians, there are sometimes great wise, darken their virtue in the show of it; effects of cross lies; as if a man that nego. so as they be undervalued in opinion. If a tiates between two princes, to draw them to man perform that which hath not been atoin in a war against a third, doth extol the tempted before, or attempted and given over, forces of either of them above measure, the or hath been achieved, but not with so good one to the other : and sometimes he that deals circumstances, he shall purchase more honour between man and man raiseth his own credit than effecting a matter of greater difficulty or with both, by pretending greater interest than virtue wherein he is but a follower. If a man he hath in either : and in these, and the like so temper his actions, as in some one of them kinds, it often falls out, that somewhat is he doth content every faction or combination of produced of nothing; for lies are sufficient to people, the music will be the fuller. A man breed opinion, and opinion brings on sub is an ill husband of his honour that entereth stance. In military commanders and soldiers, into any action, the failing wherein may disvain-glory is an essential point; for as iron grace him more than the carrying of it through
can honour him. Honour that is gained and tion of Scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; broken upon another hath the quickest reflec- and to pronounce that which they do not find, tion, like diamonds cut with fascets; and, and by show of antiquity to introduce novelty. therefore, let a man contend to excel any Judges ought to be more learned than witty, competitors of his honour, in outshooting more reverènd than plausible, and more adthem, if he can, in their own bow. Discreet vised than confident. Above all things, infollowers and servants help much to reputa. tegrity is their portion and proper virtue. tion; “ Omnis fama a domesticis emanant." “ Cursed (saith the law) is he that removeth Envy, which is the canker of honour, is best the landmark." The mislayer of a mere stone distinguished by declaring a man's self in his is to blame; but it is the unjust judge that is ends, rather to seek merit than fame: and by the capital remover of landmarks, when he attributing a man's successes rather to divine defineth amiss of land and property. One Providence and felicity than to his own virtue foul sentence doth more hurt than many foul or policy. The true marshaling of the degrees examples ; for these do but corrupt the stream, of sovereign honour are these: in the first the other corrupteth the fountain : so saith place are 56 conditores imperiorum,” founders Soloman, “Fons turbatus, et vena corrupta of states and commonwealths ; such as were est justus cadens in causa súa coram adverRomulus, Cyrus, Cæsar, Ottoman, Ismael : sario.” The office of judges may have rein the second place are " legislatores,” law. ference unto the parties that sue, unto the givers ; which are also called second founders, advocates that plead, unto the clerks and or perpetui principes,” because they govern ministers of justice underneath them, and to by their ordinances after they are gone : such the sovereign or state above them. were Lycurgus, Solon, Justinian, Edgar, Al First, for the causes or parties that sue. phonsus of Castile, the wise, that made the “There be (saith the scripture), that turn judg. “Siete patridas:" in the third place are ment into wormwood ; and surely there be also “libaratores,” or “ salvatorei ;” such as com that turn it into vinegar; for injustice maketh pound the long miseries of civil wars, or de it bitter, and delays make it sour. liver their countries from servitude of strangers cipal duty of a judge is to suppress force and or tyrants ; as Augustus Cæser, Vespasianus, fraud ; whereof force is the more pernicious Aurelianus, Thedoricus, King Henry the when it is open, and, fraud when it is close Seventh of England, King Henry the Fourth and disguised. Add thereto contentious suits, of France : in the fourth place are “pro which ought to be spewed out, as the surfeit pagatores,"or, “propugnatores imperii,” such of courts. A judge ought to prepare his way as in honourable wars enlarge their territories, to a just sentence, as God useth to prepare or make noble defence against invaders : and, his way, by raising valleys and taking down in the last place, are “patres patriæ," which hills : so when there appeareth on either side reign justly, and make the times good wherein a high hand, violent prosecution, cunning they live; both which last kinds need no.ex. advantages taken, combination, power, great amples, they are in such number. Degrees of counsel, then is the virtue of a judge seen to honour in subjects are, first, “participes make inequality equal ; that he may plant curarum,” those upon whom princes do dis his judgment as upon an even ground. “Qui charge the greatest weight of their affairs; fortiter emungit, elicit sanguinem ;” and their right hands, as we
may call them : their where the wine press is hard wrought, it next are “duces belli,” great leaders ; such as yields a harsh wine, that tastes of the grapeare princes' lieutenants, and do them notable stone. Judges must beware of hard construcservices in the wars": the third are gratiosi," tions, and strained inferences ; for there is no favourites, such as exceeded not this scant worse torture than the torture of laws: espeling, to be solace to the sovereign, and harm- cially in case of laws penal, they ought to less to the people: and the fourth, “negotiis have care, that that which was meant for terror, pares ;" such as have great places under princes, be not turned into rigour : and that they bring and execute their places with sufficiency. not upon the people that shower whereof the There is an honour likewise, which may be scripture speaketh, “ Pluet super eos laTanked amongst the greatest, which happeneth queos ;" for penal laws pressed are a shower rarely ; that is, of such as sacrifice themselves of snares upon the people: therefore let penal to death or danger for the good of their laws, if they have been sleepers of long, or if country; as were M. Regulus, and the two they be grown unfit for the present time, be Decii.
by wise judges confined in the execution: “Judicis officium est, ut res, ita tempora
rerum,” &c. In causes of life and death OF JUDICATURE.
judges ought (as far as the law permitteth) JUDGES ought to remember that their office in justice to remember mercy, and to cast a is “jus dicere," and not " jus dare ;" to in. severe eye upon the example, but a merciful terpret law, and not to make law, or give law; eye upon the person. else will it be like the authority claimed by the Secondly, for the advocates and counsel that churen of Rome, which under pretext ofexposi- į plead. Patience and gravity of hearing is an