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OF DEFORMITY, AND OF BUILDING. parts out of divers faces, to make one excel. wards them hath rather been as to good lent. Such personages, I think, would please spials, and good whisperers, than good ma. nobody but the painter that made them : not gistrates and officers : and much like is the but I think a painter may make a better face reason of deformed persons. Still the ground than ever was; but he must do it by a kind, is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to of felicity (as a musician that maketh an ex. free themselves from scorn ; which must be cellent air in music), and not by rule. A man either by virtue or malice ; and therefore, let shall see faces, that, if you examine them it not be marvelled, if sometimes they prove part by part, you shall find never a
and excellent persons ; as was Agesilaus, Zanger, yet altogether do well. If it be true, that the son of Solyman, Æsop, Gasca, presithe principal part of beauty is in decent mo. dent of Peru; and Socrates may go likewise tion, certainly it is no marvel, though persons amongst them, with others. in years seem many times more amiable; “pulchrorum autumnus pulcher ;" for no
OF BUILDING. youth can be comely but by pardon, and considering the youth as to make up the comeli Houses are built to live in, and not to look ness. Beauty is as summer fruits, which are on; therefore, let use be preferred before easy to corrupt, and cannot last; and, for the uniformity, except where both may be had. most part, it makes a dissolute youth, and Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for: an age a little out of countenance; but yet beauty only, to the enchanted palaces of the certainly again, if it light well, it maketh poets, who build them with small cost. He virtues shine, and vices blush.
that builds a fair house upon an ill seat com. mitteth himself to prison: neither do I
reckon it an ill seat only where the air is un.OF DEFORMITY.
wholesome, but likewise where the air is unDEFORMED persons' are commonly even equal; as you shall see many fine seats set with nature; for as nature hath done ill by upon a knap of ground, environed with them, so do they by nature, being for the higher hills round about it, whereby the heat. most part (as the scripture saith) “ void of of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth natural affection :” and so they have their as in troughs, so as you shall have, and that revenge of nature. Certainly there is a con suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold sent between the body and the mind, and as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is. where nature erreth in the one, she ventureth it ill air only that maketh an ill seat; but in the other : “ubi peccat in uno, periclitatur ill ways, ill markets ; and if you consult an altero :" but because there is in man an with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of election, touching the frame of his mind, and many more; want of water, want of wood, a necessity in the frame of his body, the stars shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and of natural inclination are sometimes obscured mixture of grounds of several natures ; want by the sun of discipline and virtue ; therefore of prospect, want of level grounds, want of it is good to consider of deformity, not as a places at some near distance for sports of sign which is more deceivable, but as a cause hunting, hawking, and races ; too near the which seldom faileth of the effect. Whoso sea, too remote ; having the commodity of ever hath any thing fixed in his person that navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their doth induce contempt, hath also a perpetual overflowing; too far off from great cities, spur in himself to rescue and deliver himself which may hinder business ; or too near from scorn; therefore, all deformed persons them, which lurcheth all provisions, and are extreme bold ; first, as in their own de maketh every thing dear; where a man hath fence, as being exposed to scorn, but in pro a great living laid together, and where he is cess of time by a general habit. Also it scanted; all which, as it is impossible perstirreth in them industry, and especially of haps to find together, so it is good to know this kind, to watch and observe the weakness them, and think of them, that a man may of others, that they may have somewhat to take as many as he can; and, if he have se.. repay. Again in their superiors, it quench veral dwellings that he sort them so, that eth jealousy towards them, as persons that what he wanteth in the one, he may find in they think they may at pleasure despise : the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well, and it layeth their competitors and emulators who, when he saw his stately galleries and asleep, as never believing they should be in rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his. possibility of advancement till they see them houses said, "Surely an excellent place for in possession : so that, upon the matter, in a summer, but how do you in winter;" Lu. great wit, deformity is an advantage to rising. cullus answered, “ Why do you not think Kings, in ancient times (and at this present me as wise as some fools are, that ever change in some countries), were wont to put great their abode towards the winter ?" trust in eunuchs, because they that are envi. To pass from the seat to the house itself, ous towards all are more obnoxious and offi we will do as Cicero doth in the orator's art, cious towards one ; but yet their trust to who writes books De Oratore, and a book he
entitles Orator ; whereof the former delivers i return on the banquet side, let it be all stately the precepts of the art, and the latter the galleries : in which galleries, let there be perfection. We will therefore describe a three, or five fine cupolas in the length of it, princely palace, making a brief model there. placed at equal distance, and fine, coloured of: for it is strange to see, now in Europe, windows of several works : on the household such huge buildings as the Vatican and the side, chambers of presence and ordinary enEscurial, and some others be, and yet scarce tertainments, with some bed chainbers : and å very fair room in them.
let all three sides be a double house, without First, therefore, I say, you cannot have a thorough lights on the sides, that you may perfect palace, except you have two several have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon sides; a side for the banquet, as is spoken of and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may in the book of Esther, and a side for the have rooms both for summer and winter ; household ; the one for feasts and triumphs, shady for summer, and warm for winter. and the other for dwelling. I understand You shall have sometimes fair houses so full both these sides to be not only returns, but of glass that one cannot tell where to become parts of the front; and to be uniform with to be out of the sun or cold. For embowed out, though severally partitioned within ; and windows, I hold them of good use in cities, to be on both sides of a great and stately indeed, upright do better, in respect of the tower in the midst of the front, that, as it uniformity towards the street); for they be were joineth them together on either hand. I pretty retiring places for conference; and be. would have, on the side of the banquet in sides, they keep both the wind and sun off ; front, one only goodly room above stairs, of for that which would strike almost through some forty foot high ; and under it a room the room doth scarce pass the window : but for a dressing, or preparing place, at times let them be but few, four in the court on the of triumphs. On the other side which is the
sides only. household side, I wish it divided at-the first Beyond this court, let there be an inward into a hall and a chapel (with a partition he. court, of the same square and height, which tween), both of good 'state and bigness; and is to be environed with the garden on all those not to go all the length, but to have at sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all the farther end a winter and a summer par sides upon decent and beautiful arches, as lour, both fair ; and under these rooms a fair high as the first story : on the under story, and large cellar sunk under ground; and towards the garden, let it be turned to a likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries grotto, or place of shade, or estivation; and and pantries, and the like. As for the tower, only have opening and windows towards the I would have it two stories, of eighteen foot garden, and be level upon the floor, no whit high apiece above the two wings; and goodly sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness : leads upon the top, railed with statues inter and let there be a fountain, or some fair work posed; and the same tower to be divided of statues in the midst of the court, and to into rooms, as shall be thought fit. The be paved as the other court was. These stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them buildings, to be for privy lodgings on both be upon a fair and open newel, and finely sides, and the end for privy galleries : whereof railed in with images of wood cast into a you must foresee that one of them be for an brass calour ; and a very fair landing-place infirmary, if the prince or any special person at the top. But this to be, if you do not should be sick, with chambers, bedchamber, point any of the lower rooms for a dining “ antecamera,” and “ recamera," joining to place of servants ; for otherwise, you shall it : this upon the second story. Upon the have the servants' dinner after your own : for ground story, a fair gallery, open, upon pilthe steam of it will come up as in a tunnel; lars, and upon the third story likewise, an open and so much for the front : only I under- gallery upon pillars, to take the prospect and stand the height of the first stairs to be six- freshness of the garden. At both corners of teen foot, which is the height of the lower the farther side, by way of return, let there be room.
two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, but three sides of it of a far lower building and a rich cupola in the midst; and all other than the front; and in all the four corners of elegancy that may be thought upon. In the that court fạir stair-cases, cast into turrets on upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, the outside, and not within the row of build. if the place will yield it, some fountains "ings themselves : but those towers are not to running in divers places from the wall, with - be of the height of the front, but rather pro some fine avoidances. And thus much for portionable to the lower building. Let the the model of the palace ; save that you must court not be paved, for that striketh up a have, before you come to the front, three great heat in summer, and much cold in
courts ; a green court plain, with a wall about winter': but only some side alleys with a it; a second court of the same, but more cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept garnished with little turrets, or rather enibel. shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of lishments, upon the wall; and a third court,
to make a square with the front, but not to all colours, peaches, melocotones, nectarines, be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, cornelians, wardens, quinces. In October but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, and and the beginning of November come serfairly garnished on the three sides ; and clois- vices, medlars, bullaces, roses cut or remotered on the inside with pillars, and not with ved to come late, hollyoaks, and such like. arches below. As for offices, let them stand These particulars are for the climate of Lon. at distance, with some low galleries to pass don: but my meaning is perceived, that from them to the palace itself.
you may have “ ver perpetuum," as the place affords.
And because the breath of flowers is far OF GARDENS.
sweeter in the air, (where it comes and goes, GOD Almighty first planted a garden ; and, like the warbling of music), than in the indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures ; hand, therefore nothing is more fit for that it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of delight than to know what be the flowers and man; without which buildings and palaces plants that do best perfume the air. Roses, are but gross handyworks : and a man shall damask and red, are fast flowers of their ever see, that, when ages grow to civility and smells; so that you may walk by a whole elegancy, men come to build stately, sooner row of them, and find nothing of their sweetthan to garden finely ; as if gardening were ness ; yea, though it be in a morning's dew, the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the Bays, likewise, yield no smell as they grow, royal ordering of gardens, there ought to be rosemary little, nor sweet marjoram ; that gardens, for all the months in the year, in which above all others, yields the sweetest which, seyerally, things of beauty may be smell in the air, is the violet, especially the then in season. For December and January, white double violet, which comes twice a and the latter part of November, you must year, about the middle of April, and about take such things as are green all winter; Bartholomew-tide. Next to that is the muskholly, ivy, bays, juniper, cypress-trees,
yew, rose ; then the strawberry leaves dying, with a pines, fir-trees, rosemary, lavender, peri most excellent cordial smell ; then the flower winkle, the white, the purple, and the blue; of the vines, it is a little dust like the dust germander, flag, orange-trees, lemon-trees, of a bent, which grows upon the cluster in and myrtles, if they be stoyed; and sweet the first coming forth ; then sweetbriars, then marjoram, warm set. There followeth, for wall-flowers, which are very delightful to be the latter part of January and February, the set under a parlour or lower chamber window; mezeron-tree, which then blossoms ; crocus then pinks and gilliflowers, especially the yernus, both the yellow and the gray prim. matted pink and clove-gilliflower ; then the roses, anemones, the early tulip, the hyacin flowers of the lime-tree; then the honeythus, orientalis, chamaïris fritellaria. For suckles, so they be somewhat afar off. Of March, there come violets, especially the bean-flowers, I speak not, because they are single blue, which are the earliest ; the early field flowers; but those which perfume the daffodil, the daisy, the almond-tree in blossom, air most delightfully, not passed by as the the peach-tree in blossom, the cornelian-tree in rest, but being trodden upon and crushed, blossom, sweetbriar. In April follow the dou. are three, that is, burnet, wild thyme, and ble white violet, the wallflower, the stock gilli. watermints ; therefore you are to set whole flower, the cowslip, flower-de-luces, and lilies alleys of them, to have the pleasure when. of all natures ; rosemary flowers, the_tulip, you walk or tread. the double peony, the pale daffodil, the French For gardens (speaking of those which are, honey-suckle, the cherry-tree in blossom, the indeed princelike, as we have done of build damascene and plum-trees in blossom, the ings), the contents ought not well to be under white thorn in leaf, the lilac-tree. In May thirty acres of ground, and to be divided and June come pinks of all sorts, especially into three parts; a green in the entrance, a the blushpink; roses of all kinds, except the heath, or desert in the going forth, and the musk, which comes later ; honey-suckles, main garden in the midst, besides alleys on strawberries, bugloss, columbine, the French both sides; and, I like well, that four acres marigold, flos Africanus, cherry-tree in fruit, of ground be assigned to the green, six to the ribes, figs in fruit, rasps, vine-flowers, la- heath, four and four to either side, and twelve vender in flowers, the sweet satyrian, with to the main garden. The green hath two. the white flower; herba muscaria, lilium pleasures: the one, because nothing is more, convallium, the apple-tree in blossom. In pleasant to the eye than green grass kept, July come gilliflowers of all varieties, musk. finely shorn; the other, because it will give roses, the lime-tree in blossom, early pears, you a fair alley in the midst, by which you and plums in fruit, genitings, codlins. In may go in front upon a stately edge, which August come plums of all sorts in fruit, is to enclose the garden ; but because the pears, "apricots, berberries, filberds, musk alley will be long, and, in great heat of the melons, monk-hoods, of all colours. In year, or day, you ought not to buy the shade September come grapes, apples, poppies of in the garden by going in the sun through
the green ; therefore you are, of either side fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the the green, to plant a covert alley, upon car ornaments of images gilt or of marble, which penter's work, about twelve foot in height, are in use, do well : but the main matter is .by which you may go in shade into the gar so to convey the water, as it never stay, either den. As for the making of knots, or figures, in the bowls or in the cistern: that the water - with divers coloured earths, that they may lie be never by rest discoloured, green or red, or under the windows of the house on that side the like, or gather any mossiness or putrefac. on which the garden stands, they be but tion; besides that, it is to be cleansed every toys : you may see as good sights many times day by the hand : also some steps up to it
, in tarts. The garden is best to be square, and some fine pavement about it do well. As encompassed on all the four sides with a for the other kind of fountain, which we stately arched hedge; the arches to be upon may call a bathing pool, it may admit much pillars of carpenter's work, of some ten foot curiosity and beauty, wherewith we will not high, and six foot broad, and the spaces be- trouble ourselves : as, that the bottom be tween of the same dimensions with the breadth finely paved, and with images; the sides of the arch. Over the arches let there be an likewise; and withal embellished with coentire hedge of some four foot high, framed loured glass, and such things of lustre; also upon carpenter's work ; and upon the encompassed also with fine rails of low sta. other hedge, over every arch, a little turnet, tues : but the main point is the same which with a belly enough to receive a cage of birds: we mentioned in the former kind of fountain; and over every space between the arches some which is, that the water be in perpetual moother little figure, with broad plates of round tion, fed by a water higher than the pool, and coloured glass gilt for the sun to play upon : delivered into it by fair spouts, and then dis. but this hedge I intend to be raised upon a charged away under ground, by some equality bank, not steep, but gently slope, of some of bores, that it stay little; and for fine six foot, set all with flowers. Also I under- devices, of arching, water without spilling, stand, that this square of the garden should and making it rise in several forms (of feanot be the whole breadth of the ground, but thers, drinking glasses, canopies, and the like), to leave on either side ground enough for di- they be pretty things to look on, but nothing versity of side alleys, unto which the two to health and sweetness. covert alleys of the green may deliver you ; For the heath, which was the third part of but there must be no alleys with hedges at our plot; I wished it to be framed as much as either end of this great enclosure ; not at the may be to a natural wildness. Trees I would hither end, for letting your prospect upon have none in it, but some thickets made only this fair hedge from the green ; nor at the far. of sweetbriar and honeysuckle, and some wild ther end, for letting your prospect from the vine amongst; and the ground set with vioedge through the arches upon the heath. lets, strawberries, and primroses; for these
For the ordering of the ground within the are sweet, and prosper in the shade ; and great hedge, I leave it to variety of device ; these are to be in the heath here and there, advising, nevertheless, that whatsoever form not in any order. I like also little heaps, in you cast it into first, it be not too busy, or the nature of mole hills (such as are in wild full of work; wherein I, for my part, do not heaths), to be set, some with wild thyme, like images cut out in juniper or other garden some with pinks, some with germander, that stuff ; they be for children. Little low gives a good flower to the eye ; some with hedges, like round welts, with some pretty periwinkle, some with violets, some with pyramids, I like well; and in some places strawberries, some with cowslips, some with fair columns, upon frames of carpenter's daises, some with red roses, some with lilium work. I would also have the alleys spacious convallium, some with sweet-williams, red, and fair. You may have closer alleys upon some with hear's-foot, and the like low flowers, the side grounds, but none in the inain garden. being withal sweet and sightly: part of which I wish also, in the very middle, a fair mount, heaps to be with standards of little bushes „with three ascents and alleys, enough for four pricked upon their top, and part without : to walk abreast; which I would have to be the standards to be roses, juniper, holly, berperfect circles, without any bulwarks or em berries (but here and there because of the smell bossments; and the whole mount to be thirty of their blossom), red currants, gooseberries, feet high, and some fine banqueting house rosemary, bays, sweetbriar, and such like with some chimneys neatly cast, and without but these standards to be kept with cutting, too much glass.
that they grow not out of course. For fountains, they are a great beauty and For the side grounds, you are to fill them refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the with variety of alleys, private, to give a full garden unwholesome, and full of flies and shade ; some of them wheresoever the sun be. frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two na You are to frame some of them likewise for tures; the one that sprinkleth or spouteth shelter, that, when the winds blow sharp, you water : the other a fair receipt of water, of may walk as in a gallery:
and those alleys some thirty or forty foot square, but without must be likewise hedged at both ends to keep
OF NEGOTIATING, AND OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS. out the wind ; and these closer alleys must be to them, and to report back again faithfully ever finely graveled, and no grass, because of the success, than those that are cunning to going wet. In many of these alleys, like contrive out of other men's business, somewise, you are to set fruit trees of all sorts, as what to grace themselves, and will help the well upon the walls as in ranges; and this matter in report, for satisfaction's sake. Use zbould be generally observed, that the bor. also such persons as affect the business ders wherein you plant your fruit trees be wherein they are employed, for that quickfair, and large, and low, and not steep; and eneth much; and such as are fit for the set with fine flowers, but thin and sparingly, matter, as bold men for expostulation, fairlest they deceive the trees. At the end of spoken men for persuasion, crafty men for both the side grounds I would have a mount inquiry and observation, froward and absurd of some pretty height, leaving the wall of the men for business that doth not well bear out enclosure breast high, to look abroad into the itself. Use also such as have been lucky, and fields.
prevailed before in things wherein you have For the main garden, I do not deny but employed them; for that breeds confidence, there should be some fair alleys ranged on and they will strive to maintain their preboth sides, with fruit trees, and some pretty scription. It is better to sound a person with tufts of fruit trees and arbours with seats, set whom one deals afar off, than to fall upon the in some decent order ; but these to be by no point at first ; except you mean to surprise means set too thick, but to leave the main him by some short question. It is better garden so as it be not close, but the air open dealing with men in appetite, than with those and free. For as for shade, I would have that are where they would be. If a man deas you rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, with another upon conditions, the start of there to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat first performance is all : which a man can of the year or day; but to make account that not reasonably demand, except either the the main garden is for the more temperate nature of the thing be such which must go parts of the year, and, in the heat of summer, -before ; or else a man can persuade the other for the morning and the evening, or overcast party, that he shall still need him in some days.
other thing; or else that he be counted the For aviaries, I like them not, except they honester man. All practice is to discover, or be of that largeness as they may be turfed, to work. Men discover themselves in trust, and have living plants and bushes set in in passion, at unawares; and of necessity, them; that the birds may have more scope when they would have somewhat done, and and natural nestling, and that no foulness Cannot find an apt pretext. If you would appear on the floor of the aviary. So I have work any man, you must either know his made a platform of a princely garden, partly nature or fashions, and so lead him; or his by precept, partly by drawing ; not a model, ends, and so persuade him; or his weakbut some general lines of it; and in this Í ness and disadvantages, and so awe him; have spared for no cost: but it is nothing for or those that have interest in him, and so great princes, that, for the most part, taking govern hip. In dealing with cunning peradvice with workmen, with no less cost set sons, we must ever consider their ends to their things together; and sometimes add interpret their speeches; and it is good to say statues, and such things for state and magni- little to them, and that which they least look ficence, but nothing to the true pleasure of a for. In all negotiations of difficulty, a man may garden.
not look to sow and reap at once; but must
prepare business, and so ripen it by degrees. OF NEGOTIATING.
OF FOLLOWERS AND FRIENDS. Ir is generally better to deal by speech than by letter; and by the mediation of a third COSTLY followers are not to be liked ; lest than by a man's self. Letters are good, when while a man maketh his train longer, he a man would draw an answer by letter back make his wings shorter. I reckon to be again ; or when it may serve for a man's jus- costly, not them alone which charge the tification afterwards to produce his own letter; purse, but which are wearisome and impor. or where it may be in danger to be interrupted, tune in suits. Ordinary followers ought to or heard by pieces. To deal in person is challenge no higher conditions than counten. good, when a man's face breedeth regard, as ance, recommendation, and protection from commonly with inferiors; or in tender cases, wrongs. Factious followers are worsed to be where a man's eye upon the countenance of liked, which follow not upon affection to him, him with whom he speaketh, may give him a with whom they range themselves, but upon direction how far to go; and generally, where discontentment conceived against some other ; a man will reserve to himself liberty, either whereupon commonly ensueth that ill intellito disavow or expound. In choice of instru gence that we many times sec between great ments, it is better to choose men of a plainer personages. Likewise glorious followers, who sort, that are like to do that that is committed make themselves as trumpets of the commen.