Imatges de pÓgina



princes, or estates, to add amplitude and change contraries ; but with an inclination greatness to their kingdoms; for, by introduc to the more benign extreme: use fasting and ing such ordinances, constitutions, and cus full eating, but rather full eating: watching toms, as we have now touched, they may sow and sleep, but rather sleep ; sitting and exgreatness to their prosperity and succession: ercise, but rather exercise, and the like: so but these things are commonly not observed, shall nature be cherished, and yet taught but left to take their chance.

masteries. Physicians are some of them so pleasing and conformable to the humour of

the patient, as they press not the true cure of OF REGIMEN OF HEALTH.

the disease; and some others are so regular in THERE is a wisdom in this beyond the rules proceeding according to art for the disease, as of physic; a man's own observation, what he they respect not sufficiently the condition of finds good of, is the best physic to preserve the patient. Take one of a middle temper ; health ; but it is a safe conclusion to say, or, if it may not be found in one man, com“ This agreeth not well with me, therefore I bine two of either sort; and forget not to call will not continue it;" than this “I find no as well as the best acquainted with your body, offence of this, therefore I may use it:" for as the best reputed of for his faculty. strength of nature in youth passeth over many excesses which are owing a man till his age. Discern of the coming on of years, and think

OF SUSPICION. not to do the same things still; for age will Suspicions amongst thoughts are like bats not be defied. Beware of sudden change in amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight: any great point of diet, and, if necessary certainly they are to be repressed, or at the enforce it, fit the rest to it; for it is a secret least well guarded ; for they cloud the mind, both in nature and state, that it is safe to they lose friends, and they check with busichange many things than one. Examine thy ness, whereby business cannot go on currently customs of diet, sleep, exercise, apparel, and and constantly : they dispose kings to tyranny, the like ; and try, in any thing that thou shall husbands to jealousy, wise men to irresolution judge hurtful, to discontinue it by little and and melancholy: they are defects not in the little ; but so, as if thou dost find any incon- heart, but in the brain; for they take place venience by the change, thou come back to it in the stoutest natures : as in the example of again : for it is hard to distinguish that which Henry the Seventh of England ; there was not is generally held good and wholesome from a more suspicious man nor a more stout : and that which is good particularly, and fit for in such a composition they do small hurt ; thine own body. To be free-minded and for commonly they are not admitted but with cheerfully disposed at hours of meat and sleep, examination, whether they be likely or no? and of exercise, is one of the best precepts of but in fearful natures they gain ground too long lasting. As for the passions and studies fast. There is nothing makes a man suspect of the mind, avoid envy, anxious fears, anger, much, more than to know little ; and, therefretting inwards, subtile and knotty inquisi- fore, men should remedy suspicion by protions, joys and exhilarations in excess, sadness euring to know more, and not to keep their not communicated. Entertain hopes, mirth suspicions in smother. What would men rather than joy, variety of delights, rather have ? do they think those they employ and than surfeit of them; wonder and admiration, deal with are saints ? do they not think they and therefore novelties; studies that fill the will have their own ends, and be truer to mind with splendid and illustrious objects, as themselves than to them ? therefore there is histories, fables, and contemplations of nature. no better way to moderate suspicions than to If you fly physic in health altogether, it will account upon such suspicions as true, and yet be too strange for your body when you shall to bridle them as false : for so far a man need it; if you make it too familiar, it will ought to make use of suspicion as to provide, work no extraordinary effect when sickness as if that should be true that he suspects, yet cometh. I commend rather some diet for it may do him no hurt. Suspicions that the certain seasons than frequent use of physic, mind of itself gathers are but buzzes ; but except it be grown into a custom; for those suspicions that are artificially nourished, and diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. and put into men's heads by the tales and Despise no new accident in your body, but whisperings of others, have stings. Certainly, ask opinion of it. In sickness, respect health the best mean to clear the way in this same principally; and in health, action : for those wood of suspicion, is frankly to communicate that put their bodies to endure health, may, them with the party that he suspects; for in most sicknesses which are not very sharp, thereby he shall he sure to know more of the be cured only with diet and tendering, Celsus truth of them than he did before ; and withal could never have spoken it as a physician, shall make that party more circumspect, not had he not been a wise man withal, when he to give further cause of suspicion ; but this giveth it for one of the great precepts of health would not be done to men of base natures ; and lasting, that a man do vary and inter for they, if they find themselves once sus


OF DISCOURSE, AND OF PLANTATION. pected, will never be true.

The Italian says,

such a virtue whereunto himself pretendeth. “Sospetto licentia fede ;” as if suspicion did Speech of touch towards others should be give a passport to faith ; but it ought rather as sparingly used; for discourse ought to be to kindle it to discharge itself.

as a field, without coming home to any man. I knew two noblemen, of the west part of

England, whereof the one was given to scoff, OF DISCOURSE.

but kept ever royal cheer in his house ; the

other would ask of those that had been at the SOME in their discourse desire rather com

other's table, “ Tell truly, was there never a mendation of wit, in being able to hold all

flout dry blow given ?" To which the arguments, than of judgment, in discerning guest would answer, “Such and such a thing what is true ; as if it were a praise to know passed :” the lord would say, “ I thought he what might be said, and not what should be thought. Some have certain common places speech is more than eloquence ; and to speak

would mar a good dinner.” Discretion of and themes, wherein they are good, and want

agreeably to him with whom we deal, is more variety ; which kind of poverty is for the

than to speak in good words, or in good order. most part tedious, and, when it is once per. A good continued speech, without a good ceived, ridiculous. The honourablest part of talk is to give the occasion ; and again to

speech of interlocution, shows slowness; and moderate and pass to somewhat else, for then good settled speech, showeth shallowness and

a good reply, or second speech, without a a man leads the dance. It is good in dis

weakness. As we see in beasts, that those course and speech of conversation, to vary

are weakest in the course, are yet nimblest in and intermingle speech of the present occasion with arguments, tales with reasons, asking of the hare. To use too many circumstances,

the turn; as it is betwixt the greyhound and questions with telling of opinions, and jest

ere one come to the matter, is wearisome ; to with earnest : for it is a dull thing to tire, and, as we say now, to a jade any thing too

use none at all, is blunt. far. As for jest, there be certain things which ought to be privileged from it ; namely,

OF PLANTATIONS. religion, matters of state, great persons, any man's present business of importance, and any

PLANTATIONS are among ancient, primitive,

and heroical works. When the world was case that deserveth pity; yet there be some that think their wits have been asleep, except

young it begat more children ; but now it is they dart out somewhat that is piquant, and

old it begat fewer : for I may justly account to the quick ; that is a vein which should be

new plantations to be the children of the bridled ;

former kingdoms. I like a plantation in a

pure soil; that is, where people are not dis. "Parce puer stimulis, et fortius utere loris.”

planted to the end to plant in others; for else And, generally, men ought to find the differ it is rather an extirpation than a plantation. ence between saltness and bitterness. Cer. Planting of countries is like planting of tainly, he that hath a satirical vein, as he


must make account to lose maketh others afraid of his wit, so he had almost twenty years, profit, and expect your need be afraid of other's memory. He that recompense in the end : for the principal questioneth much shall learn much, and con thing that hath been the destruction of most tent much ; but especially if he apply his plantations, hath been the base and hasty questions to the skill of the persons whom he drawing of profit in the first years. It is true, asketh ; for he shall give them occasion to speedy proñit is not to be neglected, as far as please themselves in speaking, and himself it may stand with the good of the plantation, shall continually gather knowledge ; but let but no farther. It is a shameful and unbleshis questions not be troublesome, for that is sed thing to take the scum of people and fit for a poser ; and let him be sure to leave wicked, condemned men, to be the people with other men their turns to speak : nay, if there whom you plant; and not only so, but it be

any that would reign and take up all the spoileth the plantation ; for they will ever time, let him find means to take them off, and live like rogues, and not fall to work, but bring others on: as musicians used to do with be lazy, and do mischief, and spend victuals, those that dance too long galliards. If you and be quickly weary, and then certify over to dissemble sometimes your knowledge of that their country to the descredit of the plantation. you are thought to know, you shall be thought, The people wherewith you plant ought to be another time, to knew that you know not. gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carSpeech of a man's self ought to be seldom, penters, joiners, fishermen, fowlers, with some and well chosen. I knew one was wont to few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks, and bakers. say in scorn,

“He must needs be a wise man, In a country of plantation, first look about he speaks so much of himself:” and there is what kind of victual the country yields of it. but one case wherein a man may commend self to hand : as chesnuts, walnuts, pinehimself with good grace, and that is in com apples, olives, dates, plumbs, cherries, wild mending virtue in another, especially if it be honey, and the like, and make use of them.

woods ;


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Then consider what victual, or esculent things company; but rather hearken how they there are, which grow speedily, and within waste, and send supplies proportionably; bat the year ; as parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions, so as the number may live well in the plantaraddish, artichokes of Jerusalem, maise, and tion, and not by surcharge be in penury. It the like: for wheat, barley, and oats, they hath been a great endangering to the health of ask too much labour ; but with pease and some plantations, that they have built along beans you may begin ; both because they ask the sea and rivers, in marish and unwholesome less labour, and because they serve for meat grounds: therefore, though you begin there as well as for bread ; and of rice likewise to avoid carriage and other like discommodi. cometh a great increase, and it is a kind of ties, yet build still rather upwards from the meat. Above all, there ought to be brought stream than along. It concerneth likewise store of biscuit, oatmeal, flower, meal, and the health of the plantation that they have the like, in the beginning till bread may be good store of salt with them, that they may had. For beast or birds, take chiefly such as use it in their victuals when it shall be neces.. are least subject to diseases, and multiply sary. If you plant where savages are, do not fastest ; as swine, goats, cocks, hens, turkeys, only entertain them with trifles and gingles, geese, house-doves, and the like. The vic but use them justly and graciously, with tual in plantations ought to be expended sufficient guard nevertheless ; and do not win almost as in a besieged town; that is, with their favour by helping them to invade their certain allowance : and let the main part of enemies, but for their defence it is not amiss; the ground employed to gardens or corn, be to and send oft of them over to the country that a common stock; and to be laid in, and plants, that they may see a better condition stored up, and then delivered out in propore than their own, and commend it when they tion; besides some spots of ground that any return.

When the plantation grows to particular person will manure for his own strength, then it is time to plant with women private use. Consider, likewise, what com as well as with men; that the plantation modities the soil where the plantation is doth may spread into generations, and not be ever naturally yield, that they may some way help pierced from without. It is the sinfulest to defray the charge of the plantation ; so it thing in the world to forsake or destitute a be not, as was said, to the untimely pre- plantation once in forwardness ; for, besides judice of the main business, as it hath fared the dishonour, it is the guiltiness of blood of with tobacco in Virginia. Wood commonly, many commiserable persons. aboundeth but too much; and therefore tim-. ber is fit to be one. If there be iron ore, and streams whereupon to set the mills, iron is

OF RICHES. a brave commodity where wood aboundeth. I CANNOT call riches better than the baggage Making of bay-salt, if the climate be proper of virtue ; the Roman word is better, "im. for it, would be pat in experience : growing pedimenta ;" for as the baggage is to an army, silk likewise, if any be, is a likely commodity: so are riches to virtue ; it cannot be spared nor pitch and tar, where store of firs and pines left behind, but it hindereth the march; yea, are, will not fail; so drugs and sweet woods, and the care of it sometimes loseth or disturbe where they are, cannot but yield profit ; soap eth the victory ; of great riches there is no ashes likewise, and other things that may be real use, except it be in the distribution ; the thought of ; but moil not too much under rest is but conceit; so saith Solomon, "Where ground, for the hope of mines is very uncer much is, there are many to consume it; and tain, and useth to make the planters lazy in what hath the owner but the sight of it with other things. For government, let it be in the his eyes ?”

The personal fruition in any hands of one, assisted with some counsel ; and man cannot reach to feel great riches : there let them have commission to exercise martial is a custody of them ; or a power of dole and laws, with some limitation ; and, above all, donative of them; or a fame of them ; but no let mien make that profit of being in the solid use to the owner. Do you not see what wilderness, as they have God always, and his feigned prices are set upon little stones and service before their eyes : let not the govern rarities ? and what works of ostentation are ment of the plantation depend upon too many undertaken, because there might seem to be counsellors and undertakers in the country some use of great riches ? But then you will that planteth, but upon a temperate number; they may be of use to buy men out of danand let those be rather noblemen and gentle- gers or troubles ; as Solomon saith, “ Riches men than merchants; for they look ever to are as a strong hold in the imagination of the the present gain : let there be freedoms from rich man :" but this is excellently expressed, custom, till the plantation be of strength; that it is in imagination, and not always in and not only freedom from custom, but free fact: for, certainly, great riches have sold more dom to carry their commodities where they men than they have bought out. Seek not may make their best of them, except there be proud riches, but such as thou mayst get some special cause of caution. Cram not in justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and people, by sending too fast company after leave contentedly ; yet have no abstract ar




friarly contempt of them; but distinguish, as value unsound men to serve their own turn. Cicero saith well of Rabirius Posthumus, The fortune, in being the first in' an inven: 6. in studio rei amplificand v apparebat, non tion, or in a privilege, doth cause sometimes avaritiæ prædam, sed instrumentum bonitati a wonderful overgrowth in riches , as it was quæri." Hearken also to Solomon, and be with the first sugar man in the Canaries : ware of hasty gathering of riches; “ Qui therefore, if a man can play the true logician, festinat ad dívitas, non erit insons.” The to have as well judgment as invention, he , poets feign that when Plutus (which is riches) may do great matters, especially if the times is se from Jupiter, he limps, and goes be fit: he that restéth upon gains certain : slowly ; but when he is sent from Pluto, he shall hardly grow to great riches; and he 'uns, and is swift of foot; meaning, that that puts all upon adventures, doth oftentimes riches gotten by good means and just labour, break and come to poverty : it is good, there.' pace slowly ; but when they come by the fore, to guard adventures with certainties that, death of others (as by the course of inherit may uphold losses. Monopolies, and coance, testaments, and the like), they come emption of wares for resale, where they are tumbling upon a man: þut it might be ap not restrained, are great means to enrich ; esplied likewise to Pluto, taking him for the pecially if the party have intelligence what devil : for when riches come from the devil things are like to come into request, and so (as by fraud and oppression, and unjust store himself beforehand. Riches gotten by means), they come upon speed. The ways service, though it be of the best rise, yet

when to enrich are many, and most of them foul : they are gotten by flattery, feeding humours, parsimony is one of the best, and yet is not and other servile conditions, they may be innocent ; for it withholdeth men from works placed amongst the worst. "As for fishing for of liberality and charity. The improvement testaments and executorships (as Tacitus saith of the ground is the most natural obtaining of Seneca, " testamenta et orbos tanquam of riches; for it is our great mother's blessing, indagine capi,") it is yet worse, by how much the earth ; but it is slow : and yet, where men submit themselves to meaner persons men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry, it than in service. Believe' not much them that multiplieth riches exceedingly. I knew a seem to despise riches, for they despise them nobleman of England, that had the greatest that despair of them, and none worse when audits of any man in my time, a great gran they come to them. Behot penny-wise ; zier, a great sheep'master, a great timber man, riches have wings, and sometimes they fly a great collier, a great corn master, a great away of themselves, sometimes they must be lead man, and so of iron, and a number of set Hying to bring in more. Men leave their the like points of husbandry; so as the earth riches either to their kindred or to the public; seemed a sea to him, in respect of the perpe- and moderate portions prosper best in both. tual importation. It was truly observed by A great estate left to an heir is as a lure to one,

« That himself came very hardly to all the birds of prey 'round about to seize on little riches, and very easy to great riches;" him, if he be not the better established in years for when a man's stock is come to that, that and judgment: likewise, glorious gifts and he can expect the prime of markets, and over foundations are like 'sacrifices without salt ; come those bargains; which for their greatness and but the painted sepulchres of alms, which are few men's money, and be partner in the soon will putrify and corrupt inwardly: thereindustries of younger men, he cannot but in fore measure not thine advancements by crease mainly. The gains of ordinary trades quantity, but frame them by measure : and and vocations are honest, and furthered by, defer not charities till death; for, certainly, two things, chiefly, by diligence, and by a if a man weigh it rightly, he that doth so is good name for good and fair dealing ; but

the rather liberal of another man's than of his gains of bargains are of a more doubtful na. ture, when men shall wait upon others' necessity ; broke by servants and instruments to draw them on; put off others cunningly that

OF PROPHECIES. would be better chapmen, and the like practices, which are crafty and naughty: as for I MEAN not to speak of divine propnecies, the chopping of bargains when a man buys not of heathien oracles, nor of natural predicnot to hold, but to sell over again, that com. tions; but only of prophecies that have been monly grindeth double, both upon the seller of certain memory, and from hidden causes. and upon the buyer. "Sharings do greatly Saith the Pythonissa to Saul, “ Tomorrow enrich, if the hands be well chosen that are thou and thy sons shall be with me." Virgil trusted. Usury is 'the certainest means of hath these verses from Homer :gain, though one of the worst, as that whereby

« At domus Æneæ cunctis dominabitur oris, a man doth eat his bread, “ in sudoré vultus Et nati natorum, et qui nascentur ab illis." alieni;" and besides, doth plough upon Sundayo : out yet, certain though it be, it hath' A prophecy as it seems of the Roman empire. Mawer for that the scriveners and brokers do Seneca, the tragedian, hath these verses :


ÆNEID iii. 97.

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"Venient annis

It was generally conceived to be meant of the
Sæcula seris, quibus oceanus
Viacula rerum laxet, et ingens

Spanish fleet that came in eighty-eight: for
Pateat tellus, Tiphysque novos

that the king of Spain's surname, as they say, Detegat orbes: nec sit terris

is Norway. The prediction of Regiomonta. Ultima Thule:

nus, a prophecy of the discovery of America. The

« Octogesimus octavus mirabilis annus ; daughter of Polycrates dreamed that Jupiter bathed her father, and Apollo anointed him; was thought likewise accomplished in the and it came to pass that he was crucified in sending of that great fleet, the greatest an open place, where the sun made his body in strength, though not in'number, of all that run with sweat, and the rain washed it. Phi. ever swam upon the sea. As for Cleon's lip, of Macedon, dreamed he sealed up his dream, I think it was a' jest; it was, that he wife's belly; whereby he did expound it, was devoured of a long dragon ; and it was that his wife should be barren; but Aristander, expounded of a maker of sausages, that trouthe soothsayer, told him his wife was with bled him exceedingly. There are numbers child, because men do not choose to seal ves. of the like kind : especially if sels that are empty. A phantom that ap dreams, and predictions of astrology ; but I peared to M. Brutus in his tent, said to him, have set down these few only, of certain cre

Philippis iterum me videbis," Tiberius dit, for example. My judgment is, that they said to Galba," tu quoque, Galba, degustabis ought all to be despised, and ought to serve imperium.". In Vespasian's time there went but for winter talk by the fire-side. Though, a prophecy in the East, that those that should when I say despised, I'mean it as for belief; come forth of Judea should reign over the for, otherwise, the spreading or publishing of world ; which it may be was meant of our them is' in no sort to be despised, for they Saviour, yet Tacitus expounds it of Vespasian. have done much"mischief; and I see many Domitian dreamed, the night before he was

severë laws made to suppress them. That that slain, that a golden head was growing out of hath given thern grace, and some credit, conthe nåpe of his neck; and, indeed, the suc sisteth in three things. First, that

men mark Cession that followed him, for many years,

when they hit, and never' mark when they made golden times. Henry the Sixth, of miss ;' as they do, generally, also of dreams. England, said of Henry the Seventh, when he The second is, that probable conjectures, or was a lad, and gave him water, “ This is the obscure traditions, many times turn themlad that shall enjoy the crown for which we selves" into ' prophecies : while the nature of strive.” When I was in France, I heard man, which coveteth divination, thinks it no from one, Dr. Pena, that the queen mother, peril to foretell that, which indeed they do

o but who was given to curious arts, caused the collect': as that of Seneca's versé ; for so King, her husband's nativity, to be calculated much was then subject to demonstration, that ünder a false name ; and the astrologer' gave

the globe of the earth had great parts beyond & judgment, that he should be killed in a the Atlantic, which might be probably conduel; at which the queen laughed, thinking ceived not to be all sea : and adding thereto her husband to be above challenges and duels : the tradition in Plato's Timæus, and his Atbut he was slain upon a course at tilt, the lanticus, it might encourage one to turn it to splinters of the staff of Montgomery going in a prediction. The third and last (which is at'his

' bever. The trivial prophecy which I the great one) is, that almost all of them, Keard when I was a child, and queen Elizabeth being infinite in number, have been imposwas in the flower of her years, was,

tures, and by idle and crafty brains, merely

contrived and feigned, after the event passed. " When hempe is spun

England's done :* whereby it was generally conceived, that after

OF AMBITION. the princes had reigned which had the prin. AMBITION is like choler, which is an hu. cipal letters of that word hempe (which were mour that maketh men active, earnest, full of Henry, Edward, Mary, Philip, and Eliza. alacrity, and stirring, if it be not stopped ; but beth), England should come to utter confu- if it be stopped, and cannot have its way, it sion; which, thanks be to God, is verified in becometh a dust, and thereby malign and vethe change of the name ; for the king's style nomous ; so ambitious men, if they find the is now no more of England, but of Britain.

way open for their rising, and still get for: There was also another prophecy before the ward, they are rather busy than dangerous ; year of eighty-eight, which I do not well un. but if they bè checked in their desires, they derstand:

become secretly discontent, and look upon men « There shall be seen upon a day,

and matters with an evil eye, and are best pleaBetween the Baugh and the May,

sed when things go backward; which is the The black fleet of Norway.

worst property in a servant of a prince or state : When that is come and gone, England build houses of lime and stone,

therefore it is good for princes, if they use am. For after wars shall you have none."

bitious men, to handle it so, as they be still pro

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