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OF FRIENDSHIP his secrets with none; and, least of all, those word, a man were better relate himself to a secrets which troubled him most. Where. statue or picture, than to suffer his thoughts upon he goeth on, and saith, that towards his
to pass in smother. latter time that closeness did impair and a Add now, to make this second fruit of little perish his understanding. Surely Co- friendship complete, that other point which mineus might have made the same judgment lieth more open, and falleth within vulgar also, if it had pleased him, of his second observation ; which is faithful counsel from master, Lewis the Eleventh, whose closeness a friend. Heraclitus saith well in one of his was, indeed, his tormentor. The parable of enigmas, “ Dry light is ever the best ;” and Pythagoras is dark, but true,
cor ne edito,” certain it is, that the light that a man re“ eat not the heart.” Certainly, if a man ceiveth by counsel from another, is drier and would give it a hard phrase, those that want purer than that which cometh from his own friends to open themselves unto are cannibals understanding and judgment, which is ever of their own hearts; but one thing is most infused and drenched in his affections and admirable (wherewith I will conclude this customs. So as there is as much difference first fruit of friendship), which is, that this between the counsel that a friend giveth, and communicating of a man's self to his friend that a man giveth himself, as there is between works two contrary effects, for it redoubleth the counsel of a friend and of a flatterer; for joys, and cutteth griefs in halves ; for there there is no such flatterer as is a man's self, is no man that imparteth his joys to his and there is no such remedy against flattery friend, but he joyeth the more ; and no man of a man's self as the liberty of a friend. that imparteth his griefs to his friend, but he Counsel is of two sorts ; the one concerning grieveth the less. So that it is, in truth, of manners, the other concerning business ; for operation upon a man's mind, of like virtue the first, the best preservative to keep the as the alchymists use to attribute to their mind in health is the faithful admonition of a stone for man's body, that it worketh all con- friend. The calling of a man's self to a strict trary effects, but still to the good and benefit account is a medicine sometimes too piercing of nature: but yet, without praying in aid of and corrosive; reading good books of moraalchymists, there is a manifest image of this lity is a little flat and dead; observing our in the ordinary course of nature; for, in faults in others is sometimes improper for our bodies, union strengtheneth and cherisheth case ; but the best receipt (best I say to work, any natural action; and, on the other side, and the best to take) is the admonition of a weakeneth and dulleth any violent impresó friend. It is a strange thing to behold what şion; and even so is it of minds.
gross errors and extreme absurdities many The second fruit of friendship is healthful (especially of the greater sort) do commit for and sovereign for the understanding, as the want of a friend to tell them of them, to the first is for the affections ; for friendship great damage both of their fame and fortune; maketh, indeed, a fair day in the affections for, as St. James saith, they are as men that from storm and tempests, but it maketh day. look sometimes into a glass, and presently light in the understanding, out of darkness forget their own shape and favour:” as for and confusion of thoughts : neither is this to business, a man may think, if he will, that be understood only of faithful counsel, which two eyes see no more than one; or, that a a man receiveth from his friend ; but before gamester seeth always more than a looker-on; you come to that, certain it is, that whosoever or, that a man in anger is as wise as he that hath his mind fraught with many thoughts, hath said over the four-and-twenty letters ; his wits and understanding do clarify and or, that a musket may be shot off as well upon break up, in the communicating and dis- the arm as upon a rest; and such other fond coursing with another; he tosseth his thoughts and high imaginations, to think himself all more easily; he marshaleth them more or- in all: but when all is done, the help of good derly; he seeth how they look when they are counsel is that which setteth business straight; turned into words ; finally, he waxeth wiser and if any man think that he will take counthan himself; and that more by an hour's sel, but it shall be by pieces; asking counsel discourse than by a day's meditation. It in one business of one man, and in another was well said by Themistocles to the king of business of another man; it is as well (that is Persia, “ That speech was like cloth of Arras, to say, better, perhaps, than if he had asked opened and put abroad :” whereby the ima- none at all), but he runneth two dangers ; gery doth appear in figure; whereas in thoughts one, that he shall not be faithfully counseled; they lie but as in packs. Neither is this for it is rare thing, except it be from a per. second fruit of friendship, in opening the un- fect and entire friend, to have counsel given, derstanding, restrained only to such friends but such as shall be bowed and crooked to as are able to give a man counsel, (they, in. some ends which he hath that giveth it: the deed, are best,) but even without that a man other, that he shall have counsel given, hurtlearneth of himself, and bringeth his own ful and unsafe (though with good meaning), thoughts to light, and whetteth his wits as and mixed partly of mischief, and partly of against a stone, which itself cuts not. In a remedy; even as if you would call a phy.
sician, that is thought good for the cure of the and not subject to deceit and abuse of ser, disease you complain of, but is unacquainted vants; and ordered to the best show, that the with your body; and, therefore, may put you bills may be less than the estimation abroad. in a way for present cure, but overthroweth Certainly, if a man will keep but of even your health in some other kind, and so cure hand, his ordinary expenses ought to be but the disease, and kill the patient: but a friend, to the half of his receipts; and if he think to that is wholly acquainted with a man's estate, wax rich, but to the third part. It is no base. will beware, by furthering any present busi- ness for the greatest to descend and look into ness, how he dasheth upon other inconve- their own estate. Some forbear it, not upon nience; and, therefore, rest not upon scat- negligence alone, but doubting to bring themtered counsels, for they will rather distract selves into melancholy, in respect they shall and mislead, than settle and direct.
find it broken; but wounds cannot be cured After these two noble fruits of friendship without searching. He that cannot look into (peace in the affections, and support of the his own estate at all had need both choose judgment), followeth the last fruit, which is, well those whom he employeth, and change like the pomegranate, full of many kernels; them often; for new are more timorous and I mean, aid and bearing a part in all actions less subtle. He that can look into his estate and occasions. Here the best way to repre- but seldom, it behoveth him to turn all to sent to life the manifold use of friendship, is certainties. A man had need, if he be plento cast and see how many things there are tiful in some kind of expense, to be as saving which a man cannot do himself; and then it again in some other : as, if he be plentiful in will appear that it was a sparing speech of the diet, to be saving in apparel; if he be plenancients, to say, “that a friend is another tiful in the hall, to be saving in the stable, himself; for that a friend is far more than and the like; for he that is plentiful in exhimself.” Men have their time, and die penses of all kinds will hardiy be preserved many times in desire of some things which from decay. In clearing of a man's estate, they principally take to heart; the bestowing he may as well hurt himself in being too of a child, the finishing of a work, or the sudden, as in letting it run on too long ; for like. If a man have a true friend, he may hasty selling is commonly as disadvantageable rest almost secure that the care of those things as interest. Besides, he that clears at once will continue after him; so that a man hath, will relapse ; for finding himself out of straits, as it were, two lives in his desires. A man he will revert to his customs; but he that hath a body, and that body is confined to a cleareth by degrees induceth a habit of frugaplace ; but where friendship is, all offices of lity, and gaineth as well upon his mind as life are, as it were, granted to him and his upon his estate. Certainly, who hath a state deputy, for he may exercise them by his
to repair may not despise small things; and, friend. How many things are there which a commonly, it is less dishonourable to abridge man cannot, with any face or comeliness, say petty charges, than to stoop to petty gettings. or do himself ? A man can scarce allege his A man ought warily to begin charges, which own merits with modesty, much less extol once begun will continue; but in matters them; a man cannot sometimes brook to sup- that return not he may be more magnificent. plicate, or beg, and a number of the like: but all these things are graceful in a friend's
OF THE TRUE GREATNESS OF mouth, which are blushing in a man's own.
KINGDOMS AND ESTATES. So again, a man's person hath many proper relations which he cannot put off. A man THE speech of Themistocles, the Athenian, cannot speak to a son but as a father ; to his which was haughty and arrogant, in taking so wife but as a husband; to his enemy but upon much to himself, had been a grave and wise terms ; whereas a friend may speak as the observation and censure, applied at large to case requires, and not as it sorteth with the others. Desired at a feast to touch a lute, he person : but to enumerate these things were said, “ he could not fiddle, but yet he could endless; I have given the rule, where a man make a small town a large city.” These cannot fitly play his own part; if he have not words (holpen a little with a metaphor) may a friend, he may quit the stage.
express two differing abilities those that deal in business of estate ; for, if a true sur
vey be taken of counsellors and statesmen, OF EXPENSE.
there may be found (though rarely) those RICHES are for spending, and spending for which can make a small state great, and yet honour and good actions; therefore extraor- cannot fiddle; as, on the other side, there will dinary expense must be limited by the worth be found a great many that can fiddle very of the occasion; for voluntary undoing may cunningly, but yet are so far from being able be as well for a man's country as for the king- to make a small state great, as their gift lieth dum of heaven; but ordinary expense ought the other way, to bring a great and flourishto be limited by a man's estate, and governed ing estate to ruin and decay; and, certainly, With such regard as it be within his compass; those degenerate arts and shifts, whereby THE GREATNESS OF KINGDOMS, AND ESTATES.
many counsellors and governors gain both fa. fore the sun set, he found them enow to give vour with their masters, and estimation with him the chase, with infinite slaughter. Many the vulgar, deserve no better name than fid- are the examples of the great odds between dling ; being things rather pleasing for the number and courage: so that a man may time, and graceful to themselves only, than truly make a judgment, that the principal tending to the weal and advancement of the point of greatness, in any state, is to have a state which they serve. There are also (no race of military men. Neither is money the doubt) counsellors and governors which may sinews of war (as it is trivially said), where be held sufficient, “negotiis pares,” able to the sinews of men's arms in base and effemimanage affairs, and to keep them from pre- nate people are failing ; for Solon said well to cipices and manifest inconveniences ; which, Cræsus (when in ostentation he showed him nevertheless, are far from the ability to raise his gold,) “Sir, if any other come that hath and amplify an estate in power, means, and better iron than you, he will be master of all fortune : but be the workmen what they may this gold.” Therefore, let any prince, or be, let us speak of the work; that is, the true state, think soberly of his forces, except his greatness of kingdoms and estates, and the militia of natives be of good and valiant means thereof. An argument fit for great soldiers ; and let princes, on the other side, and mighty princes to have in their hand; to that have subjects of martial disposition, know the end, that neither by overmeasuring their their own strength, unless they be otherwise forces they lose themselves in vain enterprises; wanting unto themselves. As for mercenary. nor, on the other side, by undervaluing them, forces (which is the help in this cese), all exthey descend to fearful and pusillanimous amples show that, whatsoever estate, or prince, counsels.
doth rest upon them, he may spread his feaThe greatness of an estate, in bulk and ter- thers for a time, but he will mew them soon ritory, doth fall under measure; and the after. greatness of finances and revenue doth fall The blessing of Judas and Issachar will under computation. The population may ap- never meet; that the same people, or nation, pear by musters; and the number and great- should be both the lion's whelp and the ass ness of cities and towns by cards and maps ; between burdens : neither will it be, that a but yet there is not any thing, amongst civil people overlaid with taxes should ever become affairs, more subject to error than the right valiant and martial. It is true, that taxes, valuation and true judgment concerning the levied by consent of the estate, do abate men's power and forces of an estate. The kingdom courage less ; as it has been seen notably in of heaven is compared, not to any great the exercises of the Low Countries ; and, in kernel, or nut, but to a grain of mustard-seed; some degree, in the subsidies of England : which is one of the least grains, but hath in for, you must note, that we speak now of the it a property and spirit hastily to get up and heart, and not of the purse ; so that, although spread. So are their states great in territory, the same tribute and tax, laid by consent or by and yet not apt to enlarge or command : and imposing, be all one to the purse, yet it works some that have but a small dimension of diversely upon the courage. So that you stem, and yet are apt to be the foundation of may conclude, that no people overcharged great monarchies.
with tribute is fit for empire. Walled towns, stored arsenals and armories, Let states, that aim at greatness, take heed goodly races of horse, chariots of war, ele- how their nobility and gentlemen do multiply phants, ordnance, artillery, and the like; all too fast ; for that maketh the common subject this is but a sheep in a lion's skin, except the grow to be a peasant and base swain, driven breed and disposition of the people be stout out of heart, and, in effect, but a gentleman's and warlike. Nay, number (itself) in armies labourer. Even as you may see in coppice importeth not much, where the people are of woods ; if you leave your straddles too thick, weak courage ; for, as Virgil saith, “ it never you shall never have clear underwood, but troubles the wolf how many the sheep be.” shrubs and bushes. So in countries, if the The army of the Persians, in the plains of gentlemen be too many, the commons will be Arbela, was such a vast sea of people as it base; and you will bring it to that, that not did somewhat astonish the commanders in the hundredth poll will be fit for a helmet; Alexander's army, who came to him, there. especially as to the infantry, which is the fore, and wished him to set upon them by nerve of an army: and so there will be great night; but he answered, “ he would not pil population and little strength. This which I fer the victory ;” and the defeat was easy. speak of hath been no where better seen than When Tigranes, the Armenian, being en- by comparing of England and France ; where. camped upon a hill with four hundred thou. of England though far less in territory and sand men, discovered the army of the Romans, population, hath been (nevertheless) an overbeing not above fourteen thousand, marching match ; in regard the middle people of Eng. towards him, he made himself merry with it, land make good soldiers, which the peasants and said, “ Yonder men are too many for an of France do not; and herein the device of embassage, and too few for a fight:" but be- King Henry the Seventh (whereof I have
spokon largely in the history of his life,) was clasp and contain so large dominions with so profound and admirable ; in making farms few natural Spaniards : but sure the whole and houses of husbandry of a standard ; that compass of Spain is a very great body of a is, maintained with such a proportion of land tree, far above Rome and Sparta at the first ; upon them as may breed a subject to live in and, besides, though they have not had that convenient plenty, and no servile condition ; usage to naturalize liberally, yet they have and to keep the plough in the hands of the that which is next to it; that is, to employ, owners, and not mere hirelings; and thus in- almost indifferently, all nations in their deed ye shall attain to Virgil's character, militia of ordinary soldiers ; yea, and somewhich he gives to ancient Italy:
times in their highest commands: nay, it
seemeth at this instant, they are sensible of “Terra potens armis atque ubere glebæ.”
this want of natives: as by the pragmatical Neither is that state (which, for any thing I sanction, now published, appeareth. know, is almost peculiar to England, and It is certain, that sedentary and within-door hardly to be found any where else, except it arts, and delicate manufactures (that require be, perhaps, in Poland) to be passed over ; I rather the finger than the arm), have in mean the state of free servants and attendants their nature a contrariety to a military disupon noblemen and gentlemen, which are no position ; and generally all warlike people ways inferior unto the yeomanry for arms; are a little idle, and love danger better than and therefore, out of all question, the splen- travail; neither must they be too much dour and magnificence, and great retinues, the broken of it, if they shall be preserved in hospitality of noblemen and gentlemen re- vigour : therefore it was a great advantage in ceived into custom, do much conduce unto the ancient states of Sparta, Athens, Rome, martial greatness : whereas, contrariwise, the and others, that they had the use of slaves, close and reserved living of noblemen and which commonly did rid those manufactures ; gentlemen causeth a penury of military but that is abolished, in greatest part, by the forces.
Christian law. That which cometh nearest By all means it is to be procured that the to it is, to leave those arts chiefly to strangers trunk of Nebuchadnezzar's tree of monarchy be (which, for that purpose, are the more easily great enough to bear the branches and the
to be received), and to contain the principal boughs ; that is, that the natural subjects of bulk of the vulgar natives within those three the crown or state bear a sufficient porportion kinds, tillers of the ground, free servants, and to the strange subjects that they govern : handicraftsmen of strong and manly arts; as therefore all states that are liberal of natu- smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. not reckoning ralization toward strangers are fit for empire : professed soldiers. for to think that a handful of people can, with But above all, for empire and greatness, it the greatest courage and policy in the world, importeth most, that a nation do profess arms embrace too large extent of dominion, it may as their principal honour, study, and occupahold for a time, but it will fail suddenly. The tion; for the things which we formerly have Spartans were a nice people in point of natu. spoken of are but habilitations towards arms; ralization : whereby, while they kept their and what is habilitation without intention and compass, they stood firm; but when they did act ? Romulus, after his death (as they report spread, and their boughs were become too or feign), sent a present to Romans, that great for their stem, they became a windfall above all they should intend arms, and then upon the sudden. Never any state was, in they should prove the greatest empire of the this point so open to receive strangers into world. The fabric of the state of Sparta was their body as were the Romans; therefore it wholly (though not wisely) framed and comsorted with them accordingly, for they grew posed to that scope and end ; the Persians and to the greatest monarchy. Their manner was Macedonians had it for a flash; the Gauls, to grant naturalization (which they called Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and “jus civitatis”), and to grant it in the highest others, had it for a time : the Turks have it degree, that is, not only jus commercii, jus at this day, though in great declination. Of connubii, jus hæreditatis ;” but also “jus Christian Europe they that have it are, in suffragii,” and “jus honorum ;” and this not effect, only the Spaniards : but it is so plain, to singular persons alone, but likewise to that every man profiteth in that he most inwhole families; yea, to cities, and some- tendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon : times to nations. Add to this, their custom it is enough to point at it; that no nation, of plantation of colonies, whereby the Roman which do not directly profess arms, may look plant was removed into the soil of other to have greatness fall into their mouths; and, nations; and, putting both constitutions to- on the other side, it is a most certain oracle of gether, you will say, that it was not the time, that those states that continue long in Romans that spread upon the world, but it that profession (as the Romans and Turks was the world that spread upon the Romans ; principally have done) do wonders; and those and that was the sure way of greatness. I that have professed arms but for an age have, have marveled sometimes at Spain, how they notwithstanding, commonly attained that
THE GREATNESS OF KINGDOMS AND ESTATES.
greatness in that age which maintained them “ Consilium Pompeii plane Themistocleum long after, when their profession and exercise est; qutat enim, qui mari potitur, eum of arms hath grown to decay.
rerum potiri ;” and, without doubt, Pompey Incident to this point is for a state to have had tired out Cæsar, if upon vain confidence those laws or customs which may reach forth
he had not left that way. We see the great unto them just occasions (as may be pretend- effect of battles by sea : the battle of Actium ed) of war; for there is that justice imprinted decided the empire of the world ; the battle of in the nature of man, that they enter not upon Lepanto arrested the greatness of the Turk. wars (whereof so many calamities do ensue), There be many examples, where sea-fights but upon some, at the least specious, grounds have been final to the war: but this is when and quarrels.
The Turk hath at hand, for princes, or states, have set up their rest upon cause of war, the propagation of his law or the battles ; but this much is certain, that he sect, a quarrel that he may always command. that commands the sea is at great liberty, and The Romans, though they esteemed the ex- may take as much and as little of the war as tending the limits of their empire to be great he will ; whereas those that be strongest by honour to their generals when it was done, yet land are many times, nevertheless, in great they never rested upon that alone to begin a straits. Surely at this day, with us of war: first therefore, let nations that pretend to Europe, the vantage of strength at sea (which greatness have this, that they be sensible of is one of the principal dowries of this kingwrongs, either upon borderers, merchants, or dom of Great Britain) is great; both because politic ministers; and that they sit not too most of the kingdoms of Europe are not long upon a provocation : secondly, let them merely inland, but girt with the sea most part be pressed and ready to give aids and succours of their compass; and because the wealth of to their confederates as it ever was with the both Indies seems, in great part, but an acRomans : insomuch as if the confederates had cessary to the command of the seas. leagues defensive with divers other states, and The wars of later ages seem to be made in upon invasion offered, did implore their aids the dark, in respect to the glory and honour severally, yet the Romans would ever be fore- which reflected upon men from the wars in most, and leave it to none other to have the ancient time. There be now, for martial honour. As for the wars, which were an. encouragement, some degrees and orders of ciently made on behalf of a kind of party, or chivalry, which nevertheless, are conferred tacit conformity of state, I do not see how they promiscuously upon soldiers and no soldiers, may be well justified: as when the Romans and some remembrance perhaps upon the made a war for the liberty of Græcia ; or, escutcheon, and some hospitals for maimed when the Lacedæmonians and the Athenians soldiers, and su like things ; but, in ancient made war to set up or pull down democracies times, the trophies erected upon the place o. and oligarchies : or when wars were made by the victory ; the funeral laudatives and monuforeigners, under the pretence of justice or ments for those that died in the wars; the protection, to deliver the subjects of others crowns and garlands personally, the style of from tyranny and oppression, and the like. emperor, which the great kings of the world Let it suffice, that no estate expect to be great, after borrowed ; the triumphs of the generals that is not awake upon any just occasion of upon their return; the great donatives and arming.
largesses upon the disbanding of the armies, No body can be healthful without exercise, were things able to inflame all men's courneither natural body nor politic ; and, cer- ages; but, above all, that of the triumph tainly, to a kingdom, or estate, a just and amongst the Romans was not pageants, or honourable war is the trusty exercise. A civil gaudery, but one of the wisest and noblest inwar, indeed, is like the heat of a fever ; but a stitutions that ever was; for it contained three foreign war is like the heat of exercise, and things, honour to the general, riches to the serveth to keep the body in health ; for, in a treasury out of the spoils, and donatives to slothful peace, both courages will effeminate, the army: but that honour, perhaps, were and manners corrupt; but howsoever it be not fit for monarchies; except it be in the for happiness, without all question for great- person of the monarch himself, or his sons ; ness, it maketh to be still for the most part in as it came to pass in the times of the Roman arms: and the strength of a veteran army emperors, who did impropriate the actual (though it be a chargeable business), always triumphs to themselves and their sons, for such on foot, is that which commonly giveth the wars as they did achieve in person, and left law ; or, at least, the reputation amongst all only for wars, achieved by subjects some neighbour states, as may be well seen in triumphal garments and ensigns to the Spain ; which hath had, in one part or other, general. a veteran army almost continually, now by To conclude : no man can by care-takirg the space of six score years.
(as the scripture saith), “ add a cubit to his To be master of the sea is an abridgment stature,” in this little model of a man's of a monarchy. Cicero, writing to Atticus of body ; but in the great frame of kingdoms Pompey's preparation against Cæsar, saith, and commonwealths, it is in the power of