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from the Washington Conference, ex- sentatives, into finding in the gospel of cept upon the initial assumption that the 'new era,' tidings of comfort and henceforward Japan, in concert with joy for all the world — with the excepEngland and the United States, is pre- tion, and to the detriment, of Japan. pared to coöperate loyally in practical In particular, the question of Shanmeasures for the restoration of law, or- tung, though apparently simple enough der, trade, and sound finance, in China. in its broad moral aspect, will require This assumption implies, not only the delicate handling. China and the definite cessation of the Japanese mili- United States, not being parties to the tary party's activities in Peking, but the Treaty of Versailles, may be justified abandonment by Japan, as part of a in questioning the decision of the Allies, general self-sacrificing agreement be whereby Japan obtained the reversion tween the powers, of all claims to ‘spe- of Germany's exclusive privileges in cial interests' in any province of China Shantung; but the fact must not be proper, such as those which were overlooked that America's representcreated by the twenty-one demands in ative and President was a consenting 1915, and subsequently by the secret party to that decision; also that, be‘military agreement,' concluded in

cause of it, Japan agreed to withdraw March, 1918, with the corrupt clique from discussion the thorny question of then in power at Peking.

‘racial equality.' In originally raising Having discussed these questions that question, Japan practically claimed with many of the leading statesmen recognition of her right to equal opporand publicists in Japan, I firmly believe tunity in the matter of migration overthat the Japanese Government is pre- seas; and President Wilson, unable to pared to welcome an Anglo-American- concede that claim, was fain to comJapanese understanding, having as its promise it along the line of least reavowed object a common reconstructive sistance—that is, at China's expense. policy in China. Even before the pros- As for the position of China in the pect of a limitation of armaments had matter, it is evident that the activities emphasized the desirability of such an of her diplomats and publicists are inunderstanding, the Japanese Prime spired rather by the desire to create Minister had declared (1919) his Gov- dissension between Japan and the ernment's readiness to coöperate in the United States than by genuine zeal for difficult task of restoring financial and the integrity and independence of their administrative order in China, with due country. For the men who strain so regard to her sovereign rights. Many noisily at the Shantung gnat are the things have happened in the last five same as those who quietly swallowed years to lead the rulers of Japan to per- the camel of the secret military agreeceive that persistence in the aggressive ment (to which I have already referred) 'forward' policy of the military party - a pact concluded by their Governcan lead only to a dangerous position of ment, of its own accord, with Japan, national isolation, besides involving the which made Peking, for all practical over-taxed people in further heavy purposes, a subsidized dependency of expenditure. For these and other rea- Tokyo. sons, there appear to be valid grounds

IV for expecting good results from the Conference, provided that responsible Two fundamental facts must be American opinion be not misled by the faced at the outset by the Conference if specious pleadings of China's repre- the Far Eastern problem is to be solved

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in a spirit of mutuality and helpfulness. will need more than the eloquence of the First, that China's military weakness, idealists to convince responsible statesfinancial chaos, and internecine strife men that this instinct and the economic now constitute the root-cause of the pressure behind it can be exorcised by problem. This fact requires no demon- invoking a new era of universal altrustration for anyone who has studied the

who has studied the ism. The philosophers have not yet situation. Second, that Japan is impel- found the stone which will satisfy a led, by acute economic pressure, either people that cries for bread. to seek new outlets for her surplus pop- Considered in this light, the crux of ulation overseas, or to endeavor to se- the Far Eastern discussion will probcure such a position of economic advan- ably be found to lie in the question of tage in the undeveloped regions of the Japan's claim to ‘special interests' in Asiatic mainland, adjacent to her fron- Manchuria and Mongolia. In seeking tiers, as shall enable her to maintain the abrogation of the twenty-oneand increase her industries, and thereby demands agreement of 1915, China asks, feed her people, at home.

in fact, that Japan should vacate the Japan's imperative need of expansion ‘leased' territory of the Liaotung penis, indeed, an undeniable and constant insula, including Dairen and Port factor in the Far Eastern problem. Arthur, at the date named in the origMorally speaking, and from the political inal Russian lease (that is to say, in idealist's point of view, it is, of course, March, 1923), and that the ninetylamentable that any race or nation years' term — subsequently conceded should expand at the expense of an- in compliance with the twenty-oneother; nevertheless, pace the 'new-era' demands ultimatum-should now be doctrine, the struggle for supremacy annulled. But no good purpose can be and survival between races has not served by ignoring the truth that the ended with the Treaty of Versailles, original ‘lease' of the Liaotung peninand the ideal of self-determination sula by China to Russia was never anymust always prove to be an empty thing but a diplomatic fiction, a politic phrase when confronted with the ele- device whereby the face of Li Hungmental instinct of self-preservation. Chang was partially saved. Common Japan has expanded into Korea, and is sense, if not common justice, compels thence expanding northward and west- recognition of the lamentable truth, ward, impelled by the same instincts that China's sovereign rights in Manand impulses as those which have peo- churia and Mongolia were virtually pled England's colonies and doubled doomed when Russian diplomacy conthe territory and number of the United cluded the original 'lease' compact

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with China's complaisant rulers. By America's naval programme affords that compact, Japan's economic existmore convincing testimony to the ence and national security were threatrealities of the situation than all the ened with dangers so imminent, that acts of the apostles of pacifism. The war between her and Russia became conflict between benevolent idealism inevitable. and the stern facts of existence is as The development of a position of old as the hills; and despite humani- economic and political ascendancy by tarians and vegetarians, the inexorable Japan in Manchuria and Mongolia law remains that all life on this planet euphemistically described in the Lanexists and persists at the cost of other sing-Ishii agreement as 'special' interlives. Charm they never so wisely, it ests — became equally inevitable when,

by the Treaty of Portsmouth, Russia valid process of reasoning justify Enghanded over to her conqueror the leased land or America in supporting China's territory of Liaotung and the South contention that Japan should now surManchurian railway. China not only render, or greatly modify, her claims to consented to this arrangement, but by 'special interests' in Manchuria. The certain secret clauses of an agreement arguments and attitude of Japan's repvoluntarily concluded between her Gov- resentatives at Versailles clearly demernment and Japan in December, 1905, onstrated their determination to insist she deprived herself of valuable rights, upon recognition of those interests, as specifically reserved for her by the an equitable quid pro quo for our Treaty of Portsmouth, in regard to the Asiatic Exclusion acts and all that they economic and industrial development imply. The same determination was of Manchuria. By pledging herself unmistakably manifested in the negonot to build any railways which might tiation and conclusion of the Lansingcompete with the South Manchurian Ishii agreement in 1917. line, she made it possible for Japan to To sum up. If England, America, veto (as she subsequently did, in part- and Japan now concur in recognizing nership with Russia) all British and the critical condition of affairs in American enterprises in that region. China, and unite, in a common purpose To-day, Japan's privileged position of good-will, to restore her stability of and paramount influence on the main- government and to protect her soverland to the north and west of Korea is eignty, the resources of diplomacy regarded by the nation, not only as one should be capable of devising a practical of vital necessity, but of indisputable and equitable solution of the Far Eastright – a right established at the cost ern problem. Frank discussion of the of two victorious wars, and subsequent- existing situation should entail, pari ly developed by means of concessions passu with reasonable recognition of freely granted by China's rulers in Japan's established position in Manreturn for money loans. To suggest (as churia and Mongolia, the simultaneous was done by Lord Curzon and Mr. restoration to China, by all the powers Lansing in the Consortium dispatches concerned, of 'leased' territories in of 1919) that Manchuria and Mongolia China proper, the withdrawal of all are actually integral ‘provinces' of foreign garrisons and post-offices from China, to be regarded and dealt with the eighteen provinces, and the abaninternationally in the same way as the donment therein of all claims to spheres eighteen provinces of China proper, is of influence and concessions, which to ignore the basic realities of the situa- conflict with the sovereignty of China tion, not to mention elementary geog- and the principle of equal opportunity. raphy and history.

Given such an agreement, concerted Mongolia, as a dependency, stands measures for the restoration of the toward China in precisely the same rela- Central Government's authority and tion as Tibet. It is not easy to under- fiscal machinery, for the effective disstand upon what grounds Great Brit- bandment of the tuchuns' irregular ain, after having required China to forces, and for financial reorganization, abandon her claims to effective sover- might be profitably discussed with eignty over autonomous Tibet, can China's representatives. But, pending profess to regard Mongolia (which has the application of such remedial measasserted its independence of Peking) as ures, it is foolish and futile to talk of a 'province of China. Nor can any restoring the unfettered authority of the Chinese Government in Manchuria truth that the impact and influence of and Mongolia, for the simple reason the West have tended to destroy the that there is no effective government in cohesive and self-sufficient qualities of China. Under existing conditions, the China's patriarchal system of governrapid economic development of these ment, without supplying anything of dependencies, which has resulted from practical value in its place. A venerable Japan's railway and mining enter- civilization, probably the wisest, and prises, has proved of immediate bene certainly the oldest, that humanity has fit, not only to China's revenues, but to produced, is now in danger of perishlarge numbers of Chinese workers and ing, as so many others have perished, settlers, who have poured into the by contact with our machine-driven, country from Shantung and Chihli, armor-plated culture, in combination attracted by good wages and the pros- with soulless international finance. pect of immunity from the lawlessness Time will show whether the process of that preys upon all forms of produc- disintegration wrought by these distive industry, as the result of chronic ruptive influences can possibly be misrule under the Chinese Republic. arrested by a new policy of harmonious

coöperation, for China's good, between A word, in conclusion, with the polit- the friendly powers, so as to preserve ical idealists who would have us believe her independence as a nation and to in the impending federation of the

restore peace and prosperity to her world by virtue of Christianity and people. Reduced to simple terms, this faith in the blessings of Democracy. is the real Far Eastern question, which It were well for the peace of mankind if awaits the deliberations of the Washingthey could be led to realize the simple ton Conference.

ARE WE GIVING JAPAN A SQUARE DEAL? II

BY E. ALEXANDER POWELL

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The key to Japanese militarism and posed of a clique of military men and imperialism is to be found in the dual men with military affiliations, headed government that exists in Japan. There by the Genro, or Elder Statesmen, with is the constitutional government - the General Staff of the Army as its inthe Cabinet, the Diet, consisting of the strument. Of the two governments, House of Peers and the House of Repre- the latter is by far the more powerful. sentatives, and the administrative bu- Japanese policy, particularly in foreign reaucracy — with which the world is affairs, is invariably shaped by this familiar. But there is also an invisible unseen government, its wishes genergovernment, an unseen empire, com- ally being translated by the constitu

tional government's actions. The two Now let me make it clear that the régimes, whose interests are by no Elder Statesmen are neither appointed means always opposed, are of necessity nor elected. Indeed, there is no such more or less intermixed, like interlock- office as that of Elder Statesman per se. ing directorates. For example, many You will find no mention of them in the officials of the permanent civil bureau- Japan Year-Book or other works of cracy — that is, the bureau chiefs and

reference. They are not officials, though their staffs — are drawn from the mili- they hold the reins of power, though taristic clique, which is identical with by virtue of their rank they have seats the unseen government, with which, as in the House of Peers. They are private might be expected, they work in har- citizens who, because of their experimony.

ence and sagacity, are the trusted adAt the head of the Japanese State visers of the Emperor, as they were of stands the Emperor, generally spoken his father before him. They are so of by foreigners as the Mikado ('Hon- firmly intrenched in the confidence of orable Gate, a title comparable with the Emperor and great nobles; they Sublime Porte), and by his own sub- are the embodiment of traditions so injects as Tenno, or Heavenly King. dissolubly linked with the history of the The present Emperor, Yoshihito, is the Empire; the social, political, financial, one hundred and twenty-second of his and military interests which they repreline, according to Japanese history, sent are so powerful; that all attempts which reckons from 660 B.C. when to dislodge them or seriously to weaken Jimmu ascended the throne. But as their influence have met with failure. written records do not carry us back The invisible government of which further than A.D. 712, the reigns and the Elder Statesmen are the head and periods of the very early monarchs are brains is not a modern development; it more or less apocryphal. Still, the fact goes back into Japanese history for remains that Japan has been ruled by centuries. For nearly a thousand years an unbroken dynasty ever since the Japan has had a nominal government dawn of her history, in which respect and another unacknowledged governshe is unique among all the nations of ment, the latter more or less cloaked the world. By the Constitution of 1889 and independent of check or control, the Emperor combines in himself the existing side by side. This unseen emrights of sovereignty and exercises the pire dates from the period of whole of the executive powers, with the gunate, during which the Emperor was advice and assistance of the nine Cabi- the titular ruler and the Shogun the net ministers. He alone can make war, actual ruler of Japan. When the Shodeclare peace, and conclude treaties. gunate was abolished in 1868, and the But between the Cabinet and the unification of the country under the Crown stands a small body of men, the Emperor Mutsuhito begun, the task of survivors of those by whose genius reconstruction was undertaken by the modern Japan was raised to her present daimyo, or feudal nobles. They became high position among the nations. They the officials of the new government and are known as the Genrā, or Elder directed the transformation of Japan Statesmen. At the present time only into a modern state. Their descendants three remain - Field-Marshal Prince fill those offices to-day. Yamagata, Marquis Okuma, and Mar- When it is remembered that the quis Matsukata. These three old men present officeholders are almost all are the real rulers of Japan.

members of the ancient military clans, VOL. 128 NO. 6

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