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likewise has passed away – a love on Cap Martin he had been intending whose principal charm was its unself- to make this revelation to her. That, ishness; a love never to be requited perhaps, was what had impelled him to because it was never to be revealed!' pay a visit to the garden of the church.

'O Mr. Baldwin!' the old lady re- But, once confessed, the weight had been peated in a trembling voice, as if she lifted from his soul and — life never goes were about to weep; 'why did n't you backward; peace be with the dead! speak? Why did n't you tell me then But the woman, more responsive to what you are telling me now?'

sentimental things, was unwilling to Baldwin shrugged his shoulders. He forget. She clung to the illusion as if it had a clearer, a more accurate sense of were a life-raft come to her hand in the reality than she. He understood that torrent of time that was sweeping her what now seemed to this old woman an so rapidly toward eternity. Besides, unpardonable oversight, she would have her feminine vanity had been aroused regarded in those days as an unpardon- from its sleep of half a century. A able presumption.

declaration of love at eighty! And from The sun had set, leaving a patch of the most powerful man in the world! pale rose upon the mountain-tops, the Baldwin coughed. The evening wind last trace of its departed glory. The was chilling him. evening star was twinkling in the lumi- 'Let's go,' he said. “At our age it is nous trail that still brightened the not quite safe to catch cold.' western sky. The eastern horizon above He gave one last look at the crimson the Italian mountains was deepening afterglow. “The sun has gone,' he said. to an intenser blue, through which, "To-morrow he will return, and the fainter still, a few stars were struggling next day, and the next. But when we to appear. A breeze had begun to blow sink below the horizon of life down from the mountains, setting the The duchess took his arm, and began leaves of the garden astir on its way to walk back along the path to the out to wrinkle the placid mirror of the church, her bamboo cane beating rhythsea. The old duchess seemed not to mically on the flagstones. Quite unnotice. Her mind was on other things. conscious of everything around her, she

'Why did n't you speak then?' she seemed not to hear what her companinsisted. “It would have been so inter- ion was saying. She had gone far back esting! Why did n't you declare your- into the past — and how delightful self?'

those memories were! Baldwin again shrugged his shoulders; They pushed their way through the for now the illusion was quite dead, and bushes of the garden, lowering their it had been dead for a long time. He heads to avoid the hanging branches. had spoken only under the impulsive Why did you not declare yourself?' need for confession that we all seem to she kept repeating. “Why did you not feel at certain moments. Ever since he tell me then what you have just told me had found the duchess living near him now?'

THE IRON MAN IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICS

BY ARTHUR POUND

I

IN America we invent, manufacture, ensteins, the inventors. Let us consider, and use in the production of goods, an rather, man in society, organized into infinite number of machines; but we states, and observe some of the politpay scant heed to the effect of these ical and social results which have folmachines upon the evolution of society. lowed, and are likely to follow, multiOut here, in our great Middle West plication of man-power by machinery. machine-shops, where the automatic Multiplyingman-power by machinery principle of machine production has sets going certain forces and tendencies reached its highest development and in key with — but not at all points parbroadest application, we possess tools allel to

allel to those set going in other times superior to those of Paris. Yet it would by brisk breeding. However generated, never have occured to any of us to say new peaks of human energy strain social in 1914, as did M. Bergson, addressing and political systems evolved to carry the French Academy:

currents less high. Unless the current 'Many years hence, when the reaction is cut down, or the system of distribuof the past shall have left only the grand tion readjusted to carry the new peakoutlines in view, this, perhaps, is how a load, something breaks. War is simply philosopher will speak of our age. He one method of restoring equilibrium bewill say that theidea, peculiar to the nine- tween the kinetics of human

energy

and teenth century, of employing science

the statics of social order. in the satisfaction of our material wants Machine use, on the expanding scale had given a wholly unforeseen exten- of recent years, multiplies goods-prosion to the mechanical arts, and equip- duction over and above any point atped man, in less than fifty years, with tainable by natural increase without more tools than he had made during the machine assistance. Power over mathousands of years he had lived upon chines enabled the coal-and-iron memearth. Each new machine being for bers of the great-nations group to esman a new organ,

artificial

organ, tablish world-leadership in the years - his body became suddenly and pro- between the industrial revolution and digiously increased in size, without his the World War. Not only did populasoul being at the same time able to dilate tion in the industrial state increase to the dimensions of his new body.' absolutely, but the effectiveness of those

Bergson pictures the‘machinatemam- increased populations in wealth-producmal' of Butler's striking phrase as a tion multiplied over and over. States dread, autogenetic being, adding limbs with more machines assumed preponand organs ad infinitum, without cor- derant political influence over those responding growth of soul - a modern with less. monster set going by our busy Frank- Because the nations of leading power

an

at the opening of the twentieth century these goods depended national solvenwere all white and all Christian, a false cy and domestic content, the hunger idea arose that this overlordship rested or plenty of millions of wage-earners, upon race or religion; but Japan's en- the revenues which supported governtrance, following victory over Russia, ments, military establishments, eduproved the acid test of world-power to cational institutions — in short, modern be industrial prowess. Enough pro- Western civilization. Realizing the vulductivity to furnish, year after year, a nerability of their economic supports, considerable excess of goods for export, the industrial societies of the Old World and to support naval and military forces grew more and more state-conscious, proportionate to the resulting extensive and drifted into more and more bristling overseas interests these were the attitudes toward one another. Thus prime desiderata of power; and the na- modern nationalism developed a sinister tion possessing them could be sure of its accent. place in the sun, regardless of color or Given the determining mechanisms, the constitution of its Godhead.

this development was sure as fate. Machine-power not only strengthen- Arteries of national existence, inextriced nationalism by slowing down dis- ably interwoven, came to thread the persion through emigration, but also Seven Seas. Though the bulk of imintensified it through generating real ported nourishment grew in stabilized need for group-action to ensure subsist- quarters, certain essentials of industrial ence from foreign sources. To make life were gathered from lightly settled the industrial centre secure, its econom- districts of uncertain political complexic hinterland must be likewise secure; ion, where the white man's code did not states were constantly urged by groups run. Concessions and capitulations, exoppressed by the conviction of insecu- tra-territoriality and economic penetrarity to move outward toward the control tion these satisfied neither natives of that ever-widening hinterland, with- nor invaders. Willy-nilly, the situation out whose produce and consumption the made for imperialism. Wherever moneys industrial complex at home must lan- were owing and courts were not; wherguish in unprofitable depression. ever raw materials needed in the mills

In earlier times natural increase set back home could be produced; whergoing centrifugal forces, which machine ever goods could be sold to the heathen increase shifted into centripetal forces. if the latter could be educated suffiNations in effective possession of coal ciently in wants; wherever capital and iron held their nationals, because could be multiplied by exploiting cheap machines permitted the use at home of labor — there industrial societies, almore labor and more capital per acre. though located on the other side of the Instead of sending forth surplus popula- earth, had stakes, vital stakes of existtion at the former rate, the industrial ence. The temptation was powerful, states sent forth, in ever-increasing indeed, to change these stakes of existvolume, surplus goods to compete with ence into stakes of empire. Africa was those of their rival nationals in world partitioned; western Asia became a markets. The descendants of men who bickering ground; China was partitionhad won sustenance at the spear-pointed into spheres of influence, and must in forced migrations now fought one soon have been parceled out, if the another with goods, and recorded their United States, not yet hard pressed victories in ledgers instead of sagas. economically, had not initiated the Upon the profitable and certain sale of saving reprieve of the Open Door.

So far toward the war had the nations ation marched swiftly to its conclusion. traveled by the beginning of the cen- Almost to the last, either of two détury. Thereafter came intrigue after nouements was possible — either the intrigue for adjustment and review. boundaries of industrial states must Only by stating and restating the Mon- burst under inequalities of pressure roe Doctrine, in terms which would generated by increased populations and have amazed Monroe, were we able to increased machines, or the machines fend off itching hands from South themselves must be slowed down by America, perchance to keep for our- eliminating profits from their operation. selves freedom of action in that quarter The first meant war — the World War; at some later date. Elsewhere the game the second meant war also, but of a went on with ever-increasing openness different sort— the war between classes, as the economic needs of Europe be- the social revolution. came more acute. The nations looked In midsummer of 1914, it was hard sharply to navies, coaling-stations, mer- to say which method of bleeding the chant marines, as so much national in- too-vital patient would be adopted. surance under the conditions imposed Had Juarès lived, who knows how by the Iron Man. Popular hate must be changed the face of history might be? roused to wring funds for naval expan. The state-war method won the dession from parliaments and tax-payers. perate race against time. At the moEnter propaganda, the press doing its ment decision rested with certain Gershare and navy leagues the rest. Diplo- mans, who may have been influenced, matic incident followed incident, well consciously or unconsciously, by the named because so obviously incidental hovering spectre of social and political eruptions of the primary force that revolution. If deferred then, the decimade peace ever more difficult to keep. sion a little later might have rested Algeciras, London, The Hague - all upon other persons elsewhere; and if so, vain while factory wheels continued to the answer must have been the same move at an ever-accelerated pace, and war. Useless to apply ethical rules at statesmen continued thinking in terms such a pass; indicting forces is even of politics instead of economics. Back more absurd than indicting nations. of all this diplomatic jockeying and The important thing to understand, here military picketing, commercial zeal and and now, is that, given nationalism as naval expansion, - the motor-force be- the dominant social fact of the planet, hind all these expressions of national sea-striding industrialism as its domiwill, — operated unceasingly the over- nant economic fact, and the control of load of human energy released by ma- weak peoples by strong as its dominant chine multiplication of man-power. political fact, peace in or near the year

Responsibility for this dangerous 1914 could not be maintained without evolution rests upon political rigidity qualifying one or all of the three. It rather than upon industrial progress. was not done. There were none big Internally each of the industrial states enough to do it. To that extent the war maintained such a division of the re- may be considered inevitable. turns of industry that its full production could not be consumed at home;

II internationally trade and finance reached planetary proportions without cor- Has Europe's blood-letting, plus its respondingly broad political and legal post-war Socialism and Communism, controls. Failing such controls, the situ- rid the world of wars bred in the marketplace? The situation does not make for average manual dexterity are the top confidence. State competition, intensi- requirements, from the standpoint fied by hunger, hate, and debt, is not of production only, for the operative yet restrainable by international bonds. or attendant of automatic machines. Russia's experiment does not recom- He who brings maximum endurance to mend the class-war as a means to peace. the shop at minimum cost will profit Just as industry and nationalism con- his employer most. On this basis the ceived and brought forth the World Chinese coolie, at first glance, appears War, without quite knowing either unbeatable. If not the best individual, when or how conception occurred, so his cheapness still may give his produce they may add to the Martian family in an advantage in the market. The Japthe future. Indeed, certain tendencies anese have demonstrated a considerable of modern industrialism, in its new degree of Oriental adaptability to modautomatic phase as yet but dimly under- ern machines. The Hindu test may stood, seem destined to put even more not be far behind. And since the tendstrain upon the political framework of ency in machine-development is always the planet than that under which the toward less and less mental demand same framework cracked in 1914.

upon the operative, there is the possiOne such aspect of industrialism is its bility that even more backward peoples tendency to spread. Born in England, than these may some day find machines the factory system has migrated to attuned to their mental and manual northwestern Europe, northern Italy, capacities. The huge profits likely to the United States, and Japan. It has follow promptly upon the putting of healthy roots in Canada, less healthy cheap, low-standard labor to work upon ones in Mexico. It appeared in Russia, automaticand semi-automatic machines and contributed to that débâcle. China should be enough to ensure that, soon or is getting under industrial way, slowly, late, all peoples will be brought to the but with a steady ponderosity which ordeal by the Iron Man. Ross, Stoddard, and Weale agree means But whether browns, blacks, and yelnothing less than an economic upheaval lows can withstand this ordeal is ancertain to affect every nation and in- other matter. Theoretically, expansion dividual on earth as time runs on. of industry should proceed until export India, too, is on the way, quickening trade in manufactured goods is much step during the war; Australia, by erect curtailed. But there are offsets to coning a tariff wall, encourages domestic sider

sider — capital, coal, iron, oil, waterindustries. Thus industry travels; how power. Dearth of these bars industry far can it go?

from many quarters. Far more importThe spread of industry among colored ant, however, are the varying abilities and Slavic populations has been retard- of races and peoples to meet the social ed appreciably by the fact that, in the and political problems presented by past, industrial production required the machine industry. The white race is application of certain traits, natural or progressive; the historic concept which acquired, which, for historic reasons be has motivated western history gives yond the

scope of this paper, are more it a superior elasticity of adaptation apparent in white peoples than in oth- to changing conditions. Yet the war ers. The skill element was paramount. proves that even we favored whites Now industry has machines so highly could not escape at least one terrific setperfected that highly specialized skill is back resulting from industrial impact. not required. Ordinary intelligence and The depth and breadth of present social

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