Imatges de pÓgina
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Fortifications.

Ordnance.

10-inch sheils.

Old forts and batteries.-Table A ....

Required
On hand

To be provided.
New fortifications completed.--Table B.

Required
On hand................

To be provided .......
Fortifications under construction.--Table ......... Required

On hand... ......

To be provided.. Works to be constructed after those in table D, state- Required ment 1, completed.—Table E.

On hand

To be provided

Required from A to E
Works to be last commenced.--Table F... Required ......................

On hand ..................

To be provided....
Grand total required
Grand total on hand
Grand total to be provided....

2,400
2,800

2,800

5,200 2, 400

2,800

Note.--The cost of saltpetre and brimstone may be estimated at one-half of the cost of gunpowder. ORDNANCE OFFICE, Washington, January 16, 1840.

REPORT ON THE NORTHERN FRONTIER. This frontier extends, as described by the terms of the resolution, from Lake Superior to Passamaquoddy bay, a distance of somewhat more than two thousand miles, binding all the way on the British American Provinces.

Whether we regard the strongly marked geographical features of this frontier, presenting, as it does, for the most part, a chain of great lakes or inland seas, stretching along the border, the common property of both nations, and affording facilities for an extensive commerce, almost rivalling that of the ocean itself; or whether we look to the growing strength of our colonial neighbors, fostered by the immense power and resources of the mother country; its vast importance cannot fail to impress us with the necessity of being prepared, not only for defence along that line, but also to act offensively, with decisive effect, in the event of our being involved in a conflict.

From the peculiar character of this frontier, its defence must necessarily partake somewhat of the system applicable to the seacoast; for, although it is denominated inland, in contradistinction to the latter, it is, nevertheless, maritime in many of its features, and must be treated accordingly for purposes of defence.

So important is the mastery on the lakes, in any military operations in that quarter, that it is scarcely to be doubted that, in the event of war, there will be some naval preparations on both sides, and a struggle for the ascendancy on those waters. Whichever power shall acquire that, even temporarily, will have the means of assailing his adversary with great effect along the shores of the lakes, in the absence of fortifications, by occupying the harbors, destroying the towns, (some of which are fast advancing to the rank of cities,) and controlling the commercial operations of which those lakes constitute the principal channel. These considerations render it highly expedient-indeed, necessary—to fortify the larger harbors on the lakes, as well as the more important passes on the straits and rivers by which they are connected.

Without entering fully into the military details of the subject, which might be deemed somewhat out of place here, regarding the object of the resolution, which seems to look rather to the expense involved, the board will proceed to enumerate the works of defence deemed necessary on the northern frontier, beginning at Lake Superior; merely glancing at the effects and advantages which are likely to result from the establishment of those works.

1. Fort at Falls of St. Mary,—A fort here will control the communication between Lake Huron and Lake Superior, and, at least, prevent an enemy from availing itself of it for purposes of communication and for the transportation of supplies, if it does not secure those important advantages to us, which it would do, unless counteracted by a work on the British side of the line. In that event, almost •certain to occur, it would be neutralized, but would still serve to cover and protect our settlements along the St. Mary, and form a rallying point for local defence in times of alarm. Estimated expense of fort, barracks, &c...

$75,000 2. Fort at Michilimackinac.-Although this position is somewhat interior, it is regarded of high importance from its geographical relations. A fort here, in conjunction with floating batteries, may be made to command, effectually, the approach to Lake Michigan, and shut out an enemy who might possess a naval ascendancy on Lake Huron; thus protecting the entire circumference of Lake Michigan from attacks to which it would otherwise be exposed, even from a small force, and securing it to ourselves as a safe channel of communication with the rich and productive States in the rear, whose shores it washes. Estimated expense

50,000

$50, 000

3. Fort at the foot of Lake Huron. A work here will control the outlet of Lake Huron, and interrupt the navigation between that and Lake St. Clair and the river Detroit. It will serve also to cover the settlements on that part of the frontier, and form a rallying point for the neigeboring militia for local defence.

Estimated expense.....

4. Fort and barrack establishment at Detroit.- In the event of war, Detroit would undoubtedly be a point of considerable concentration of troops, not merely for the defence of that portion of the frontier, but for such offensive operations as might be deemed expedient in that quarter. It may be regarded as the centre of the upper section of the northern frontier, and has important relations. both geographical and military. Although true policy would, in such a case, dictate that our chief efforts should be directed against the vital points of the enemy's possessions as low down the line as practicable, still it might become expedient, with a view to distract his attention and divide his forces, to menace him above; aud this is one of the points from which he might be assailed by minor expeditions, especially if he should relax his measures of defence in looking to his safety elsewhere.

Estimated expense of barracks for one regiment, including site....

$150,000 Estimated expense of fort at Spring Wells, including site....

100, 000

250,000

150,000

5. Field-work and barrack establishment at or near Buffalo.The wealth and cominercial importance of Buffalo, and its close proximity to the Britsh line, will make it an object of attack in time of war, unless it be protected by the presence of a respectable force there. It may also become a point of concentration of troops for minor offensive movements, by way of diverson; and is thus, in every view, entitled to seasonable attention. An extensive barrack establishment, defended by field-works, would be sufficient for all necessary objects.

Estimated expense....

6. Fort Niagara to be rebuilt.-A fort at this position is important, on the assumption (admitting, it is believed, of but little doubt) that in time of war there would be some naval preparations on Lake Ontario. It commands the entrance into the Niagara river; and a work here will shut the enemy's vessels out from that harbor, while it will afford protection under which ours may take shelter in case of need.

Estimated expense of completing the work now in progress....

$27, 500 For repairs of buildings and new barracks there... 37, 500

65,000

7. Fort at Oswego.—The growing importance of Oswego, the relation it bears to the great line of internal communication

to the west, and its exposed situation, directly on the shore of the lake, from whence it might be assailed by armed vessels without the co-operation of a land attack, call for works of defence to protect the harbor, and thus secure a safe retreat for our vessels in case of need, while we shut out those of the enemy. Besides, this

REPORT ON THE NORTHERN FRON

This frontier extends, as described by the terms of Lake Superior to Passamaquoddy bay, a distance of some thousand miles, binding all the way on the British American

Whether we regard the strongly marked geographical fein presenting, as it does, for the most part, a chain of great stretching along the border, the common property of both n facilities for an extensive commerce, almost rivalling that of whether we look to the growing strength of our colonial noi the immense power and resources of the mother country; cannot fail to impress us with the necessity of being prepar fence along that line, but also to act offensively, with der event of our being involved in a conflict.

From the peculiar character of this frontier, its defence mu take somewhat of the system applicable to the seacoast; for, nominated inland, in contradistinction to the latter, it is, neve. in many of its features, and must be treated accordingly for p.

So important is the mastery on the lakes, in any military quarter, that it is scarcely to be doubted that, in the event of some naval preparations on both sides, and a struggle for those waters. Whichever power shall acquire that, even teni, the means of assailing his adversary with great effect along lakes, in the absence of fortifications, by occupying the harbu towns, (some of which are fast advancing to the rank of citie the commercial operations of which those lakes constitute the These considerations render it highly expedient-indeed, nee: the larger harbors on the lakes, as well as the more importa. straits and rivers by which they are connected.

Without entering fully into the military details of the subje be deemed somewhat out of place here, regarding the object o. which seems to look rather to the expense involved, the boara enumerate the works of defence deemed necessary on the . beginning at Lake Superior; merely glancing at the effects which are likely to result from the establishment of those work:

1. Fort at Falls of St. Mary,—A fort here will control th: between Lake Huron and Lake Superior, and, at least, prevent availing itself of it for purposes of communication and for the i supplies, if it does not secure those important advantages to us, do, unless counteracted by a work on the British side of the line. almost •certain to occur, it would be neutralized, but would still and protect our settlements along the St. Mary, and form a ral local defence in times of alarm.

Estimated expense of fort, barracks, &c.

2. Fort at Michilimackinac.—Although this position is some what interior, it is regarded of high importance from its geographi cal relations. A fort here, in conjunction with floating batterie may be made to command, effectually, the approach to Lak Michigan, and shut out an enemy who might possess naval ascendancy on Lake Huron; thus protecting the ar

ter ence of Lake Michigan from attacks to which be exposed, even from a small force, and se as a safe channel of communication with States in the rear, whose shores it washes

Estimated expense

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$600,000

150,000

150,000

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