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Meteorological Register, kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the Month of March, 1834. Minimum Temperature
Maximum Pressure Observations made at Max. Temp.and Dryness Minimum Pressure Observations made at observed at Sunrise. observed at 9h. 50m. Apparent Noon. observed at 2h. 40m. observed at 4h. Om.
of an Evap. Surface.
Direction. Wind. Obsd, Ht. of Barom. the Mercury. Temp. of
Of the Air.
of an Evap. Surface.
Rain, Old Gauge.
Rain, New Gauge.
1 29,96+9+,7 74,7 74,2 s. 1,036 77,2 80,2 78,7 s. w.1,014 79, 186,5 81,6 s. w.,970 80,287,8 82,7 w.
1,956 80,688,7 83, w. 1,966 80, 83,6 79,5 s. w.
,06471,869,270, n.w.1, 13075,478,574, N. E.,110 77,8 83,6 78,4N. ,036 79,8 86,5 81,2 n. ,026 81,286, 81,4 n.
1,026'80, 82,6 79,5 n. 10,62 0,55
W. ,994 79,5 82,879,7 w.
,882 81,690,2 84,
S. ,874 80,6 84,4 80,2 s.
,94276, 75,2 75,4 E. ,000 79,7 86,6 82,5 N. E.,982 81,590, 82, n.w.1,912 82,6192,8 83, s. w.,900 83, 93, 82,5 w. 1,890 81,7 87,5 81,6w.
,880 78,5 76,577, S. ,974 81,683,681, s. ,958 82,7 86, 81,6 s. 890 83,8 87,3 83,4 s. ,852 82,7 83,5 81,1 s. ,840 81,7 80, 78,3 S.
,020 74,172, 170, 1081 78,685,3 77,6 N. 1.06081,290,6 82,6 N. ,996 83, 93,8 85,5 N. E. ,982 83,5194,7 86, N. E.1,994 82,186, 24,4 N. E.
1,126 80, 83,7 76,4 N. ,100 81,290,2 82,4 N. E. 1,030 84,292,5 83,3 n. ,014 84, 91,4 83,2 N. ,006 82,4 84,8 82,4 N. E.
000 83, 195,386,
,968 83, 191,8 83, N.W.1,956 82,8 87,883,
1,874 84, 94,7 83,7
,800 83,2 85,382,2
,836 84,5 86, 28 185079, 77,3 77, ,916 82,486,
,84636, 90,7 86,2 S. E. 53,71 .
,902 84,690, ,900 78,776,5 76,6 5. W. 1956 52,4 6,452,2 s.
,560 561,595'4 85,7
,946 84,5 92, 86,7 s. k.1,880 #6,596,486,7 29
,89271,3177,577, 96417 07a 121
,852 84,3 97.783,1
CALCUTTA CHRISTIAN OBSERVER.
I.-General Description of the Valley of Manipúr. (Extracted from a Letter from Major J. F. GRANT, Commanding the Manipúr
Levy, containing Replies to Queries from the Committee of Tea Culture.] The whole length of the Manípur valley, is about 60 miles, between 24° and 25° North*, and embraces a depth of about onethird the height of the range.
The elevation of the valley above the sea is about 3000 feet, and from the summit of the hills above the valley, the descent is gradual. The hills to near their summits are generally free of forest, being covered with different kinds of grass, particularly that used for choppering, called by the Bangális, I believe,“ ooloo,” which grows luxuriantly.
Snow has not fallen in Manípúr within the last seven years that I have resided here, nor, from the information of the natives, does it appear ever to have done so.
The seasons in Manipúr may be divided into two, the dry and rainy. Within the former I include from the middle of November to about the middle of May. From the middle of November to the middle of December, in the mornings heavy fogs generally prevail until about 9 A. M., when they clear away, and the atmosphere for the remainder of the day is clear and dry; there are also occasional showers of rain within this period. About the middle of December the frost sets in, and it continues to freeze during the nights almost without interruption till the middle of February, and afterwards occasionally up to the end of that month ; indeed in one year I have known it fall on the 7th of March : during this period little or no rain falls. In March and April thunderstorms occur of several days' continuance, accompanied by heavy showers of rain. The rains may be said to have regularly commenced about the middle of May, and though of frequent occurrence, the quantity that falls is small. The month of November, at the commencement of the cold season, and those of March and April at its conclusion, are the most pleasant in temperature of the year, being neither too hot nor too cold, and during which woollen clothing is, in my opinion, necessary to comfort within doors. I may here remark, that at no period of the year is the heat oppressive in the house ; and the nights
* It is situated to the N. E. of the province of Chittagong.
are sufficiently cool to admit of the thick Maskíto curtains, and a light covering, without feeling inconvenience even in a room closed all round.
There appears to be something peculiarly destructive to tropical plants in the frost which falls in Manípúr, the whole of which are certain to be destroyed, unless covered in during the nights.
Hail-storms are not frequent nor destructive. On an average for the last seven years, I do not think they have occurred more than twice in the year, about October and November,-a time at which they are more likely to do harm than at any other, as the grain is then ripe ; it has never however been brought to my notice that the crops have been injured to any extent.
Locusts have not visited Manípur for the last seven years that I have resided here, nor does it appear from my inquiries from the natives, that they have done so at any previous period.
The Manípur valley is intersected in every direction with numerous small streams, which rise in the surrounding hills; they are, with but little labour, made available for irrigating the cultivation, particularly near the base of the hills, and in the elevated range which extends from them into the valley. In the centre of the valley, along its whole length, there are numerous jhíls and lakes, all free, as far as I can learn, from saline substances. From the circumstance of the jhíls being so situated, it appears there must be a slope from the sides to the centre of the valley: it is however so gradual as to be otherwise imperceptible. And as all the streams which enter the valley, as well as all the rain that falls, have but one exit, by a nullah at its S. E. extremity, to the Ningthí river, there must be a slope from N. to S.; but also very gradual; as on looking down-from a height, the valley appears perfectly level.
The only grain cultivated by the Manipúris is rice. My Bangálí and Hindústání servants admit that it is superior in quality to any they have met elsewhere—that the crops are more luxuriant in appearance, and that a field of the same size produces nearly double what it does in Bangal. There is but one crop in the year, which is sown at the end of May, and gathered in October and November. Dhall, of various descriptions, is cultivated in the valley ; also the China cabbage, tobacco, indigo,mustard, sugarcane, yams, sweet potatoes, and other plants of the same description. Cotton and camphor are cultivated in the hills, the former extensively—of the latter only a small quantity. Indeed, none of the above are cultivated, extensively, except cotton, as from the difficulty of transport, none else are exported, and consequently only a sufficient quantity grown to supply the wants of the inha bitants. In quality, they are on a par with those of a similar description produced in Bangál. A plant grows in several places along the bases, and some way up the face of the hills, within the limits pointed out in reply to your first query, and also on some of
the detached hills in the valley, to which both Burmese and Manípúrís give the same name as they do to the tea-plant, and as a substitute for which, the former used it, I understand, during the time they held possession of Manipúr. It is probably the “ Camelia.”
A great variety of fruits grow in Manípur, but with the exception of the pine-apple, which is far superior to any I have seen in other parts of India, and planted on the sides of the hills, none come to any great perfection. Amongst other fruits, are mangoes, jack-fruit, apples, peaches, apricots, nectarines, oranges, limes
, (of a great variety,) pomegranates, guavas, mulberries, strawberries, raspberries, (of 'three or four different species,) and others, the names of which I cannot recollect. It must however be observed, that the Manípurís take little or no trouble in any other cultivation than that of their rice, and never think of watering any plants or trees except such as are transplanted, and these only for a day or two, until they have taken root : they leave all to the chance rain.
I have some peach trees in my garden, the produce of seed from Bangál, which were in full blossom nearly two months ago, and the fruit has now attained a good size; whereas those that are indegenous, have only just shed the blossom ; strawberries introduced also from Bangál are very large and good. I have also introduced kitchen garden vegetables, of every description, which thrive as well
, if not better, than I recollect them in other parts of India, particularly the Bútán turnip, and York, drumhead, and other cabbages; they all produce seed, which I believe is not the case, at least, with respect to the Bútán turnip, in Bangal, or the plains of upper India.
I have also introduced the greater number of the native fruits mentioned above into my garden, and I think they have improved, though I have taken nó further trouble than pruning and occasionally watering them.
From its beneficial effects on my constitution, I cannot speak too highly of the salubrity of the climate of Manípur. I came bere
regularly worn down by a fever and ague, which had stuck to ne for nearly two years in Kachár. Since the first yeas of my arrival here, I have been perfectly free, not only from it, but from illness of every other description, and feel a younger man in consti. tution than I was seven years ago. Capt. Pemberton and Lieut. Gordon, the only other European officers who have made any continued residence in Manipúr, I believe, entertain an equally favorable opinion of its climate. Bangális and Hindústánís, the first year of their arrival, are generally attacked at the commencenent of the rains with fever : this seems to initiate them to the climate, as they remain afterwards in good health. Many of them who have resided at Chirá Punji give Manipúr the preference in every respect. The natives of Manipúr are the most healthy and robust race I have ever met with in any part of India, and Í have visited almost every part of it.
II.-Remarks on the Introduction and present Influence of
Hinduism in the state of Manipúr. It is little more than half a century since Hinduism became the national faith of Manípúr, and in no part of India with which I am acquainted are its practices and doctrines more rigidly enforced, though there are occasional exceptions, which shew that the form rather than the spirit of this degrading superstition is the mainspring of action. About the year 1780, an image of Govindah, formed on the model of a very ancient one at Jaipúr, was publicly consecrated with much ceremony in Manípur during the reign of Jai Sing, the father of the late Rajah Gambhir Sing. It is an event of considerable importance, being the first well authenticated fact of any public profession of religious faith ; and we may reasonably conclude, that until this comparatively modern date, brahminical influence and doctrines had been but imperfectly felt and understood. Some of the descendants of those Bráhmans who originally found their way to Manípúr are still in the country, and describe themselves as having come from Kanauj. In the neighbouring country of Kachár the first proselytes to Hindúism were, it is thought, made about 1774; but the principal change is said to have been effected in 1791, since which time the Kachá. rís of the plains have conformed to the new, but those of the hills, which separate southern Kachár from Assam, have remained steady to their old, belief.
At the time of consecrating the image of Govindah, before al. luded to, a proclamation was issued, stating, that with the view of averting the recurrence of such calamities (invasions of the Burmahs) as had already frequently devastated his country, Jai Sing had wholly resigned it to this celestial proprietor, in submission to whom he should continue to exercise regal prerogatives. Another but inferior image, called Birnam Chandar, was also consecrated, to whose care the Job Raj, or presumptive heir-ship, was entrusted, and it was positively enjoined that no descendant of him, in whose possession those images were not found, should ever be raised to the regal dignity. This latter clause has been the fruitful source of dissension between the different sons of Jai Sing, who from the period of his death in 1799, up to the accession of Gambhir Sing in 1822-23, have been engaged in constant struggles for the possession of these images, as furnishing their most powerful claim to the sovereignty of the country.
Although Hindúism was not nationally professed before the period mentioned, still as early as 1762, Fakirs and Gossains were resident in the country; for in September of that year, a Gossain, called Hari-das, was the agent employed by the then Rajah of Manípúr in negociating a treaty with Mr. Verelst, the chief