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the superbly painted dress of deep blue grass. The one who turns to us is the with fine arabesques of gold,—the delicate beauty of the Louvre, or some one very hand lying on the soft, silky hair of the like her, in full Venetian loveliness. In dog, with its turquoise ring on the second her bosom are one or two violets and a pa. joint of one of the fingers,- you can imag- per with Titianus written on it. The bit ine it, can you not? Next him stands Phil- of music on the grass has Greek letters. ip II., pale, elegant, and repulsive, in gor. Dancing figures are in the middle of the geous armor worn over festal, glittering picture. The fauns stagger under the white satin. Charles V. is on the other dark trees, carrying great sumptuous vasside ; and I hardly know which of these es of agate and gold. Silenus is asleep on portraits is the finest as a work of Art, for a sunny hill at a distance, and the white all are perfect. Charles is standing, with a sails of the ship with Theseus gleam on noble dog leaning up against his hand; the deep-blue sea. There is another called there is something simpática in his gray an Offering to Fecundity. It is a crowd eyes, his worn face, and even in his pro- of most lovely baby boys, wonderfully truding jaw, it is so admirably render- painted, frolicking on the green among ed, and gives such a firm character to the flowers and fruits. A figure full of action face. His costume is elegantísimo, white sat- and passion holds up a glass to the statue in and gold,- with a tissue-of-gold doublet, of the goddess in one corner. The chiland a cassock of silver-damask, with great dren are kissing each other and carrying black fur collar and lining, against which about baskets of fruit; these baskets are is relieved the under-dress; he wears his hung with rich pearls and rubies and velvet cap and plume, and a deep emerald gems of all kinds. The green, fresh trees satin curtain hangs on his right hand. wave against a summer sky, and the work These portraits are just about as wonder- is full of tender, sensitive elegance and ful as any you may remember, — in his love. It shows to me an entirely new side best style and in capital condition. But I of Titian in its extreme delicacy and sweetknow you would say that the great por- ness. Nobody can ever speak of a “want trait of Charles on horseback is more of refinement" in Titian, if they thought grand. It is a sort of heroic poem ; he so before, after seeing these pictures. Then looks like Sir Galahad, or Chivalry itself, there is the lIerodias, the same as the girl going forth to conquer wrong and violence. in Dresden who holds up the casket,His eager, worn face looks out from the wonderfully delicate and beautiful ; and helmet so calmly and so steadily, the flash several other portraits and pictures, which of his armor, which gleams like real metal, I cannot tell you of, even if you are not the coal-black horse, which comes forward already tired. I ought, however, to say out of the landscape shaking his head- that Paul Veronese has a very fine Ve piece of blood-red plumes against the gold- nus and Adonis here, full of sunlight and en sunset sky and champing the golden summer beauty, and Christ Teaching the bit, the grasp of the lance by the noble Doctors, nobly serious in character and rider: well, painting can do no more than admirable in treatment; also two sketch. that. It is history, poetry, and the beauty es of Cain and of Vice and Virtue, very of Nature recreated by the grand master. full of feeling for his subject. The Cain An entirely different phase of his char- lias his back toward you. His wife and acter is seen in his Ariadne Asleep sur- child look up at him entreatingly. There rounded by the Bacchanals. This is full is a fine, solemn horizon with a gleam of of antique Grecian feeling ; and such a twilight. There are several Tintorets, but subtile, delicious piece of painting! Ari- no favorable specimens,-a portrait is the adne is in the foreground, full of warm, best. There is also a Giovanni Bellini, breathing life, her arm thrown over her which brings back the Venetian altar-pie, lovely head, and her golden hair falling ces, quiet and lovely; and a Giorgione, over the vase of gold and onyx on which like the large one in the Louvre, in many she rests; a river of red wine runs through ways; a Madonna and Infant, with a fine the enerald grass; two beautiful girls have female Saint and a noble Saint George. just put by their music and instruments, These are some of the glorious treasures and one turns her exquisite face toward which the Spaniards own. If we could us to speak to the other reclining on the only have some of these! or if, while we
or our country are committing the sin of the Venus and Adonis of Paul Veronese, coveting the Spanish possessions, we would and several of the works of Tintoretto. only covet something worth the having ! The Titians had come to Spain before, I confess, I should delight to take away and it was from the study of them, perone or two fine jewels of pictures that no- haps, that Velasquez learned to paint so body here would miss.
well. At any rate, we know what he I had almost forgotten to mention the thought of Titian; for Mr. Sterling gives great Raphael, the Spasimo.” It is in an extract from a poem by a Venetian, his Roman style, with much that is, to Marco Boschini, which was published not me, forced in the action and expression. long after Velasquez's journey to Italy, in The head of Christ, however, is beauti- which part of a conversation is given beful, and exquisitely drawn. Beside the tween him and Salvator Rosa, who asked Spasimo, there is a little picture of the him what he thought of Raphael. You will Virgin and Child, with Saint Joseph, like to see it, if you have not Sterling by in Raphael's early manner, very lovely, you. and reminding one of the “Staffa” Madonna, at Perugia. It is faint in color, and
" Lu storse el cao cirimoniosamente,
E disse: “Rafael (a dirve el vero, most charming in careful execution.
Piasendome esser libero e sinciero) Then there are the finest Hemilings I have ever seen,- finer than those at Mu
Stago per dir che nol me piase niente.' nich : lovely Madonnas, meek and saintly ;
"" Tanto che,' replichè quela persona, superb adoring kings, all glowing with
Co' no ve piase questo gran Pitor, cloth-of-gold and velvets and splendid In Italia nissun ve dà in l'umor, jewels; beautiful quiet landscapes, seen
Perche nu ghe donemo la corona.' through the arches of the stable; and angels, with wings of dazzling green and “Don Diego replichè con tal maniera : crinuson. The real love with which these "A Venetia se trova el bon e 'l belo; wonderful pictures are caressed by the Mi dago el primo luogo a quel penelo; careful, thoughtful artist makes them most Tician xè quel che porta la bandiera.'” precious. Every little flower is delicately and artistically done, and everything is in
Here is a translation:vested with a sort of sacred reverence by
The master, with a ceremonions air, this carnest Pre-Raphaelite. One or two
Bowed, and then said, “Raphael, truth to Van Eycks have the same splendor and
tell, depth of feeling. These pictures look as For to be free and honest suits me well, if they were painted yesterday, so clear Pleases me not at all, I must declare." and brilliant are their colors. It is a pleasant circumstance, that some
" Since, then," replied the other, " you 80
frown of the great Venetian pictures in the gallery here were gained for Spain by the
On this great painter, in Italy is none
By whom, indeed, your favor can be won; judgment and taste of Velasquez. When
For upon him we all bestow the crown." he went to Italy with a commission from Philip IV., which it must have delighted
Don Diego thereupon to him replies, him to execute. “ to buy whatever pictures
* At Venice may be found the good and were for sale that he thought worth pur
fair; chasing," he spent some time in Venice, I give the first place to the pencil there; and there bought, among other things, Titian is he who carries off the prize."
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
1. Dictionary of Americanisms. A Glossary
of Words and Phrases usually regarded as peculiar to the United States. By Join Russell BARTLETT. Second Edition, greatly improved and enlarged. Boston: Little, Brown, & Company.
1859. pp. xxxii., 524. 2. A Glossarial Index to the Printed English
Literature of the Thirteenth Century. By HERBERT COLERIDGE. London: Trüb
ner & Company. 1859. pp. iv., 104. 3. Outlines of the History of the English Lan
guage, for the Use of the Junior Classes in Colleges and the Higher Classes in Schools. By GEORGE L. CRAIK, Professor of History and of English Literature in Queen's College, Belfast. Third Edition, revised and improved. London: Chapman & Hall. 1859. pp. xii.,
148. 4. The Vulgar Tongue. A Glossary of Slang,
Cant, and Flash Phrases, used in London from 1839 to 1859; Flash Songs, Essays on Flash, and a Bibliography of Canting and Slang Literature. By DuCANGE ANGLICUS. Second Edition, improved and much enlarged. London:
Bernard Quaritch. 1859. Pp. 80. 5. A Dictionary of Modern Slang, Cant, and
Vulgar Words, etc., etc. By a London Antiquary. London : John Camden
Holten. 1859. pp. lxxxviii., 160. 6. On the English Language, Past and Pres
ent. By RICHARD CHENEVIX Trench, D.D. New Edition, revised and enlarg. ed. New York: Blakeman & Mason.
1859. Pp. 238. 7. A Select Glossary of English Words used
formerly in Senses different from their present. By RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCII, D. D. New York: Redfield. 1859.
pp. xi., 218. 8. Rambles among Words ; their Poetry,
History, Wisdom. By WILLIAM Swinton. New York. Scribner. 1859. pp. 302.
has adopted or taken back many words from this side of the water. The more the matter is looked into, the more it appears that we have no peculiar dialect of our own, and that men here, as elsewhere, have modified language or invented phrases to suit their needs. When Dante wrote his “De Vulgari Eloquio," be reckoned nearly a thousand distinct dialects in the Italian peninsula, and, after more than five hundred years, it is said that by far the greater part survive. In England, eighty years ago, the county of every member of Parliament was to be known by his speech; but in “both Englands," as they used to be called, the tendency is toward uniformity.
In spite of the mingling of races and languages in the United States, the speech of the people is more uniform than that of any European nation. This would inevi. tably follow from our system of commonschools, and the universal reading of newspapers. This has tended to make the common language of talk more bookish, and has thus reacted unfavorably on our literature, giving it sometimes the air of being composed in a dead tongue rather than written from a living one. It gladdens us, we contess, to see how goodly a volume of Americanisms Mr. Bartlett bas been enabled to gather, for it shows that our language is alive. It is only from the roots that a language can be refreshed; a dialect that is taught grows more and more pedantic, and becomes at last as unfit a vehicle for living thought as monkish Latin. This is the danger which our literature has to guard against from the universal Schoolmaster, who wars upon home-bred plırases, and enslaves the mind and memory of his victims, as far as may be, to the best models of English composition,- that is to say, to the writers whose style is faultlessly correct, but has no blood in it. No language, after it has faded into diction, none that cannot suck up feeding juices from the mother-earth of a rich common-folk-talk, can bring forth a sound and lusty book. True vigor of expression does not pass from page to page, but from man to man, where the brain is kindled and
The first allusion we know of to an Americanism is that of Gill, in 1621,-"Sed et ab Americanis nonnulla mutuamur, ut MAIZ et KANOA.” Since then, English literature, not without many previous wry faces,
the lips are limbered by downright living interests and by passions in the very throe. Language is the soil of thought; and our own especially is a rich leaf-mould, the slow growth of ages, the shed foliage of feeling, fancy, and imagination, which has suffered an earth-change, that the vocal forest, as Howell called it, may clothe itself anew with living green. There is death in the Dictionary; and where language is limited by convention, the ground for expression to grow in is straitened also, and we get a potted literature, Chinese dwarfs instead of healthy trees.
We are thankful to Mr. Bartlett for the onslaught he makes in his Introduction upon the highfuluting style so common among
But we are rather amused to find hin falling so easily into that Anglo-Saxon trap which is the common pitfall of those half-learned men among whom we should be slow to rank him.* He says, “The unfortunate tendency to favor the Latin at the expense of the Saxon element of our language, which social and educational causes have long tended to foster in the mother country, has with us received an addition impulse from the great admixture of foreigners in our population.” (p. xxxii.) We have underscored the words of Latin origin, and find that they include all the nouns, all the adjectives but two, and three out of five verbs,-one of these last (the auxiliary have) being the same in both Latin and Saxon. Speaking of the Bostonians, Mr. Bartlett says,
The great extent to which the scholars of New England have carried the study of the German language and literature for some years back, added to the very general neglect of the old master-pieces of English composition, have (las) had the effret of giving to the writings of many of them an artificial, unidiomatic character, which has an inerpressibly unpleasant effect to those who are not habituated to it." (p. xxv. We again underscore the unSaxon words.) Now if there be any short
cut to the Anglo-Saxon, it is through the German ; and how far the Bostonians de. serve the reproach of a neglect of old English masterpieces we do not pretend to say, but the first modern reprint of the best works of Latimer, More, Sidney, Fuller, Selden, Browne, and Feltham was made in Boston, under the care of the late Dr. Alexander Young. We have no wish to defend Boston ; we mean only to call Mr. Bartlett's attention to the folly of asking people to write in a dialect which no longer exists. No man can write offhand a page of Saxon English; no man with pains can write one and hope to be commonly understood. At least let Mr. Bartlett practise what he preaches. When a deputation of wig-makers waited on George III. to protest against the hairpowder-tax, the mob, seeing that one of them wore his own hair, ducked him forth with in Tower-Ditch, - a very AngloSaxon comment on his inconsistency. We should not have noticed these passages in Mr. Bartlett's Introduction, had he not, after eleven years' time to weigh them in, let them remain as they stood in his former edition, of 1818.
In other respects the volume before us greatly betters its forerunner. That contained many words which were rather vulgarisms than provincialisms, and more properly English than American. Almost all these Mr. Bartlett has left out in revising his book. Once or twice, however, he has retained as Americanisms phrases which are proverbial, such as “ born in the woods to be scared of an owl,” “to carry the foot in the band,” and “hallooing before you're out of the woods.” But it will be easier to follow the alphabetical order in our short list of adversaria and comments.
ALEWIFE. We doubt if Mr. Bartlett is right in deriving this from a supposed Indian word aloof. At least, Hakluyt speaks of a fish called “old-wives”; and in some other old book of travels we have seen the name derived from the likeness of the fish, with its good, round belly, to the mistress of an alehouse.
BANK-Bill. Is not an Americanism. It is used by Swift, Pope, and Fielding.
Bogus. Mr. Bartlett quotes a derivation of this word from the name of a certain Borghese, said to have been a notorious counterfeiter of bank-notes. But is it not more probably a corruption of bagasse, which, as applied to the pressed sugarcane, means simply something worthless ? The word originally meant a worthless woman, whence our “baggage” in the same sense.
* This, perhaps, was to be expected; for he calls Dr. Latham's English Language“ unquestionably the most valuable work on English philology and grammar which has yet appeared,” (p. xxx., note,) and refers to the first ed tion of 1841. If Mr. Bartlett must allude at all to Dr. Latham, (who is reckoned a great blunderer among English philologers,) he should at least have referred to the second edition of his work, in two volumes, 1855.
CHAINED-LIGHTNING. More commonly chain-lightning, and certainly not a Western phrase exclusively.
CHEBAcco-BoAT. Mr. Bartlett says, “ This word is doubtless a corruption of Chedabucto, the name of a bay in Nova Scotia, from which vessels are fitted out for fishing." This is going a great way down East for what could be found nearer. Chebacco is (or was, a century since) the name of a part of Ipswich, Massachusetts.
To Fall a tree Mr. Bartlett considers a corruption of to fill. But, as we have commonly heard the words used, to fell means merely to cut down, while to fall means to make it fall in a given direction.
To Go UNDER. “To perish. An expression adopted from the figurative language of the Indians by the Western trappers and residents of the prairies." Not the first time that the Indians have had undue credit for poetry. The phrase is undoubtedly a translation of the German untergehen (fig.), to perish.
Har. “Our Northern women have almost discarded the word bonnet, except in sun-bonnet, and use the term hat instead. A like fate has befallen the word goun, for which both they and their Southern sisters commonly use frock or dress.” We do not know where Mr. Bartlett draws his Northern line; but in Massachusetts we never heard the word hat or frork used in this
They are so used in England, and hat is certainly, frock probably, nearer Anglo-Saxon than bonnet and gown.
IMPROVE. Mr. Bartlett quotes Dr. Franklin as saying in 1789, “ When I left New England in the year 1723, this word had never been used among us, as far as I know, but in the sense of ameliorated or inade better, except once in a very old book of Dr. Mather's, entitled Remarkable Providences." Dr. Increase Mather's Providences was published in 1681. In 1679 a synod assembled at Boston, and the result of its labors was published in the same year by John Foster, under the title, Vecessity of a Reformation. On the sixth page we find, " Taverns being for the entertain
ment of strangers, which, if they were improred to that end only,” etc. Oddiy enough, our copy of this tract has Dr. Mather's autograph on the title-page. But Mr. Bartlett should have referred to Richardson, who shows that the word had been in use long before with the same meaning.
To InHEAVEN. “A word invented by the Boston transcendentalists." And Mr. Bartlett quotes from Judd's Margaret. Mr. Judd was a good scholar, and the word is legitimately compounded, like ensphere and imparadise ; but he did not invent it. Dante uses the word :
“ Perfetta vita ed alto merto inciela
Donna più su." Ladies' TRESSES. “The popular name, in the Southern States, for an herb," etc. In the Northern States also. Sometimes Ladies' Traces.
LIEFER. "A colloquialism, also used in England.” Excellent Anglo-Saxon, and used wherever English is spoken.
LOAFER. We think there can be no doubt that this word is German Laufen in some parts of Germany is pronounced lofen, and we once heard a German student say to his friend, Ich lauf' (lofe) hier bis du wiederkehrst : and he began accordingly to saunter up and down, - in short, to long about.
To MELL. “ To soften, to dispirit." Mr. Bartlett quotes Margaret,—“There has been a pretty considerable mullin going on among the doctors.” But mullin bere means stirring, bustling in an underland way, and is a metaphor derived from mulling vine. Jull, in this sense, is probably a corruption of mell, from Old Fr. mesler, to mix.
TO BE NOWHERE (in the sense of failure) is not an Americanism, but Turj: Slang.
Sally-Lun, a kind of cake, is English.
To Save, meaning to kill game so as to get it, is not confined to the Far West, but is common to hunters in all parts of the country.
SHEw, for showed. Mr. Bartlett calls this the “shibboleth of Bostonians.” However this may be, it is simply an archaism, not a vulgarism. Show, like blow, crow, grou, seems formerly to have had what is called a strong preterite, Shew is used by Lord Cromwell and lector Boece.