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afraid of going to hell, and were conse- that their sovereign should have illegally quently very regular and rigid in the per- sprung from the loins of a member of one formance of their religious duties. Cath- of the oldest and noblest of the purely arine was no whit behind the rest in this Russian families, rather than from those respect. Though bred a Lutheran, she of a prince of the petty house of Holstein was most exemplary in her observance of Gottorp. But then what is this principle all the requirements of the Greek Church; of Czarism, which is not a submission to and even carried her hypocrisy so far, that, divine right, but which causes one man to when, on occasion of a dangerous and sustain, perhaps to place, another in a poprobably fatal illness, it was proposed that sition which puts his own life at the mershe should see a Lutheran clergyman, cy of the other's mere caprice? she replied by asking for Simon Theo- Catharine tells many trifling, but interdorsky, a prelate of the Greek Church, esting incidents, of various nature, in these who came and had an edifying interview Memoirs : of how, after the birth of her with her. And all this was done, as she first child, she was left utterly alone and says, for effect, chiefly with the soldiers neglected, so that she famished with thirst and common people, among whom it for the lack of some one to bring her wamade a sensation and was much talked ter; how her child was taken from her at of. This, by the way, is the only refer- its birth, and kept from her, she hardly ence which occurs in the Memoirs to any being allowed even to see it; how it was interest below that of the highest nobility. always wrapped in fox-skins and seal-skins, As for the people of Russia, the right to till it lay in a continual bath of perspiradraw their blood with the knout and make tion; how the members of the royal famthem sweat roubles into the royal treas- ily itself were so badly accommodated, that ury was taken as much for granted as the sometimes they were made ill by walking light and the air, by those who, either through passages open to wind and rain, through fraud or force, could sit in the and sometimes stifled by over-crowded seat of Peter the Great. They regarded rooms; how at the imperial masquerades, it as no less an appanage or perquisite of during one season, the men were ordered that seat than the jewels in the imperial to appear in women's dresses, and the diadem, and would as soon have thought women in the propria que maribus,- the of defending a title to the one as to the former hideous in large whaleboned pettiother. And the possession of the throne, coats and high feathered head-dresses, the with the necessary consent of the domi- latter looking like scrubby little boys with nant party of the high nobility, seems to very thick legs,- and all that the Empress have been, and still to be, the only requi- Elizabeth might show her tall and gracesite for the unquestioned exercise of this ful figure and what beautiful things she power; for, as to legitimacy and divine dy- used to walk with, which Catharine says nastic right, was not Catharine I. a Livo- were the handsomest that she ever saw; nian peasant ? Catharine II. a German how in this court, where marriage was the princess, who dethroned and put to death mere shadow of a bond, it was yet deemed the grandson of Peter the Great ? and does a matter of the first nuptial importance she not confess in these Memoirs that her that a lady of the court should have her son, the Emperor Paul, was not the son of head dressed for the wedding by the hands Peter's grandson. but of Sergius Soltikoff? of the Empress herself, or, if she were too 80 that in the reigning house of Russia ill, by those of the Grand Duchess; how there is not a drop of the blood of Roman- Catharine used, at Oranienbaum, to dress off. And Catharine's confession, which M. herself from head to foot in male attire, Herzen emphasizes so strongly, conveys and go out in a skiff, accompanied only by to the Russian nobles no new knowledge an old huntsman, to shoot ducks and snipe, on this subject; for an eminent Russian sometimes doubling the Cape of Oranienpublicist being asked, on the appearance baum, which extends two versts into the of this book, if it were generally known in and how thus the fortunes of the Russia that Paul was the son of Soltikoff, Russian Empire, during the latter half of replied, “No one who knew anything the eighteenth century, were at the mer. ever doubted it.” And perhaps the de- cy of a spring-tide, a gust of wind, or the scendants of the Boiards are quite content tipping of a shallop. There is even a recipe VOL. IV.
for removing tan and sunburn, which the account of the best breeds of cattle and of beautiful Grand Duchess used at the in- the most approved methods of crossing 80 stance of the beautiful Empress ; and, as as to develop qualities particularly desiraboth the imperial belles testify to its great ble ; directions for choosing good milkers efficacy, it would be cruel not to give all by means of certain natural signs; a depossible publicity to the fact that it was scription of the most useful grasses and composed of white of egg, lemon juice, other varieties of fodder; and very minute and French brandy; but, alas ! the propor- instructions for the making of good butter tion in which these constituents are to be and the proper arrangement and care of mixeil is not recorded.
dairies. The author has had the advanOf the authenticity of these Memoirs tage of practical experience as a dairyman, there appears to be no reasonable doubt, while his position as Secretary of the Masand we believe that none has been ex- sachusetts Board of Agriculture has affordpressed. They were found, after the death ed him more than common opportunity of of Catharine, in a sealed envelope address- learning the experience of others. ed to her son Paul, in whose lifetime no one A volume of this kind cannot fail to saw them but the friend of his childhood, commend itself to farmers and graziers, Prince Kourakine. He copied them; and, and will be found valuable also by those about twenty years after the death of Paul, who are lucky enough to own a single three or four copies were made from the cow. The production of good milk, Kourakine copy. The Emperor Nicholas butter, and meat is a matter of interest to caused all these to be seized by the secret all classes in the community alike; and police, and it is only since his death that Mr. Flint's book, by pointing out frankly one or two copies have again made their the mistakes and deficiencies in the presappearance at Moscow (where the original ent methods of our farmers and dairymen, is kept) and St. Petersburg. From one and the best means of remedying them, of these M. Herzen made his transcript. will do a good and much-needed service They fail to palliate any of Catharine's to the public. He shows the folly of the crimes, or in the least to brighten her false system of economy which thinks it reputation, and add nothing to our knowl- good farming to get the greatest quantity of edge of her sagacity and her administra- milk with the least expenditure of fodder, tive talents; but they are yet not without and which regards poor stock as cheaper very considerable personal interest and because it costs less money in the orighistorical value.
If Dean Swift was right in saying
that he who makes two blades of grass Milch Cows and Dairy Farming; compris- grow where one grew before is of more
ing the Breeds, Breeding, and Manage service to mankind than he who takes a ment, in Health and Disease, of Dairy city, we should be inclined to rank him and other Stock; the Selection of Milch hardly second as a benefactor of his race Cows, with a full Explanation of Gue- who causes one pound of good butter to non's Method ; the Culture of Forage be made where two pounds of bad were Plants, and the Production of Milk, But- made before. We believe that more unter, and Cheese : embodying the most savory and unwholesome grease is conrecent Improvements, and adapted to sumed in the United States under the Farming in the United States and Brit- alias of butter than in any other civilized ish Provinces, with a Treatise upon the country, and we trust that a wide circuDairy Husbandry of Holland; to which lation of Mr. Flint's thoroughly executed is added Horsfall's System of Dairy treatise will tend to reform a great and Management. By Charles L. Flint, growing evil. The tendency in America Secretary of the Massachusetts State has always been to make a shift with what Board of Agriculture ; Author of a Trea- will do, rather than to insist on having tise on Grasses and Forage Plants. Lib- what is best; and we welcome this book as erally illustrated. Boston : Phillips, likely to act as a corrective in one departSampson, & Co. pp. 416.
ment, and that one of the most important.
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A MAGAZINE OF LITERATURE, ART, AND POLITICS.
VOL. IV.- SEPTEMBER, 1859.–NO. XXIII.
THE LIFE AND WORKS OF ARY SCHEFFER.
No painter of this age has made so “Mignon regrettant sa Patrie" is felt and deep an impression on the popular mind appreciated by those who have never of America as Ary Scheffer. Few, if
sung, any other contemporary artists are do- Kennst du das Land wo die Citronen mesticated at our firesides, and known blühen,"'and loved in our remotest villages and and “Faust” and “Margaret” tell their towns. Only a small number, indeed, of story to all who have felt life's struggles his original works have been exhibited and temptations, whether they have read here,- yet engravings from them are not them in Goethe's version or not. Added only familiar to every person of acknowl- to this power of pathos and sentiment is edged taste and culture, but are dear to the deep religious feeling which pervades the hearts of many who scarcely know every work of his pencil, whatever be its the artist's name. Young maidens delight outward form. His religion is of no dogma in their tender pathos, and the suffering or sect, but the inflowing of a life which heart is consoled and elevated by their makes all things holy and full of infinite pure and lofty religious aspiration. An meaning. Whether he paint the legends effect so great must have an adequate of the Catholic Church, as in “St. Augusand peculiar cause; and we shall not have tine" and " St. Monica," or illustrate the far to seek for it, but shall find it in the life-poem of the Protestant Goethe, or aim and character of the artist. Scheffer tell a simple story of childhood, the same has two prominent qualities, by which he feelings are kindled, in our heart's faith has won his place in the popular estima- in God, love to man, the sure hope of imtion. The first is his sentiment. His mortality. It is this genuine and earworks are full of simple, tender pa- nest religion of humanity which has made thos. His pictures always tell their story, his works familiar to every lover of Art first to the eye, next to the heart and and sentiment, and given us a feeling soul of the beholder. His adınirable of personal love and reverence for the knowledge of composition is always made artist. subordinate to expression. His meaning It is now nearly a year since his lais not merely historical or poetical, but bors on earth terminated, and yet no is true to life and every-day experience. adequate account of his life and labors