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had a strong effect on the mind of Napo- The supremacy of Austria once comleon III. “ Called by the sovereigns of pletely asserted over Italy, France would the small states of Italy, who are power- necessarily sink in the European scale in less to repress the discontent of their sub- precisely the same proportion in which jects,” says the Memorial, “ Austria occu- Austria should rise in it. The subjects of pies militarily the greater part of the Val- Francis Joseph would number sixty milley of the Po and of Central Italy, and lions, while those of Napoleon III. would makes her influence felt in an irresistible remain at thirty-six millions. The sinews manner, even in the countries where she of war have never been much at the has no soldiers. Resting on one side on command of Austria, but possession of Ferrara and Bologna, her troops extend Italy would render her wealthy, and enthemselves to Ancona, the length of the able her to command that gold which Adriatic, which has become in a manner moves armies and renders them effecan Austrian lake; on the other, mistress tive. Her commerce would be increased of Piacenza, which, contrary to the spirit, to an incalculable extent, and she would if not to the letter, of the Treaties of Vi- bave naval populations from which to enna, she labors to transform into a first- conscribe the crews for fleets that she class fortress, she has a garrison at Par would be prompt to build. Her voice ma, and makes dispositions to deploy her would be potential in the East, and that forces all along the Sardinian frontier, of France would there cease to be heard. from the Po to the summit of the Apen- She would become the first power of Eunines. This permanent occupation by rope, and would exercise an hegemony Austria of territories which do not belong far more decided than that which Russia to her renders her absolute mistress of held for forty years after 1814. It was to nearly all Italy, destroys the equilibrium be expected that the Italians would cease established by the Treaties of Vienna, and fruitlessly to oppose her, and, their subis a continual menace to Piedmont.” In mission leading to her abandonment of the conclusion, the plenipotentiaries say, — repressive system, they might become a “ Sardinia is the only state in Italy that bold and an adventurous people, helping has been able to raise an impassable bar-, to increase and to consolidate her power. rier to the revolutionary spirit, and at They might prove as useful to her as the the same time remain independent of Hungarians and Bohemians have been, Austria. It is the counterpoise to her whom she had conquered and misruled, invading influence.
If Sardinia suc- but whose youth have filled her armies. cumbed, exhausted of power, abandon- All these things were not only possible, ed by her allies,— if she also was obliged but they were highly probable; and once to submit to Austrian domination, then having become facts, what security would the conquest of Italy by this power would France have that she would not be attackbe achieved ; and Austria, after having ed, conquered, and partitioned ? With obtained, without its costing her the least sixty millions of people, and supported sacrifice, the immense benefit of the free by the sentiment and arıns of Germany, navigation of the Danube, and the neutral- Austria could seize upon Alsace and Lorization of the Black Sea, would acquire raine, and other parts of France, and thus a preponderating influence in the West. reduce her strength positively as well as This is what France and England would relatively. All that was talked of in never wish,- this they will never permit.” 1815, and more than all that, might be
These are grave and weighty words, accomplished in sixty years from that and were well calculated to produce an date, and while Napoleon III. himself effect on the mind of Napoleon III. ; and should still be on the throne he had so we are convinced that they furnish a key strangely won. That degradation of to his conduct toward Austria, and set France which the uncle's ambition had forth the occasion of the Italian War. brought about at the beginning of the century would be more than equalled at of the war. He means that Austria shall the century's close through the nephew's not have Italy, and his sobriety of judg. forbearance. The very names of Napo- ment enables him to understand that leon and Bonaparte would become odious France cannot have it. That country is in France, and contemptible everywhere. to belong to the children of the soil, who, On the other hand, should he interiere with ordinary wisdom and conduct, will successfully in behalf of Italian nation- be able to prevent it from again relapsality, he would reduce the strength of ing under foreign rule. The Emperor Austria, and prevent her from becoming understands his epoch, and will attempt an overshadlowing empire. Her popula- nothing that shall excite against himself tion and her territory would be essen- and his dynasty the indignation of mantially lessened. She would be cut off kind. If not a saint, he is not a senseless from all hope of making Italy her own, sinner. would be compelled to abandon her plans Our article is so long, that we cannot of commercial and maritime greatness, discuss the questions, whether Napoleon would be disregarded in the East, would III. is not animated by the desire of vennot be courted by England, would lose geance, and whether, having chastised half her influence in Germany, and would Russia and Austria, he will not turn his not be in a condition to menace France arms against Prussia and England. Our in any quarter. The glory of the French opinion is that he will do nothing of the arms would be increased, the weight of kind. Prussia is not likely to afford him France would be doubled, new lustre any occasion for war; and if he should would shine from the name of Napoleon, make one, he would have to fight all the the Treaties of Vienna would be torn other German powers at the same time, up by the nation against which they and perhaps Russia. The only chance that had been directed, the most determined exists for a Prussian war is to be found foe of the Bonaparte family would be in the wrath of the Germans, who, at the punished, and that family's power would time we write, have assumed a very hosbe consolidated.
tile attitude towards France, and wish to Such, we verily believe, were the rea- be led from Berlin ; but the government sons that led Napoleon III. to plan an of Prussia is discreet, and will not be attack on Austria, that attack which has easily induced to incur the positive loss been so brilliantly commenced. That he and probable disgrace that would follow has gone to war for the liberation of Italy, from a Russian invasion, like that which merely as such, we do not suppose ; but took place in 1759. As to England, the that must follow from his policy, because Emperor would be mad to attempt her in that way alone can his grand object be conquest; and he knows too well what is effected. The freedom of the Peninsula due to his fame to engage in a piratical will be brought about, because it is neces- dash at London. An invasion of England sary for the welfare of France, for the can never be safely undertaken except maintenance of her weight in Europe, by some power that is master of the seas; that it should be brought about. That and England is not in the least disposthe Emperor is insensible of the glory ed to abandon her maritime supremacy. that would come from the rehabilitation There would have to be a Battle of Actiof Italy, we do not assert. We think he is um before her shores could be in danger, very sensible of it, and that he enjoys the and she must have lost it; and no matsatisfaction that comes from the perform- ter what is said concerning the excellence ance of a good deed as much as if he were of the French navy, that of England is not a usurper and never had overthrown as much ahead of it in all the elements a nominal republic. But we cannot agree of real, enduring strength, as it has been with those who say that the liberation of at any other period of the history of the Italy was the pure and simple purpose
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
The Iron-Manufacturer's Guide to the Fur- dred active iron-factories in the United
naces, Forges, and Rolling-Mills of the Unit- States, and that they produced about eight ed States. By J. P. LESLEY. New York: hundred and fifty thousand tons of iron, John Wiley. 1859.
worth fifty millions of dollars. When we
consider that the greater part of the iron This valuable book is published by the thus produced is left in a rough and crude Secretary of the American Iron-Associa. state, merely extracted from its ores and tion, and by authority of the same. This made ready for the use of the blacksmith, Association - now four years old - is not the machinist, and the engineer,- when a common trades-union, nor any impotent we remember that human labor multiplies combination to resist the law of supply and by hundreds and by thousands the value demand. Its general objects, as stated in of the raw material, that a bar of iron the constitution, are "to procure regularly which costs five dollars will make three the statistics of the trade, both at home thousand dollars' worth of penknife-blades and abroad ; to provide for the mutual in- and two hundred and fifty thousand dolterchange of information and experience, lars' worth of watch-springs, we begin to both scientific and practical ; to collect and understand the importance of the ironpreserve all works relating to iron, and to manufacture, as an element of national form a complete cabinet of ores, limestones, wealth, independence, and power. and coals; to encourage the formation of A fourth part of all the iron-works which such schools as are designed to give the have been constructed in this country have young iron-master a proper and thorough been abandoned by their projectors, in descientific training, preparatory to engaging spair of competing with the cheap iron in practical operations.” In pursuance of from abroad, which the low ad-calorem tarthis wise and liberal policy, the Association iffs have admitted to the American marhas now published this “ Iron-Manufac- ket. The story which these ruined works turer's Guide," containing, first, a descrip- might tell, of hopes disappointed, capital tive catalogue of all the furnaces, forges, sunk, and labor wasted, would be long and and rolling-mills of the United States and dreary. From an excellent diagram, apCanada ; secondiy, a discussion of the pended to the “Guide,” illustrating the du. physical and chemical properties of iron, ties on iron, the importations, and the price and its combinations with other elements; of the metal, for each year since 1840, we thirdly, a complete survey of the geologi- learn that the average annual importation cal position, chemical, physical, or me- of iron under the specific tariff of 1842 was chanical properties, and geographical dis- 77,328 tons, while under the ad-valorem tribution of the ores of iron in the United tariff of 1846 it was 373,864 tons. The inStates.
crease in the importation of foreign iron The directory to the iron-works of the under the tariff of 1846 was more than ten United States and Canada enumerates 1545 times the increase of the population, and works of various kinds, of which 386 are more than thirty-eight times the increase now abandoned ; 560 blast-furnaces, 389 in the domestic production. The ironforges, and 210 rolling-mills are now in masters of this country have been comoperation; and the directory states the po- pelled to struggle against a host of formisition, capacity, and prominent character. dable difficulties,- adverse legislation, the istics of each furnace, forge, or mill, the ruinous competition of English iron, the names of the owners or agents, and, in dearness of labor, and the high rates of inmany cases, the date of the construction terest on borrowed capital. These have of the works, and their annual production. all been met, and, let us hope, in good part The great importance of the iron-manufac- overcome. Slowly, and with many hin. ture, as a branch of industry, in this coun- drances and disasters, the iron-business is try, is clearly demonstrated by this very gaining strength, and achieving indepen. complete catalogue. It shows that in the dence of foreign competition and the tenyear 1856 there were nearly twelve hun- der mercies of legislators. Very conclusive evidence of this gradual growth is present- favorable, and that these replies are suffied in the unusually accurate statistics of cient to prove a very serious diminution the “Iron-Manufacturer's Guide.” Of the in the production of iron for the year 1858. 1,209,913 tons of iron consumed in the When the manufacture of iron, in its variUnited States in the year 1856, 856,235 ous branches, has expanded to its true tons, or seventy-one per cent. of the whole, proportions, and has reached a magnitude was of domestic manufacture. The cata- and importance second only to the agricullogue of iron-works shows that the country tural interest of the country, the iron-masnow possesses many extensive and well- ters of that generation may read in this constructed works, of which some are still first publication of the Iron-Association owned by the men who built them, but the the record of the struggles and trials of larger part have descended, at great sacri. their more adventurous, but less fortunate fices, to the hands of more fortunate pro- predecessors. prietors. Beside the accumulated stock of The construction of the directory which machinery, knowledge of the ores and fuel constitutes the first part of the "Guide" has been gained, experience has refuted might be improved in several respects. many errors and pointed out the dangers An alphabetical arrangement of the furand difficulties to be overcome, the natural naces, forges, and rolling-mills, in each channels of communication throughout the State, would be much more convenient country have been opened, and a large body for reference than the obscure and uncerof skilled workmen has been trained for tain system which has been followed. If the business and seeks steady employment. a State can be divided, like Pennsylvania, Whenever a rise in the price of iron stim- into two or three sections, by strongly ulates the manufacture, the domestic pro- marked geological features, it would, perduction of iron suddenly expands, and in- haps, be well to subdivide the list of its creases with a rapidity which gives evi- iron-works into corresponding sections, and dence of wonderful elasticity and latent then to make the arrangement of each secstrength. Twice within twenty years the tion alphabetical. But convenience of refproduction of American iron has nearly erence is the essential property of a direodoubled in a period of three years. Twelve tory; and to that convenience the natural years ago no railroad-iron was made in the desire to follow a geological or geographUnited States. In 1853 we imported 300,- ical arrangement should be sacrificed. 000 tons of rails, and in 1854 280,000 tons; Some important items of information, such but in 1855 only 130.000 tons were import- as the means of transportation, and the ed, while 135,000 tons were made at home, distance of each furnace or forge from and in 1856, again, nearly one half of the its market, are not given in all cases; the 310,000 tons of rails consumed was of do- power by which the works are driven, mestic production. The admitted superi- whether steam or water, is not uniformly ority of the American rails has undoubt- stated; and the pressure of the blast used, edly contributed to this result.
that very important condition of success in In spite of these encouraging signs, these the management of a furnace, is stated in sure indications of the success which at only a very few instances. A useful piece no distant day will reward this branch of of information, seldom given in the deAmerican industry, it must not be imag- scriptions of forges and rolling-mills, is the ined that checks and reverses are hereaf- source from which the iron used in the ter to be escaped. The production of the works is obtained; and it is also desirable year 1867 promised in the summer to be that the nature of the work done in each much larger than that of 1856; but the forge or mill should be invariably stated. panic of September wrought the same It would be interesting to know the numeffect in the iron-business as in all the ber of men employed in the iron
manuother manufactures of the country, and in facture throughout the country, and it the spring of 1858 more than half of the would not seem difficult for the Associairon-works of the United States were stand. tion to add this fact to the very valuable ing idle. Mr. Lesley states that the re- statistics which they have already collectturns received in answer to the circulared. The descriptions of abandoned works issued by the Iron-Association, July 1, are not all printed in small type. If this 1858, were, almost without exception, un- rule is adopted in the directory, it should be uniformly adhered to. The maps ac- ble imaginative power have found place companying the directory, which were even in the directory of works. From made by the photolithographic process, the description of the Allentown furnaces are all on too small a scale, and conse- we learn, with some surprise, that “no quently lack clearness. The colored litho- finer object of art invites the artist"; and graphs, which exhibit the anthracite fur- again,“ that the repose of bygone centuries naces of Pennsylvania and the iron-works seems to sit upon its immense walls, while of the region east of the Hudson River, the roaring energy of the present day fills it are altogether the best illustrations in the with a truer and better life than the revelbook.
ry of Kenilworth or the chivalry of HeiAn elaborate discussion of iron as a delberg." The average age of the Allenchemical element occupies another divis- town works subsequently appears to be ion of the book. Its purpose is to instruct nine years. the iron
master in the chemical properties Another principal division of Mr. Lesand relations of the metal with which he ley's book treats of the ores of iron in the deals; and to this end it should be clear, United States. This portion of the book concise, and definite, and, leaving all dis- contains much valuable and interesting inputed points, should explain the known formation, which has never been published and well-determined characteristics of iron before in so complete and satisfactory a and its compounds with other elements. form. The geographical and geological Mr. Lesley, the compiler of the book, dis- position of every ore-bank in the country, tinctly states in the Preface that he is no which has been opened and worked, is chemist, and we are therefore prepared to fully described, with many details of the meet the occasional inaccuracies observable peculiar properties, mineralogical associain this chemical portion of the “Guide.” tions, and history of each bed or mine. It lacks condensation and system ; mat- The inexhaustible wealth of the country ters of very little moment receive dispro- in ores of iron is clearly shown, and the portionate attention; and pages are filled supériority of the American ores to the with discussions of nice points of chemical English needs no other demonstration than science still in dispute among professed can be found on the pages of this catachemists, and wholly out of place in what logue of our ore-beds. Two or three geoshould be a brief elementary treatise on logical maps, to illustrate the distribution the known properties of iron. If these of the ores, would have been an instrucquestions in dispute were such as the prac- tive addition to the book. In this section, tical experience of the iron-master might as in the preceding one on the chemissettle, or, indeed, throw any light upon, try of iron, much space is misapplied to there would be an obvious propriety in the discussion of questions of structural stating the points at issue ; but if the geology, of opposing theories of the formaquestion concerns the best chemical name tion of veins, and other scientific problems for iron-rust, or the largest possible per with which the iron-master is not concent. of carbon in steel, the practical me- cerned, and which he cannot be expected tallurgist should not be perplexed with to understand, much less to solve. We problems in analytical chemistry which regret the more this unnecessary introducthe best chemists have not yet solved. tion of comparatively irrelevant matters,
Valuable space is occasionally occupied when we find, at the close of the volume, by the too rhetorical statement of matters that the unexpected length of the discuswhich would have been better presented sion of the ores has prevented the publiin a simpler way; thus, the fervid descrip- cation of several chapters on the machintion of oxygen, however appropriate in ery now in use, the hot-blast and anthraFaraday's admirable lectures before the cite coal, the efforts to obtain malleable Royal Institution, is out of place in the iron directly from the ore, and the history “Iron-Manufacturer's Guide.” We must and present condition of the iron-manualso enter an earnest protest against the facture in America. importation, upon any terms, of such The American Iron-Association, by their words as “ironoxydulcarbonate," "iron- Secretary, have accomplished a very labooxydhydrate," and the adjective “anhy. rious and valuable work, in accumulating drate." Some descriptions of considera- and digesting the mass of facts and sta