Imatges de pÓgina
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careful perufal of books, the Authors of which were remarkable for their fhrewdness and acumen. Many of the Readers, however, of the above extract, will probably with to know why there is more certitude, why there is more purity of truth in experience and obferva. tion, than in the lucubrations of the clofet alone.',

OBSERVATION upon this OBSERVATION.

Does this Obferver need to be told that a man of experience, though he cannot read, will act with more propriety in the world, than a raw reclufe ftudent, until his ftudies are corrected and matured by an experimental knowledge of mankind; but that when this knowledge is once attained, cæteris paribus, the latter will have greatly the advantage of the former ?

After all we are perhaps mistaken in our estimate of the merit of thefe Obfervations, for in the lift of Tracts fold by the publisher, ftitched up at the end, we are given to understand that this pamphlet was out of print at the time it was upon fale!

Art. 28. Sketches and Characters of the most eminent and most singular Perfons now living. Vol. I. 12mo. 2 s. 6d. fewed. Bri

ftol printed, and fold by Wheble in London. 1770.

A good hint for a taking touch on the times; but the flippant Writer has not made the most of his thought. If he will revife, improve, and give more folidity and fubftance to this work, we doubt not but it will be highly acceptable to fuch Readers as are fond of anecdotes, repartees, and bons mots, of the Duke of This, and my Lady That, and Mr. T'other the noted wit, &c. &c. &c. Art. 29. The Coterie recommended; or, the Pleasures of the Beau Monde vindicated: In an Oration made before that honourable and truly laudable Society, on the 4th of April, being the Anniverfary of its Inftitution. By the Hon. Mr. Shame'em. 8vo. 1's. Gardner, &c.

Taking up the vulgar notion that the fociety lately formed among our people of fashion, and known by the name of the Coterie, is calculated for the accommodation and encouragement of vicious pleafures, this pretended Apologist abufes the affociation, in a style that will fufficiently clear the Writer from all fufpicion of his being himfelf a member.

Art. 30. The Trial of William Wemms, and feven others, Soldiers in his Majefty's 29th Regiment, for the Murder of Crifpus Attucks and four others, Mar. 5, 1770, at the fuperior Court of Judicature, Affize, &c. at Bofton, Nov. 27 following, &c. before the Hon. Benjamin Lynde, John Cufhing, Peter Oliver, and Ed, Trowbridge, Efqrs. Juftices of the faid Court. Published by Permiffion of the Court. 8vo. 3 s. fewed. Bofton printed, London reprinted. Evans.

As the unfortunate accident which gave birth to these proceedings hath been taken up on party ground, and the circumftances have been variously reprefented, those who are defirous of knowing the real ftate of the cafe, will here meet with fatisfaction.

Art. 31. The Vegetable Syftem. By Dr. Hill. Vol. XVII. Folio, Royal Paper. 11. 11s. 6d. Baldwin.

See Review, vol. xliii. p. 164.

RELIGIOUS

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIA L.

4to.

Art. 32. A Propofal for the Advancement of Christianity into a po-
lite and elegant Syftem, adapted to the Tafte and Freedom of the
prefent Age, with refpect to our general Manners and Maxims of
Government. In a Letter to a Friend. By Thomas Bedford, M. A.
1s. Wilkie. 1771.
Chaplain to the Earl Granville.
Swift's ironical manner is here affumed, with pretty good fuccefs;
but whether much good effect is to be expected from any attempt to
ridicule vice or irreligion, is a point of fome doubt with us. People
may, poffibly, be laughed out of fome follies; but to encounter
wickedness and depravity with the delicate weapons of raillery, feems
(to repeat a keen comparison of the witty Dean's) to be like endea-
vouring to hew blocks with a razor.

MATHEMATICA L.
Art. 33. An Explanation of the affirmative and negative Signs in
Algebra. 8vo. 6 d. Cambridge printed, and fold by Beecroft,
&c. London.

The title of this pamphlet would lead one to expect undoubted evidence and fatisfaction on the fubject of which it profeffes to treat. The Algebraift, however, after a careful perufal of it, may be difpofed to fuggeft an amendment, and to entitle it' An Attempt to explain, &c.'

The fubject, it must be confeffed, is intricate and abftracted, and it is difficult for a speaker or writer to exprefs his ideas with that precision and clearnefs he could with, and without defcending from the strictness of mathematical demonftration, in a science whofe object is abstract numbers, to the more familiar and popular illuftrations by fenfible objects. The Author confiders all quantity as exifting either abfolutely or in a certain mode. And he obferves, that as the mind has a power of contemplating either of thefe exiftences, and of reafoning concerning them, the figns of algebra, which are fubftituted in the place of ordinary language, may certainly be made ufe of to express this reafoning in either view. The application of this remark, in the fequel, is ingenious, and amounts briefly to this,that with regard to quantity, abfolutely confidered, the fign (plus) is the language whereby the algebraift affirms it to exift, and the fign (minus) that whereby he denies its exiftence. But with regard to quantity, having only modal existence, plus and minus may alternately either affirm or deny.

There are two or three paragraphs in this treatise so very inaccurately expreffed, that it is impoffible to understand their meaning. We fhall only produce one as a fpecimen- By the imaginary exiftence of quantity as opposed to real, is meant, fuch as, being no exiftence in nature, is conceived against nature, for fome particular ufe. This is a fpecies of definition, from which we can form no idea of what the Author meant to fay. We have laid the blame on the prefswe have left out, altered and transposed one word and another to no purpose.

We fhall conclude this article with the following general remark: If mathematicians would fix their attention primarily on the relations of quantities, and confider the figns (+) and (-) as expreffive of these relations, they would be lefs fubject to perplexity and confufion them

felyes,

felves, and to the charge of ufing unintelligible and mysterious language, than they really are.-Some of the best writers on algebra have purfued this method, and hereby rendered the feveral species of multiplication, in apprehending the rationale of which the main difficulty confifts, intelligible and obvious.

LAW.

Art. 34. Liberty vindicated against Slavery, fhewing that Imprifonment for Debt, refufing to anfwer Interrogatories, long Imprifonment, though for juft Causes, &c. are all destructive to the fundamental Laws and common Freedom of the People of England. By a Lover of his Country. First published in the Year 1645. Svo. Is. Wilkie. 1771.

The efforts of Mr. Stephen, in behalf of himself, and of the other debtors confined in the King's-bench prifon, have probably occasioned the republication of the treatife before us. The Author of it feems to have been well informed with regard to the fpirit and tendency of our laws, and pleads ftrongly the caufe of humanity and freedom. Art. 35. Lord Camden's genuine Argument in giving Judgment on the ejectment between Hindfon and others against Kerfey. Wherein Lord Mansfield's Opinion delivered in Wyndman contra Chetwynd, is learnedly confidered. To which is prefixed, The Argument of Lord Mansfield. 4to. 4 s. fewed. Wilkie. 1771. The opinion, which was given by Lord Mansfield upon a devife of land in the cafe of Wyndham contra Chetwynd, he fupported with much legal erudition; and a fimilar queftion having been fubmitted to the Court of Common Pleas, Lord Camden delivered his judgment upon it. The fentiments of these judges were oppofite; and, it muft be allowed, that the point of law in difpute was of nice and difficult difcuffion.

Lord Mansfield contends, that the atteftation of three witnesses to devifes of land is mere form; that, in the ftatute of frauds, which gives this direction, the word credible as applied to witneffes is nugatory or ufed improperly; that the ftatute being deprived of the word credible, the word witness must be expounded by common law; that a releafe or payment will remove the difability of a witnefs from intcre; and that fuch a witness may even without a release be competent enough to prove the will for every perfon except himself.

Thefe conclufions appeared to Lord Camden to be erroneous. He conceived, and attempted to prove in oppofition to them, That the credibility alluded to in the ftatute, ought to be confidered as a neceffary and fubftantial qualification of the witnefs at the time of attestation; that if the witnefs is incompetent at that time, he cannot purge himself afterwards, either by releafe or payment, fo as to fet up the will; and that he cannot, in that cafe, be a witnefs to establish any part of the will.

In the reafoning and arguments employed by Lord Mansfield, there is much fubtlety and precision; but perhaps he is inclined to allow to judges too great a latitude in the interpretation of laws. Lord Camden is more diffufe and lefs profound; but his opinion, notwithftanding, abounds with many folid obfervations. He argues, in particular, with great force against the difcretionary power of Judges. The difcretion,' fays he, of a judge is the law of tyrants; it is al

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unknown; it is different in different men; it is cafual, and de-
pends upon conftitution, temper, and paffion. In the beft it is often-
times caprice; in the worst it is every vice, folly, and paffion to which
human nature is liable.'

POETICAL.

Art. 36. A Poetical Epifle to the Author of Verfes addreffed to John Wilkes, Efq; on his Arrival at Lynn. 4to. 6d. London. 1771. Sold by the Bookfellers of Lynn and Cambridge.

From the few fpecimens which we gave of the Verses lately prefented to Mr. Wilkes at Lynn †, our Readers may perhaps readily infer with us, that the Encomiaft's station on Mount Parnaffus is fomewhere on the declivity of the mountain; though we will not pretend to mark the identical fpot, or its elevation, precifely. We can speak with more confidence and precifion with regard to the station of his prefent Anfwerer; who is evidently a lowlander, and appears to have his fettlement in fome dark and deep cavern at the foot of the mountain. He talks indeed of flying, with great confidence, in the very first line;

My mufe on daring pinions takes her flight

but his mufe and he are a couple of arrant cheats: for they never once budge from the earth; nor can we difcern the smallest rudiments of wings any where about them. He does indeed endeavour to clamber up to the mountaineer; but his foot flips inceffantly. He gets however within reach of his fatellite, the poor printer, who is fomewhat nearer his level, and catches hold of him by the flap of his coat-his beft Sunday cloaths too-in which, he tells us, the caitiff on his knees prefented the obnoxious Verfes to Mr. Wilkes, moft gorgeously bound, and infcribed with golden capitals. For this tranfgreffion he rolls the culprit in the mud brought down from Helicon, till this poor Wilkite typographer's holiday coat is in fuch a pickle, that the man can never furely appear in it any more without turning it. After this most intemperate act, he defcants a while on the good of Old England, and concludes with an invocation, and a prayer for poor Britannia, whofe cafe must be desperate indeed, if it refifts the powers of verfe like this.

Art. 37. LEONIDAS; a Poem. The fifth Edition.

2 Vols. 6s. Cadell, &c.

1770.

12mo.

That this well-known English Epic hath had many admirers, is evident from the circumftance of its having paffed into a fifth edition. Its first appearance in print was several years before the commencement of our Review; fo that any remarks on the merits and character of this poem, would be foreign to our province. We shall, therefore, only add, for the information of our poetical Readers, that Mr. Glover, the ingenious Author of Leonidas, hath, in the prefent edition, not only corrected the poem throughout, and extended it from nine books to twelve, but hath alfo added several new characters; befide placing fome of the old ones in new fituations.

+ Review, March, page 259.
3

Art.

Art. 38. The Love of Money; a Satire. 4to. 2s. Evans.

1771.

To be hungry, and to own it too, is at this time of day a very meritorious degree of modefty:

• Write, write I must; 'tis a licentious age,

And vices croud to feed a poet's rage.

Shame on the times

No! that ingratitude spoils all.

Shall I, with equal blame,

With equal lofs of honourable fame ?'

Remember the Italian proverb, and fear nothing. He who affes të lofe what he never had, lofes nothing but his fenfes.

And therefore caft my inborn worth afide.'

Read fill-born.

without remorse,

Or pious looks, or ftill more pious tears,
We'd hang all villains'-

Surely! why fhould not a hangman look like himself?

At home.

• But where begin ?'

'would, would I had a friend!'

That is true; hang him first by all means. • Wilt thou affift me S

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No; he is appointed First L-d of the Athing else to do.

'Thou canst tell

Where to begin; what characters of hell

I know the road, and felf-inftructed run.'

Occupet extremum fcabies! If you are for that road, good bye to you. 'Here honour's loft, for Churchill is no more;

Churchill is

gone, and G is a w———.'

Whereas, had he been living, her ladyship would have been as chafie as Diana of the Ephefians.

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bought a feat, will *** the truth disown,
Bought others virtue, while he fold his own:
And when the wretch his own can fell no more,
He fells that virtue which he bought before.'

Braviffimo! Encore!

So goody Jobson went to Wakefield fair,

And fold fome eggs, and bought fome chickens there :
But when of eggs fhe had no longer ftore,

She fold the chickens that the bought before.

This worthy Gentleman informs us that he is himself very fond of the ladies at present, and that he loves them

aye, more than money;' but that, when he grows old and grey-headed, he intends to turn pimp for the benefit of society, and,

prove what woman is the cause of vice.'

But, poor Gentleman! he is at prefent in a pitiable fituation indeed. • But now I burn, and in the flower of youth.'

He threatens, however, to exert himself again the first opportunity: ⚫ Yet I may fting, when once love's fire is o'er,'

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