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Egyptian darkness clouds his brow,
last half century, have been converted Fever has changed his skin; He's not in martial splendour now,
into inkstands, tobacco-stoppers, and vaTo courage though akin.
rious turnery ware, all as veritably relics
of this identical stump. One genuine The Dashing Serjeant' he vo more,
fragment, however, is in the possession of Recruits to enlist, invites ; The White Cockade'-he proudly wore,
Mr. Kean, which was presented to the Educes no delights.
elder Angelo by Garrick, and given by
his son to this living tragedian. It was When · General Death' shall call him by, purchased at Stratford at the time of the
The muster-roll to drill;
jubilee. Garrick had a chair, curiously And close his wars of ill!
carved, of the same wood, which was P.
disposed of at the auction of Mrs. Garrick's effects.
The downfall of this tree was for a long
time the common topie of conversation at SHAKSPEARE'S
the public dinners and club meetings at MULBERRY TREE. Stratford. The corporation having ob
tained a part of the trunk, it occurred to
one of the members of the civic body, to A clergyman of the name of Gastrill, have some device made thereof, as an ofhad made a purchase of certain property fering to Garrick. A motion being made of lands and tenements, in and near the to that effect, it was unanimously carried, town of Stratford, the most valuable part and the following letter was written to and parcel of which, in the estimation of him by the steward, and a member was all but this reckless priest, was the house, appointed to wait upon him accordingly : called New Place, which Shakspeare built, and in which he resided until his “The Corporation of Stratford, ever dedeath. To this house was a garden, and sirous of expressing their gratitude to all in that garden stood a tree, which had who do honour and justice to the memory been planted and cherished by the poet- of Shakspeare, and highly sensible that no thr“ mulberry-tree so congenially comme- person, in any age, has excelled you morated by Garrick and Arne. This un- therein, would think themselves much hogracious son of the church occupied the noured, if you would become one of house for his own dwelling, and although their body. Though this body do not now fully aware that this tree was held sacred send members to parliament, perhaps the by the whole town and neighbourhood, inhabitants may not be the less virtuous; callous to all good neighbourly feeling, and to render the freedom of this place finding that it overshadowed a part of his the more acceptable to you, the corporahouse, one evil night, he ordered it to tion propose to send it in a box made out be cut down.
of that very mulberry tree planted by The first emotion excited by the dis- Shakspeare's own hand. The story of covery of this profanation was general that tree is too long to be here inserted : astonishment ;-this was succeeded by a but the gentleman who is so obliging as to general fury against the perpetrator, and convey this to you, will acquaint you the enraged populace surrounded the pre- herewith. As, also, the corporation mises, and vowed vengeance against Gas- would be happy in receiving from your trill and his family. He absconded in hands, some statue, brist, or picture of terror, and it was said, such was the re- Shakspeare, to be placed within their new sentment of the townspeople, that they town-hall. They would be equally pleasresolved, not only to banish him, buted to have some picture of yourself, that that no one of his name should henceforth the memory of both may be perpetuated be allowed to dwell amongst them. together, in that place which gave him
It is an ill wind that blows good to no birth, and where he still lives in the one. This was verified in the future for- mind of every inhabitant." tune of a carpenter in the town, who pur This complimentary epistle, from the chased the tree, divided it into parts of townsmen of the great dramatic poet, various dimensions, and had numberless went to the player's heart. He accepted articles of turnery and carving made out the freedom with warmtb, and the box of them, and obtained considerable wealth which contained it with rapture; and, in by his trade in these universally sought return presented them with his whole relics, which were held by many almost length picture, painted by Mr. Robert sacred. It is asserted that there are ten or Wilson, the father of the present member a dozen sculls at least, of the same holy for Southwark, which was placed in the
saint to be seen at different convents in Town Hall, as was subsequently a 1 various parts of Spain, and it is supposed statue of Shakspeare presented also by
that as many mulberry trees, within the Garrick.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF HISTORY. came into general vse, rose so extremely
high that manuscripts written thereon were PAPER AND BOOKS.
of the greatest value. This material was For the Olio.
in use until the eleventh century, when Haying detailed some account of print the art of making paper from rags was ing in our last, we this week follow with discovered, nearly three centuries previthe attendants of that art, Paper and ous to the establishing of paper mills, Books.. And in endeavouring to give a which is said to have taken place in the correct an idea as possible of the origin fourteenth century, and soon after this, of these highly essentialarticles in Europe, France, Genoa,and Holland, bad almost we find that the Romans used for their the exclusive manufacture, and by these writings, the Papyrus of Egypt, a kind countries, it was imported into other of rush attaining in its growth, the height Kingdoms and States.
The first paper of ten cubits, which from its cheapness mill in England is said to have been eswas an article of general utility. But tablished by a German of the name of before the Greeks and Romans adopted Spiellman, at Dartford, in the year 1588, this substitute for paper, they wrote upon but till the year 1690, scarcely any good plaiņ wooden boards, called scheda, or paper was made in this country, it hav. schedulæ and on such schedulæ was writ- ing been previously imported from the ten in Hebrew, the Gospel of St. Matthew, countries of Europe above stated, many which according to Baronius was found in attempts have been tried to fabricate the tomb of Barnabas, sometimes the paper from other materials in the stead written wood was overlaid with wax,bear- of rags, but as none have come into geing the name pugillares cerei, this mode 'neral use, it must be presumed that the being resorted to as a medium for thecar- old mode claims the precedence. rying on a secret correspondence. Ac Having said thus much of paper we cording to Pliny the eustom of writing on turn to books, the word book being apboards may be looked on as coeval with plied as a general name to any literary the Trojan war. The ancient jurists gave composition, or that wbich forms a voto their writings the appellations, tabilis, lume. The derivation of the name ceris, and pugillaribus , the first of which comes from the use of the finest part of implied a carefully written work, whilst the inner bark of trees, called liber, and the other terms denoted a careless manu- from which originated the word Book, script or copy. The Romans for ordinary these barks when coiled up into a roll, communication used tablets of wood co were termed, volumen, a volume. The vered with wax, if more than one, they term book is also applied to the division were strung together at the corners, and of a volume, signifying a part of the conveyed to the person for whom they whole. The most ancient known book were intended by messengers.
in the world is the Pentateuch of Moses, The richest of the Romans used as and in profane literature the poems of paper, thin pieces of ivory called Libri Homer, though some place Hesiod's Elephantini; and Ulpian states that the works before those of the father of Greek principal transactions of great princes, poetry. The works...of Homer were were usually written with a black colour painted in golden characters on the skins on ivory. These tablets, from their being of animals. Many manuscripts of the so expensive, were wholly confined to eighth, ninth, and following centuries the opulent. After the invention of the in existence on the continent are written Egyptian paper, the Greeks and Romans on parchment, with part of the former continued still to use their tablets, and manuscript erased, to make way for some wax, though they were provided with a new composition, to be substituted merematerial far more convenient in the papy- ly from the scarcity of writing materials rus, and considerably cheaper, until time in those days. And it is probable that mastered their prejudices But wheu the this roode of procedure occasioned the Saracens conquered Egypt in the seventh destruction of several works of the ancentury, the communication between that cients, a book of Livy, or Tacitus being country, , and the people settled in Italy, erased to make room for the Legendary or in other parts of Europe, was entirely tale of a saint, or the superstitious prayer broken off, thereby putting a fatal stop to of a missal. Montfaucon affirins that their procuring the Egyptian writing ma the greater part of the manuscripts on terial. In their necessity for a substitute parchment seen by him, had some former for the article that they was deprived of book erased. The number of manuscripts by the Saracenic war, they resorted to the were small, previous to the eleventh cenuse of skins to write on, and from this cir- tury, when the means of increasing them cumstance we may date the invention of were supplied. Many circumstances prove parchment, the price of which when it the scarcity of books during these ages.
Private persons seldom possessed any whip the apple-trees, in order to procure a books whatever, even monasteries of note, plentiful crop of fruit, and after having had only one missal. It is said that Lupus, done it, they carry a bag to the house, abbot of Ferrieres, in a letter to the Pope, where it is usual for the owner of the A D. 855, beseeches him to lend him a trees, or orchards, to reward them with a copy of Cicero de Oratore, and Quintilian's gift of meal, they then depart to perform Institutions,“for,'' says he," although the same. ceremony at the next orchard, we have part of those books, there is no or premises where there is apple trees. complete copy of them in all France." ! The price of books was so high, that THE TOWN OF MONTGOMERY. persons of moderate'fortune could
not pur At this place our forefathers observed a chase them. A countess of Anjou paid practice towards scolds and lewd women, for a copy of the Homilies of Haimon, to prevent the many evils that arose in the Bishop of Halberstadt,two hundred sheep, town from their strifes, fightings, defamafive quarters of wheat, and the same quan- tions,&c. and theniany other disturbances tity of rye and millet. And even so late such as shoutings and bawlings which as the year 1471, when Lewis the eleventh they might commit. It is as follows, when of France borrowed the works of Rasis, they are taken, they are' immediately the Arabian physician, from the faculty adjudged to the goging stode, (wbich of medicine in Paris, he was obliged to goging stode answers to the cucking or deposit in pledge a quantity of plate, and ducking stool resorted to in early times, procure a 'nobleman to join with him as a at the punishment of scolds when they surety in a deed, binding himself under were duckedin thewater for their shrewish great forfeiture to restore it. When any propensities,) there to stand with naked person made a presentof a book to a church feet, with their hair hanging dishevelled, or monastery, in which were the only for as long a time as would enable them libraries during these ages, it was deemed to be seen by persons passing that way, a gift of such value that he offered it on according to the will of the chief bailiffs. the altar, pro remedio animæ suæ, in order
J. Oto obtain the forgiveness of his sins. In the reign of Henry the sixth, Caxton, the
THE FEAST OF THE PURIFICATION OF first promulgator of books in England,
THE VIRGIN MARY. established a press at Oxford; but the
This festival is of high antiquity, and University press being discovered to be so the early Christians observed it by using remote from the seat of Government, and a great number of lights, in remembrance, too great a distance from any sea-port, as it is supposed, of our Saviour's being other presses were established at St. Albans declared by Simeon, “a light to lighten and the Abbey of Westminster; in the the Gentiles :" hence the name of Candlelatter place Caxton printed his first book, mas-day. In superstitious times, an ima-, the game of Chess. His next performance ginary power over the elements was aswas the “Dictes and Sayenges of the Phi- cribed to wax-tapers, similar to that losophers, translated out of French, by which the early Greeks and Romans atAntone erle Ryvyres, Lord Seerles, em tributed to torches. prynted by Wyllyam Caxton at West
From candlemas the use of tapers at mestre, 1477.” Having brought our ac
vespers and litanies ceased, until the encount down to the production of the first suing All-Hallow Mass. In Ray's colbooksin England, we shall here close this lection of Proverbs, is the following :article on the subject, as most of our readers are aware that the present improved “ On Candleiras day, i stage in the art of constructing books is Throw candle and candle-stick away." the result of experience gained by many men through succeeding ages.
It used to be considered in early times, J.R.J. that if it was clear and sun-shiny on this
day, that it portended hard weather would
follow; but if gloomy and foul, it preCUSTOMS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES-No. V.
saged a mild and gentle season would
this effect :
If Candlemas day be fair and bright,
Winter will have another flight: In the parish of Warlington in Surrey,
If on Candlemas day it be shower and rain, the following custom existed a few years Winter is gone and will not come again. since, it referred to the rites performed in honour of Pomona.
Early in the Spring the boys go round to This practice is treated of by Butler, in the several orchards in the parish, and his account of the festival under this head
THE BLESSING OF CANDLES AT ROME.
as ic used to be observed. But a more the name of chyme. This chyme passes modern writer having given the details of gradually into the intestinal canal, where this religious rite as she witnessed it in by a certain action of the bowels, and 1820, we give it in her words. “The the agency of the bile, the juices of the ceremony takes place in the beautiful cha- pancreas or sweetbread, and perhaps pel of the Quirinal, where the Pope him- other means yet undiscovered, it is sepaself officiates, and blesses, and distributes rated into two distinct substances ; one with his own hands, a candle to every a liquid matter, similar to milk in apperson in the body of the church ; each pearance, called chyle, and a solid matter going individually, and kneeling at the of greater consistence, which is protruded throne to receive it. The ceremony com- along the canal, and gradually thrown mences with the cardinals, then follow out of the body as excrementitious. The the bishops, prelati canons, priors, chyle is absorbed by the lacteals passing abbots, priests, &c. down to the sacristans into the thoracic duct, from which it is and the meanest officers of the church. conveyed into the left subclavian vein, When the last of these has gotten his can- mixes with the blood, and is gradually dle, the poor conservatori, the represen- conveyed into that important liquid. tative of the Roman Senate and people. The blood circulates through the whole receive theirs.
body, and furnishes materials to all the This ceremony over, the candles are organs to supply their waste, and conlighted, the pope is mounted in his chair tinue their functions; from it too all and carried in procession, with hymns 'the different liquids of the body are sechaunting, round the anti-chapel : the creted. Thus digestion serves to inthrone is stripped of its hangings, the crease the quantity of blood, from which, pope and cardinals take off their gold and as from a storehouse, every thing necescrimson dresses, put on their ordinary sary for the supply of the animal is robes, and the usual mass of the morning drawn. is sung. The Benediction of the Candles takes place in all the parish churches.Lady Morgan's Italy.
EFEECTS OF A ROMAN PROCLAMATION. Science and art.
The following anecdote is recorded in
history. Titus Quintus Flaminirus, the ICE IN INDIA.
Roman General, after having defeated The method adopted by the Indians to Philip, King of Macedon, caused a proobtain ice, about the latitude of the Tro- clamation to be made at the Isthmic pic of Cancer or further north, is very in- games, where universal Greece was asgenious. In India it hardly ever freezes sembled, that all the Greek cities which naturally. They dig pits in the ground had been subject to the Macedonian yoke, above two feet deep, which they line should thenceforward be free and indewith dried sugar canes or Indian corn. pendent, and exempt from tribute. On On this they place' very shallow dishes the annunciation of such joyous and unmade of unglazed and very porous earth expected tidings, so loud a shout of exen ware, and filled with soft water, that ultation was raised by the countless has been boiled. They are deposited in multitude around, that some birds which the evening, and in consequence of the happened to be flying over the scene evaporation from the outside of the dish- were stunned with the noise, and fell stues, a considerable portion of the water is pified to the ground. found frozen next morning. The ice is collected before suprise, and rammed
EPIGRAM. into a cellar underground, and lined with
For the Olio. straw, where in consequence of its own
TASTE. accumulated cold it freezes into a solid “Taste," cries the Artist Taste!" the Glutton
Taste lives in all mortality's desires ;
Yet taste is useless when we lack supplies,
For-want of taste, the starvinginan expires. Tue compound action of digestion in man and the larger animals, is by many but imperfectly understood. The food is taken into the mouth, where it is mas It is related of one of the French Kings, ticated and mixed with the saliva; it is that on being told the people made free then swallowed and conveyed into the with his character in their songs, he anstomach, where it remains till it becomes swered, “ It would be very hard if they converted into a kind of pulp, known by were not allowed to sing for their money.
ANGELO THE FENCING MASTER.
RATS AT RIO JANEIRO. At an interview that took place be The City of Rio Janeiro and its entween his late Majesty George the Third, virons, are infested by these disagreeable and the highly talented President of the vermin to such a surprising extent, that, Royal Academy, the late Benjamin West, at meal times, is not at all uncommon to when he was commissioned to paint the see them sporting round the room, nor do picture of the Battle of the Boyne, the the canine race take any heed of them, king persuaded him to make a study of as they may be often seen feeding off the the elder Angelo, the celebrated horse same heap of garbage. The dental powman and fencing-master, for the eques ers of these rats are very great, even to trian figure of King William, for that well such an extent, that a thick cluinsy door known composition; saying, “ few paint- of hard wood is often perforated by them ers place the figure properly upon the in a single night. horse, and Angelo is the finest horseman in the world.” Mr. West adapted ..
QUEEN ELIZABETH. and Mr. Angelo sat for the
When Queen Elizabeth, in her progress figure accordingly, upon his own horse, through the Kingdom, stopped at CovenMonarch. It is a curious coincidence, but through addressed her Majesty in rhyme, in the
try, the Mayor attended by the Aldermen, a fortuitous circumstance, the same person following words :sat to the sculptor as a model for the equestrian statue of King William now
We men of Coventry, standing in Merrion Square, Dublin.
Are very glad to see, Angelo Reminis.
Your Royal Majestie,
Good Lord, how fair you be!
To which her Majesty was pleased to this reuowned warrior, and at last capitu- return the following gracious answer :lated. The magistrate of the town, on
My royal Majesty, giving up his keys, thus addressed his Ma
Is very glad to see, jesty, "This town belongs to your High
Ye Men of Coventry, ness by divine law, and by human law.”
Good Lord, what fools ye be! “And by cannon law, too,” added Henry.
LORD ERSKINE AND DR. PARR.
Tuese two worthies were considered,
even by their personal friends, to be the vainest men of the age. The Doctor once
said to the Ex-chancellor in one of their SAPIENT FOLLY. If fools and wise men are allied,
social meetings, “ Erskine, I mean to By strong and nat'ral ties;
write your epitaph when you die.” Lord Philosophers at once decide,
Erskine replied, “ Doctor, it is almost a " "İ'is folly to be wise,'
temptation to commit suicide."
FEBRUARY Is the second month of the year, and was so placed in the calender by Numa, who was chosen by the people of Rome to succeed Romulus as their King. This month was considered by the Romans as under the protection of Neptune, who had dominion over the waters. Numa Pompilius called this month Februarins, because of the God Februus, who presided over the purifications, or because of Juno surnamed Februa, for in this month, the Lupercalia was celebrated in honour of her, when the women were purified by the priests of Pan Lycæus, who were called Lupercals. During this month, the Romans held their feast called Terminalia, in honour of Terminus the god of Bounds. They also held their feast Equiria in the Campus Martius, which was solemnized with a horse-racing. This month is also said to have derived its name from the Feralia, sacrifices that were offered to appease the manes of the Gods. Our Saxon Ancestors called February Spront Kele, by Kele meaning KeleWurt, known as cole-wurt, or the kale of the cabbage tribe, which was considered as the greatest pot herb then used, and given as a wholesome sustenance to Husbandmen. The Romans, when they were without practitioners in medicine, had so good an opinion of this herb, that they caused large quantities to be planted for its medicinal properties, as a remedy against sickness. It has been observed by a modern writer, that if this month was not the precursor of Spring, it would be the least pleasant season of the year, November not excepted, from the thaws taking place, attended with a mixture of cold and damp. Pisces or the fishes, is the Zodiacal Sign for this 'month.