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Pergamas cured, which was done with such secrecy, that a report ther's kingdom, not only granted all bis requests, but Pergamus:
of his death was spread all over Asia, and even believed sent him richer and more magnificent presents than they
own minds, resolved not to hear his vindication. For
But these negociations were any business to transact with the senate, he was appointbroke off without effect, by reason of the distrust which ed to hear it, and transmit it to them; but if pot, the two kings bad of one another. Eumenes could not that the king must leave Italy without delay. To trust Perses unless he paid him the money beforehand; this Eumenes replied, that he had no business of any while, on the other band, Perses did not care to part consequence to transact, and that he did not stand in with the money before Eumenes had performed what he need of
of their assistance; and without saying a
Pergamus. lus. But, after a proper inquiry was made into the able army to maintain his pretensions. The people in Pergamo
matter, Prusias was found to be entirely in the wrong ; general, having been accustomed to a monarchy, dreadin consequence of which, he was at last obliged to con- ed a republican form of government ; in consequence of clude a peace with bis adversary on the following terms. which, they assisted Aristonicus, and soon put him in a 1. That he should immediately deliver up to Attalus condition to reduce the whole kingdom. The news, 20 ships with decks. 2. That he should pay 500 ta- however, were soon carried to Rome ; and Licinius lents to Attalus within the space of 20 years. 3. That Crassus, the pontifex maximus, was sent into the east, he should pay 107 talents to some of the other Asiatic with orders to enforce obedience to the king's will. Hi. nations by way of reparation for the damages they had storians take no notice of any forces which were sent sustained from him. And, 4. Both parties should be along with this commander ; whence it is supposed, that content with what they had before the beginning of the he depended on assistance from the Asiatics, who were
in alliance with Rome, or from the Egyptians. Bat Some time after this, Prusias having made an unna- when he came thither, he found both the Syrians and tural attempt on the life of his son Nicomedes, the lat- Egyptians so reduced, that he could not expect any as ter rebelled, and with the assistance of Attalus, drove sistance from them. However, he was soon supplied his father from the throne, and, as is said, even mur- with troops in plenty by the kings of Pontus, Bithynia, dered him in the temple of Jupiter. The Romans took Cappadocia, and Paphlagonia ; but managed matters so no notice of these transactions, but showed the same ill, that he was entirely defeated and taken prisover, kindness to Attalus as formerly. The last enterprise in Those who took him, designed to carry him to Aristowhich we find Attalus engaged, was against Andriseus nicus ; but be, not able to endure the disgrace, would the pretended son of Perses king of Macedon, where he bave laid violent liands on himself if he had not been assisted the Romans; after which he gave himself up disarmed. However, being allowed to keep a rod for entirely to ease and luxury, committing state affairs en- managing the horse on which he sat, be struck a Thra. tirely to his ministers ; and thus continued to his death, cian soldier who stood near bim so violently with it, which happened in the 82d year of his age, about 138 that he beat out one of his eyes ; upon which the otber B. C.
drew his sword, and run him through on the spot. Attalus II. was succeeded by Attalus III. the son of His head was brought to Aristonicus, who exposed Eumenes ; for the late king, considering that he only it to public view ; but the body was honourably bubeld the crown as a trust for his nephew, passed by his ried. own children in order to give it to him, though he ap- Aristonicus had no great time to enjoy the fruits of pears to have been by no means of worthy of it. He is his victory. Indeed he behaved very improperly after said to have been deprived of his senses through the vio- it; for, instead of preparing to oppose the next army, lence of his grief for his mother's death; and indeed, which he might bave been assured the Romans would throughout his whole reign, he behaved more like a send against him, he spent his time in feasting and remadman than any thing else. Many of his subjects of velling. But he was soon roused out of his lethargy by the highest quality were cut off with their wives and Perpenna the new consul, who having assembled with children, upon the most groundless suspicions ; and for incredible expedition the troops of the allies, came unthese executions be made use of mercenaries hired out expectedly upon him, obliged him to venture an enfrom among the most barbarous nations. Thus be pro- gagement at a disadvantage, and entirely defeated him. ceeded till he had cut off all the best men in the king- Aristonicus led to a city called Stratonice, but was so dom; after which he fell into a deep melancholy, ima- closely pursued by the conqueror, that the garrison hagining that the ghosts of those whom he had murdered ving no method of supplying themselves with provisions, were perpetually haunting him. On this he shut him- delivered up their leader, as well as a philosopher named self up in his palace, put on a mean apparel, let his hair Blosius, whe had been the companion and counsellor of and beard grow, and sequestered himself from all man- Aristonicus. The philosopher behaved with great resokind. At last he withdrew from the palace, and retired lution after being taken, and openly defended his siding into a garden, which he cultivated with bis own hands, with Aristonicus, because he thought his cause just. and filled with all sorts of poisonous herbs. These lie He exhorted the latter to prevent the disgrace and miused to mix with wholesome pulse, and send packets of sery of captivity by a voluntary death ; but Aristonithem to such as he suspected. At last, being weary of cus, looking upon death as a greater misery than any this amusement, and living in solitude, because nobody captivity, suffered himself to be treated as his conquerdurst approach him, he took it in his head to follow the ors pleased. trade of a founder, and make a brazen monument. But, In the mean time, a new consul named Manius A. while he laboured at melting and casting the brass, the quilius, being arrived from Rome, sent a most haughty heat of the sun and furnace threw him into a fever, message to Perpenna, requiring him immediately to dewhich in seven days put an end to bis tyranny, after he liver up Aristonicus, as a captive belonging to his trihad sat on the throne five years.
umph when the war should be ended. With this deOn the death of the king, a will was found, by which mand Perpenna refused to comply, and his refusal had he left the Roman people heirs of all his goods ; upon almost produced a civil war. However, this was prewhich they seized on the kingdom, and reduced it to a vented by the death of Perpenna, which happened soon province of their empire by the name of Asia Proper. after the dispute commenced. The Pergamenians, notBut Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by an Ephesian withstanding the defeat and captivity of their leader, courtesan, reckoning himself the lawful heir to the still held out with such obstinacy, that Aquilius was crown, could by no means be satisfied with this usurpa- obliged to besiege, and take by force, almost every city tion of the Romans, and therefore assembled a consider in the kingdom. In doing this, he took a very effec
Pergamus tual, though exceeding cruel method. Most of the ci.
PERICARDIUM, in Anatomy, a membranous bag Pericardi11 ties in the kingdom had no other water than what was filled with water, which contains the heart in man and
brought from a considerable distance in aqueducts. many other animals. It is formed by a duplicature 0 These Aquilius did not demolish, but poisoned the wa- of the mediastinum, or membrane which divides the
Perigraphe. ter, which produced the greatest abhorrence of him thorax into tivo unequal parts. See ANATOMY, No throughout all the east. At last, however, the whole country being reduced, Aquilius triumphed, the unhap- PERICARPIUM, (from trigo, “round," and sugitos,
ragros, j'y Aristonicus was led in chains before his chariot, and “ fruit,”) the seed-vessel ; that organ of a plant containprobably ended his miserable life in a dungeon. The ing the seeds, which it discharges when ripe. The seed. country remained subject to the Romans while their vessel is in fact the developed seed-bud, and may very empire lasted, but is now in the hands of the Turks. properly be compared to the fecundated ovary in aniThe city is half ruined, and is still known by the name mals; for it does not exist till after the fertilizing of of Pergamus. It is inhabited by about 3000 Turks, the seeds by the male dust, and the consequent fall of and a few families of poor Christians. E. Long. 27. the flower. All plants, however, are not furnished
with a secd-vessel ; in such as are deprived of it, the
Greeks to their profane games or combats, that is, to
flourished in Greece. He was educated with all ima-
Many were unjust enough to suspect him of atheism,
before them the ears of corn which exceed- rhetoric and politics. As Pericles cared not much for
PERICRANIUM, in Anatomy, a thick solid coat
, he hated the wicked, and caused all breadth. It abounds in iron mines, and the air is pure pimps to be drowned ; lastly, that he established a se. and healthy. Perigueux is the capital town.
nese, of a dark gray colour, like basalt.
PERIGRAPHÉ, a word usually understood to ex" the flower,") the flower cup properly so called, the press a careless or inaccurate delineation of any thing; most common species of calyx, placed immediately un- but in Vesalius it is used to express the white lines or der the flower, which is contained in it as in a cup. impressions that appear on the musculus rectus of the Sce BOTANY Index.
abdomen. Vol. XVI. Part I.
585 B. C.
Perigueux PERIGUEUX, an ancient town of France, capital Hipparchus's Period, is a series of 304 solar years, Period.
11 of the province of Perigord, seated on the river Isle, returning in a constant round, and restoring the new Period,
in E. Long. 0. 33. N. Lat. 45. 18. It is remark- and full moons to the same day of the solar year, ac-
arises by multiplying the Calippic period by four.PERIHELIUM, in Astronomy, that part of a pla- Hipparchus assumed the quantity of the solar year to net or comet's orbit wherein it is in its least distance be 365 days 5 hours 55' 12'; and hence concluded, from the sun; in which sense it stands in opposition to that in 104 years Calippus's period would err a whole apbelium.
day. He therefore multiplied the period by four,
See ASTRONOMY, N° 14.
PERIOD, in Astronomy, the time taken up by a and in members or divisions marked by commas, co-
the period, or point; i. e. in distinguishing it from the
end of a period, or perfect sentence. It is remarked
that the supernumerary members of a period, separated Days. h.
from the rest by colons and semicolons, usually com-
1908352 mence with a conjunction: yet it is true these same con-
954-72 junctions sometimes rather begin new periods than su-
520279 pernumerary members of old ones. It is the sense of
152369 things, and the author's own discretion, that must make
the proper distinction which of the two in effect it is.
72333 No rules will be of any service, unless this be admitted
38710 as one, that when what follows the conjunction is of as
much extent as what precedes it, it is usually a new pe-
your proposals immediately: you will be to blame for
tence, consisting of certain parts or members, depending
mon vinculum. The celebrated definition of Aristotle PERIOD, in Chronology, denotes a revolution of a is, a period is a discourse which has a beginning, a certain number of years, or a series of years, whereby, middle, and an end, all visible at one view. Rhetoriin different nations, and on different occasions, time is cians consider period, which treats of the structure of measured; such are the following.
sentences, as one of the four parts of composition. The
members, called by the Greeks dicolos, and by the La-
or comma, after every sixth place, or figure; and is used
which have intervals and returns, to denote an entire
Period course or circle of such disease; or its progress from and metaphysical about the first being, his affections,
adds from Clearchus, one of Aristotle's scholars, that
libus for a long time : in the earlier ages of Christianity,
cing its way into the Christian church. Towards the PERIOD, in Oratory. See there, No 47.
end of the fifth century, it rose into great credit ; the PERIODIC, or PERIODICAL, something that ter- Platonics interpreting in their schools some of the wriminates and comprehends a period ; such is a periodic tings of Aristotle, particularly his dialectics, and remonth; being the space of time wherein the moon di- commending them to young persons.
This appears to spatches her period.
have been the first step to that universal dominion which PERIOECI, Wigioixos, in Geography, such inhabitants Aristotle afterwards obtained among the learned, wbich of the earth as have the same latitudes, but opposite was at the same time much promoted by the controverlongitudes, or live under the same parallel and the same sies which Origen had occasioned. This father was meridian, but in different semicircles of that meridian, zealously attached to the Platonic system; and there. or in opposite points of the parallel. These have the fore, after his condemnation, many, to avoid the impusame common seasons throughout the year, and the same tation of his errors, and to prevent their being counted phenomena of the heavenly bodies; but when it is noon- among the number of his followers, openly adopted the day with the one, it is midnight with the other, there philosophy of Aristotle. Nor was any philosophy more being twenty-four hours in an east or west direction. proper for furnishing those weapons of subtle distinctions These are found on the globe by the hour-index, or by and captious sophisms, which were used in the Nestorian, turning the globe half round, that is, 180 degrees either Arian, and Eutychian controversies. About the end way.
of the sixth century, the Aristotelian philosophy, as well PERIOSTEUM, or PERIOSTIUM, in Anatomy, a
as science in general, was almost universally decried ; nervous vascular membrane, endued with a very quick and it was chiefly owing to Boetius, who explained and sense, immediately surrounding, in every part, both the recommended it, that it obtained a bigher degree of internal and external surfaces of all the bones in the bo
the Latins than it bad hitherto enjoyed. dy, excepting only so much of the teeth as stand above Towards the end of the seventh century, the Grecko the gums, and the peculiar places on the bones in which abandoned Plato to the monks, and gave themselves up the muscles are inserted. It is hence divided into the entirely to the direction of Aristotle ; and in the next external and internal periosteum; and where it exter- century, the Peripatetic philosophy, was taught everynally surrounds the bones of the skull, it is generally where in their public schools, and propagated in all placalled the pericranium. See ANATOMY Index.
ces with considerable success. John Damascenus very PERIPATETICS, philosophers, followers of Ari- much contributed to its credit and influence, by comstotle, and maintainers of the peripatetic philosophy; posing a concise, plain, and comprehensive view of the called also Aristotelians. Cicero says, that Plato left doctrines of the Stagirite, for the instruction of the two excellent disciples, Xenocrates and Aristotle, who more ignorant, and in a manner adapted to common cafounded two sects, which only differed in name : the pacities. Under the patronage of Photius, and the proformer took the appellation of Academics, who were tection of Bardas, the study of philosophy for some those that continued to hold their conferences in the time declined, but was revived again about the end of Academy, as Plato had done before; the others, who the ninth century. About the middle of the sith cenfollowed Aristotle, were called Peripatetics, from trigira- tury, a revolution in philosophy commenced in France;
“I walk;" because they disputed walking in the when several famous logicians, who followed Aristotle Lyceum.
as their guide, took nevertheless the liberty of illustraAmmonius derives the name Peripatetic from Plate ting and modelling anew his philosophy, and extending himself, who only taught walking; and adds, that the it far beyond its ancient limits. In the 12th century, disciples of Aristotle, and those of Xenocrates, were three methods of teaching philosophy were in use by equally called Peripatetics; the one Peripatetics of the the different doctors : the first was the ancient and plain Academy, the other Peripatetics of the Lyceum : but method, which confined its researches to the philosophithat in time the former quitted the title Peripatetic for cal notions of Porphyry, and the dialectic system, comthat of Academic, on account of the place where they monly attributed to St Augustine, and in which was assembled ; and the latter retained simply that of Peri- laid down this general rule, that philosophical inquiries patetic. The greatest and best part of Aristotle's phi- were to be limited to a small number of subjects, lest losophy was borrowed from Plato. Serranus asserts, and by their becoming too extensive, religion might suffer says he could demonstrate, that there is nothing exqui- by a profane mixture of buman subtilty with its divine site in any part of Aristotle's philosophy, dialectics, wisdom. The second method was called the Aristoethics, politics, physics, or metaphysics, but is found telian, because it consisted in explications of the works in Plato. And of this opinion are many of the ancient of that philosopher, several of whose books being transauthors, such as Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. Gale at- lated into Latin, were almost everywhere in the bands tempts to show, that Aristotle borrowed a good deal of of the learned. The third was termed the free method, his philosophy, both physical, about the first matter, employed by such as were bold enough to search