Imatges de pÓgina


Pergamas cured, which was done with such secrecy, that a report ther's kingdom, not only granted all bis requests, but Pergamus:

of his death was spread all over Asia, and even believed sent him richer and more magnificent presents than they
at Rome; nay, his brother Attalus was so convinced of had ever done before. Upon this Attalus immediately
the truth of this report, that he not only assumed the set out on his return to Pergamus; which so provoked
government, but even married Stratonice the wife of the senators, that they declared the cities free which
Eumenes. But in a short time Eumenes convinced they had promised to Attalus, thus rendering ineffectual
them both of his being alive, by returning to his king- their promise which they were ashamed openly to re-
dom. On the receipt of this news, Attalus resigned voke; and as for the Gauls, who were on all occasions
the sovereignty in great haste, and went to meet his ready to invade the kingdom of Pergamus, they sent
brother; carrying a balberd, as one of his guards. ambassadors to them, with instructions to behave in such
Eumenes received both bim and the queen with great a manner as would rather tend to encourage them in
tenderness, nor did he ever say any thing which might their design than dissuade them from it.
tend to make them uneasy; only it is said he whispered Eumenes, being alarmed at those proceedings, resol-
in his brother's ear when he first saw him, “ Be in no ved to go in person to Rome, in order to justify bimself.
haste to marry my wife again till you are sure that I But the senate having already condemned him in their
am dead."

own minds, resolved not to hear his vindication. For
The king being now more than ever exasperated a. this reason, as soon as they beard of his design, they
gainst Perses, joined the Romans in their war against made an act that no king should be permitted to enter
him; but during the course of it he suddenly cooled in the gates of Rome. Eumenes, however, who knew
his affection towards those allies whom he had hitherto nothing of this act, set forward on his journey, and
served with so much zeal, and that to such a degree, landed at Brundusium ; but no sooner did the Roman
that he admitted ambassadors from Perses, and offered senate get intelligence of his arrival there, than they
to stand neuter if he would pay him 1000 talents, and sent a quæstor acquainting him with the decree of the
for 1500, to influence the Romans to grant him a safe senate; and telling bim at the same time, tbat if he bad
and honourable peace.

But these negociations were any business to transact with the senate, he was appointbroke off without effect, by reason of the distrust which ed to hear it, and transmit it to them; but if pot, the two kings bad of one another. Eumenes could not that the king must leave Italy without delay. To trust Perses unless he paid him the money beforehand; this Eumenes replied, that he had no business of any while, on the other band, Perses did not care to part consequence to transact, and that he did not stand in with the money before Eumenes had performed what he need of


of their assistance; and without saying a
promised; neither could he be induced to pay the sum word more, went on board his ship, and returned to
in question, though the king of Pergamus offered to Pergamus.
give hostages for the performanee of bis promise. What On his return home, the Gauls, being encouraged by
the reason of such a sudden change in the disposition of the cold reception which he had met with at Rome, in-
Eumenes was, is nowhere told; however, the fact is vaded bis territories, but were repulsed with great loss
certain. The negociations above mentioned were con- by the king, who afterwards invaded the dominions of
cealed from the Romans as long as possible ; but they Prusias, and possessed himself of several cities. This
soon came to be known: after which the republic be- produced new complaints at Rome ; and Eumenes was
gan to entertain no small jealousy of their old friend, accused, not only by the ambassadors of Prusias, but
and therefore heaped favours on his brother Attalus, also by those of the Gauls and many cities in Asia, of
without taking any notice of the king bimself. Eu- keeping a secret correspondence with Perses king of
menes had sent him to Rome to congratulate the senate Macedon. This last charge was confirmed by some let-
on the happy issue of the war with Perses, not thinking ters which the Romans themselves had intercepted; so
that his practices had been discovered. However, the that Eumenes found it impossible to keep up his credit
senate without taking any notice of their disaffection to any longer at Rome, though he sent his brothers Athe-
Eumenes at first, entertained Attalus with the greatest næus and Attalus thither to intercede for him. The
magnificence; then several of the senators who visited senators, in short, had conceived the most implacable
bim proceeded to acquaint him with their suspicions of hatred against him, and seemed absolutely bent on bis
the king, and desired Attalus to treat with them in his destruction, when he died, in the 39th year of his
own name, assuring him, that the kingdom of Pergamus reign, leaving his kingdom and his wife to his brother
would be granted him, if he demanded it, by the se- Attalus. He left one son, but he was an infant, and
nate. These speeches had at first some effect; but At incapable of governing the kingdom ; for which reason
talus, being of an honest disposition, and assisted by the Eumenes chose rather to give the present possession of
advice of a physician called Stratius, a man of great the crown to bis brother, reserving the succession to his
probity, resolved not to comply with their desire. son, than to endanger the whole by committing the
When he was admitted to the senate, therefore, be first management of affairs to his son's tutors.
congratulated them on the happy issue of the Macedoni- Attalus, in the beginning of bis reign, found himself
an war, then modestly recounted bis own services; and greatly distressed by Prusias king of Bithynia, who not
lastly, acquainted them with the motive of his journey; only overthrew bim in a pitched battle, but advanced
intreated them to send ambassadors to the Gauls, who to the very walls of Pergamus, ravaging tbe country as
by their authority might secure bis brother from any he marched along ; and at last reduced the royal city
danger of their hostilities ; and he requested them also, itself. The king, however, saved himself by a timely
that the two cities of Ænus and Maronea might be be- flight, and dispatched ambassadors to Rome, complain-
stowed on himself. The senate, imagining that Atta- ing of the bad usage of Prusias. The latter endeavour-
lus designed to choose some other day to sue for his bro- ed to defend bimself, and to throw the blame on Atta-






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Pergamus. lus. But, after a proper inquiry was made into the able army to maintain his pretensions. The people in Pergamo

matter, Prusias was found to be entirely in the wrong ; general, having been accustomed to a monarchy, dreadin consequence of which, he was at last obliged to con- ed a republican form of government ; in consequence of clude a peace with bis adversary on the following terms. which, they assisted Aristonicus, and soon put him in a 1. That he should immediately deliver up to Attalus condition to reduce the whole kingdom. The news, 20 ships with decks. 2. That he should pay 500 ta- however, were soon carried to Rome ; and Licinius lents to Attalus within the space of 20 years. 3. That Crassus, the pontifex maximus, was sent into the east, he should pay 107 talents to some of the other Asiatic with orders to enforce obedience to the king's will. Hi. nations by way of reparation for the damages they had storians take no notice of any forces which were sent sustained from him. And, 4. Both parties should be along with this commander ; whence it is supposed, that content with what they had before the beginning of the he depended on assistance from the Asiatics, who were

in alliance with Rome, or from the Egyptians. Bat Some time after this, Prusias having made an unna- when he came thither, he found both the Syrians and tural attempt on the life of his son Nicomedes, the lat- Egyptians so reduced, that he could not expect any as ter rebelled, and with the assistance of Attalus, drove sistance from them. However, he was soon supplied his father from the throne, and, as is said, even mur- with troops in plenty by the kings of Pontus, Bithynia, dered him in the temple of Jupiter. The Romans took Cappadocia, and Paphlagonia ; but managed matters so no notice of these transactions, but showed the same ill, that he was entirely defeated and taken prisover, kindness to Attalus as formerly. The last enterprise in Those who took him, designed to carry him to Aristowhich we find Attalus engaged, was against Andriseus nicus ; but be, not able to endure the disgrace, would the pretended son of Perses king of Macedon, where he bave laid violent liands on himself if he had not been assisted the Romans; after which he gave himself up disarmed. However, being allowed to keep a rod for entirely to ease and luxury, committing state affairs en- managing the horse on which he sat, be struck a Thra. tirely to his ministers ; and thus continued to his death, cian soldier who stood near bim so violently with it, which happened in the 82d year of his age, about 138 that he beat out one of his eyes ; upon which the otber B. C.

drew his sword, and run him through on the spot. Attalus II. was succeeded by Attalus III. the son of His head was brought to Aristonicus, who exposed Eumenes ; for the late king, considering that he only it to public view ; but the body was honourably bubeld the crown as a trust for his nephew, passed by his ried. own children in order to give it to him, though he ap- Aristonicus had no great time to enjoy the fruits of pears to have been by no means of worthy of it. He is his victory. Indeed he behaved very improperly after said to have been deprived of his senses through the vio- it; for, instead of preparing to oppose the next army, lence of his grief for his mother's death; and indeed, which he might bave been assured the Romans would throughout his whole reign, he behaved more like a send against him, he spent his time in feasting and remadman than any thing else. Many of his subjects of velling. But he was soon roused out of his lethargy by the highest quality were cut off with their wives and Perpenna the new consul, who having assembled with children, upon the most groundless suspicions ; and for incredible expedition the troops of the allies, came unthese executions be made use of mercenaries hired out expectedly upon him, obliged him to venture an enfrom among the most barbarous nations. Thus be pro- gagement at a disadvantage, and entirely defeated him. ceeded till he had cut off all the best men in the king- Aristonicus led to a city called Stratonice, but was so dom; after which he fell into a deep melancholy, ima- closely pursued by the conqueror, that the garrison hagining that the ghosts of those whom he had murdered ving no method of supplying themselves with provisions, were perpetually haunting him. On this he shut him- delivered up their leader, as well as a philosopher named self up in his palace, put on a mean apparel, let his hair Blosius, whe had been the companion and counsellor of and beard grow, and sequestered himself from all man- Aristonicus. The philosopher behaved with great resokind. At last he withdrew from the palace, and retired lution after being taken, and openly defended his siding into a garden, which he cultivated with bis own hands, with Aristonicus, because he thought his cause just. and filled with all sorts of poisonous herbs. These lie He exhorted the latter to prevent the disgrace and miused to mix with wholesome pulse, and send packets of sery of captivity by a voluntary death ; but Aristonithem to such as he suspected. At last, being weary of cus, looking upon death as a greater misery than any this amusement, and living in solitude, because nobody captivity, suffered himself to be treated as his conquerdurst approach him, he took it in his head to follow the ors pleased. trade of a founder, and make a brazen monument. But, In the mean time, a new consul named Manius A. while he laboured at melting and casting the brass, the quilius, being arrived from Rome, sent a most haughty heat of the sun and furnace threw him into a fever, message to Perpenna, requiring him immediately to dewhich in seven days put an end to bis tyranny, after he liver up Aristonicus, as a captive belonging to his trihad sat on the throne five years.

umph when the war should be ended. With this deOn the death of the king, a will was found, by which mand Perpenna refused to comply, and his refusal had he left the Roman people heirs of all his goods ; upon almost produced a civil war. However, this was prewhich they seized on the kingdom, and reduced it to a vented by the death of Perpenna, which happened soon province of their empire by the name of Asia Proper. after the dispute commenced. The Pergamenians, notBut Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by an Ephesian withstanding the defeat and captivity of their leader, courtesan, reckoning himself the lawful heir to the still held out with such obstinacy, that Aquilius was crown, could by no means be satisfied with this usurpa- obliged to besiege, and take by force, almost every city tion of the Romans, and therefore assembled a consider in the kingdom. In doing this, he took a very effec



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Pergamus tual, though exceeding cruel method. Most of the ci.

PERICARDIUM, in Anatomy, a membranous bag Pericardi11 ties in the kingdom had no other water than what was filled with water, which contains the heart in man and

brought from a considerable distance in aqueducts. many other animals. It is formed by a duplicature 0 These Aquilius did not demolish, but poisoned the wa- of the mediastinum, or membrane which divides the

Perigraphe. ter, which produced the greatest abhorrence of him thorax into tivo unequal parts. See ANATOMY, No throughout all the east. At last, however, the whole country being reduced, Aquilius triumphed, the unhap- PERICARPIUM, (from trigo, “round," and sugitos,

ragros, j'y Aristonicus was led in chains before his chariot, and “ fruit,”) the seed-vessel ; that organ of a plant containprobably ended his miserable life in a dungeon. The ing the seeds, which it discharges when ripe. The seed. country remained subject to the Romans while their vessel is in fact the developed seed-bud, and may very empire lasted, but is now in the hands of the Turks. properly be compared to the fecundated ovary in aniThe city is half ruined, and is still known by the name mals; for it does not exist till after the fertilizing of of Pergamus. It is inhabited by about 3000 Turks, the seeds by the male dust, and the consequent fall of and a few families of poor Christians. E. Long. 27. the flower. All plants, however, are not furnished

27. N. Lat. 30. 3.

with a secd-vessel ; in such as are deprived of it, the
PERGUNNAH, in the language of Hindostan, receptacle or calyx performs its functions by inclosing
means the largest subdivision of a province, whereof the the seeds as in a matrix, and accompanying them to
revenues are brought to one particular head Cutchery, perfect maturity.
from whence the accounts and cash are transmitted to PERICHORUS, in antiquity, a name given by the
the general Cutchery of the province.

Greeks to their profane games or combats, that is, to
PERIAGOGE, in Rhetoric, is used where many such as were not consecrated to any of the gods.
things are accumulated into one period which might PERICLES, was one of the greatest men that ever
have been divided into several.

flourished in Greece. He was educated with all ima-
PERIAGUA, a kind of large canoe made use of ginable care ; and beside other masters, he had for his
in the Leeward islands, South America, and the gulf tutors Zeno, Eleates, and Anaxagoras. He learned
of Mexico. It is composed of the trunks of two trees from the last of these to fear the gods without supersti-
hollowed and united together; and thus differs from the tion, and to account for an eclipse from a natural cause.
canoe, which is formed of one tree.

Many were unjust enough to suspect him of atheism,
PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinth and Corcyra, because he had perfectly studied the doctrine of that
was reckoned among the seven wise men of Greece; philosopher. He was a man of undoubted courage ;
thougla he might rather have been reckoned among and of such extraordinary eloquence, supported and im-
the most wicked men, since he changed the govern- proved by knowledge, that he gained almost as great
ment of his country, deprived his countrymen of their an authority under a republican government as if he
liberty, usurped the sovereignty, and committed the had been a monarch; but yet he could not escape the
most shocking crimes. In the beginning of his reign satirical strokes of the comic poets. His dissoluteness
he behaved with mildness; but after his having sent with women was one of the vices with which he was
to the tyrant of Syracuse to consult him on the safest chiefly charged. He died the third year of the Pelo-
method of government, he abandoned bimself to cruel. ponnesian war, after long sickness, which had weaken-
ty. The latter, having beard Periander's envoys, took ed his understanding. Aspasia, Pericles's favourite,
them into a field, and, instead of answering them, was a learned woman of Miletus: she taught Socrates
pulled up

before them the ears of corn which exceed- rhetoric and politics. As Pericles cared not much for
ed the rest in height. Periander, on being told of his wife, he willingly gave her op to another, and mar-
this action, understood what was meant by it. He ried Aspasia, whom he passionately loved.
first secured himself by a good guard, and then put

PERICRANIUM, in Anatomy, a thick solid coat
the most powerful Corinthians to death. He aban. or membrane covering the outside of the cranium or
doned himself to the most enormous crimes ; commit- skull. See ANATOMY, N° 4.
ted incest with his mother, kicked to death his wife PERIGEE, in Astronomy, that point of the sun
Melissa, daughter of Procles king of Epidaurus, not- or moon's orbit wherein they are at the least distance
withstanding her being with child; and was so enraged from the earth; in which sense it stands opposed to
at Lycophron, his second son, for lamenting his mo- apogee.
ther's death, that he banished him into the island of PERIGORD, a province of France, which makes
Corcyra. Yet he passed for one of the greatest poli- part of Guienne, bounded on the north by Angoumois
ticians of his time, and Heraclides tells us, that he and a part of Marche, and on the east by Quercy and
forbade voluptuousness; that he imposed no taxes, con- Limosin ; on the south by Agenois and Bazadois ; and
tenting himself with the custom arising from the sale on the west, by Bourledois, Angumois, and a part of
and the import and export of commodities; that, though Saintonge. It is about 83 miles in length, and 60 in
wicked bimself

, he hated the wicked, and caused all breadth. It abounds in iron mines, and the air is pure pimps to be drowned ; lastly, that he established a se. and healthy. Perigueux is the capital town.

nate, and settled the expence of its members. He died PERIGORD-Stone, is supposed to be an ore of manga-

nese, of a dark gray colour, like basalt.
PERIANTHIUM, (fiom mig, “ round,” and cybos,

PERIGRAPHÉ, a word usually understood to ex" the flower,") the flower cup properly so called, the press a careless or inaccurate delineation of any thing; most common species of calyx, placed immediately un- but in Vesalius it is used to express the white lines or der the flower, which is contained in it as in a cup. impressions that appear on the musculus rectus of the Sce BOTANY Index.

abdomen. Vol. XVI. Part I.




585 B. C.


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Perigueux PERIGUEUX, an ancient town of France, capital Hipparchus's Period, is a series of 304 solar years, Period.

11 of the province of Perigord, seated on the river Isle, returning in a constant round, and restoring the new Period,

in E. Long. 0. 33. N. Lat. 45. 18. It is remark- and full moons to the same day of the solar year, ac-
able for the ruins of the temple of Venus, and an am- cording to the sentiment of Hipparchus.

This period

arises by multiplying the Calippic period by four.PERIHELIUM, in Astronomy, that part of a pla- Hipparchus assumed the quantity of the solar year to net or comet's orbit wherein it is in its least distance be 365 days 5 hours 55' 12'; and hence concluded, from the sun; in which sense it stands in opposition to that in 104 years Calippus's period would err a whole apbelium.

day. He therefore multiplied the period by four,
PERIMETER, in Geometry, the bounds or limits and from the product cast away an entire day. But
of any figure or body. The perimeters of surfaces or even this does not restore the new and full nioons to
figures are lines ; those of bodies are surfaces. In cir- the same day throughout the whole period; but they
cular figures, instead of perimeter, we say circumfe- are sometimes anticipated 1 day 8 hours 23' 29" 20".
rence, or periphery.

PERINÆUM, or PERINEUM, in Anatomy, the Julian Period. See JULIAN.
space between the anus and the parts of generation, PERIOD, in Grammar, denotes a small compass o
divided into two equal lateral divisions by a very distinct discourse, containing a perfect sentence, and distin-
line, which is longer in males than in females. guished at the end by a point, or full stop, thus (.);

PERIOD, in Astronomy, the time taken up by a and in members or divisions marked by commas, co-
star or planet in making a revolution round the sun; or lons, &c.
the duration of its course till it return to the same part Father Buffier observes two difficolties in the use of
of its orbit. See PLANET.

the period, or point; i. e. in distinguishing it from the
The different periods and mean distances of the seve- colon, or double point; and in determining justly the
ral planets are as follows :

end of a period, or perfect sentence. It is remarked

that the supernumerary members of a period, separated Days. h.

mean Dist.

from the rest by colons and semicolons, usually com-


1908352 mence with a conjunction: yet it is true these same con-
10759 51

954-72 junctions sometimes rather begin new periods than su-
4332 14 27

520279 pernumerary members of old ones. It is the sense of
686 23 30 35

152369 things, and the author's own discretion, that must make

365 6


the proper distinction which of the two in effect it is.
224 16 49

72333 No rules will be of any service, unless this be admitted
87 23 15 43

38710 as one, that when what follows the conjunction is of as

much extent as what precedes it, it is usually a new pe-
There is a wonderful harmony between the distances , iod; otherwise not.
of the planets from the sun, and their periods round The second difficulty arises hence, that the sense ap-
him ; the great law whereof is, that the squares of pears perfect in several short detached phrases, wherein
the periodical times of the primary planet, are to each does not seem there should be periods ; a thing pre-
other as the cubes of their distances from the sun ? quent in free discourse: as, We are all in suspense: make
and likewise, the squares of the periodical times of the

your proposals immediately: you will be to blame for
secondaries of any planet are to each other as the detaining us longer. Where it is evident, that simple
cubes of their distances from that primary. This har- phrases have perfect senses like periods, and ought to be
mony among the planets is one of the greatest confir- marked accordingly; but that the shortness of the dis-
mations of the Copernican hypothesis. See ASTRO- course making them easily comprehended, the pointing
NOMY, P. 100 and 101.

is neglected.
For the periods of the moon, see Moon, ASTRONOMY De Colonia defines period a short but perfect sen-

tence, consisting of certain parts or members, depending
The periods of several comets are now pretty well one on another, and connected together by some com-
ascertained. See ASTRONOMY, N° 306.

mon vinculum. The celebrated definition of Aristotle PERIOD, in Chronology, denotes a revolution of a is, a period is a discourse which has a beginning, a certain number of years, or a series of years, whereby, middle, and an end, all visible at one view. Rhetoriin different nations, and on different occasions, time is cians consider period, which treats of the structure of measured; such are the following.

sentences, as one of the four parts of composition. The
Calippic PERIOD, a system of seventy-six years. See periods allowed in oratory are three : A period of two

members, called by the Greeks dicolos, and by the La-
Dionysian Period, or Victorian Period, a system of tins bimembris; a period of three members, tricolos, tri-
532 lunæ-solar and Julian years; wbich being elapsed, mcmbris; and a period of four, quadrimembris,retracolos.
the characters of the moon fall again upon the same See PunctuATION.
day and feria, and revolve in the same order, accord- PERIOD, in numbers, is a distinction made by a point
ing to the opinion of the ancients.

or comma, after every sixth place, or figure; and is used
This period is otherwise called the great paschal in numeration, for tbe readier distinguishing and naming
cycle, because the Christian church first used it to find the several figures or places; which see under NUMERA-
the true time of the pascha or easter. The sum of these
years arises by multiplying together the cycles of the PERIOD, in Medicine, is applied to certain diseases
sun and moon.

which have intervals and returns, to denote an entire








Peripate. again.


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Period course or circle of such disease; or its progress from and metaphysical about the first being, his affections,
any state through all the rest till it return to the same truth, unity, goodness, &c. from the Scriptures; and

adds from Clearchus, one of Aristotle's scholars, that
Galen describes period as a time composed of an in- he made use of a certain Jew, who assisted bins there-
tension and remission; whence it is usually divided into in.
two parts, the paroxysm or exacerbation, and remis- Aristotle's philosophy preserved itself in puris natura-

libus for a long time : in the earlier ages of Christianity,
In intermitting fevers, the periods are usually stated the Platonic philosophy was generally preferred; but
and regular ; in other diseases, as the epilepsy, gout, this did not prevent the doctrine of Aristotle from for-
&c. they are vague or irregular.

cing its way into the Christian church. Towards the PERIOD, in Oratory. See there, No 47.

end of the fifth century, it rose into great credit ; the PERIODIC, or PERIODICAL, something that ter- Platonics interpreting in their schools some of the wriminates and comprehends a period ; such is a periodic tings of Aristotle, particularly his dialectics, and remonth; being the space of time wherein the moon di- commending them to young persons.

This appears to spatches her period.

have been the first step to that universal dominion which PERIOECI, Wigioixos, in Geography, such inhabitants Aristotle afterwards obtained among the learned, wbich of the earth as have the same latitudes, but opposite was at the same time much promoted by the controverlongitudes, or live under the same parallel and the same sies which Origen had occasioned. This father was meridian, but in different semicircles of that meridian, zealously attached to the Platonic system; and there. or in opposite points of the parallel. These have the fore, after his condemnation, many, to avoid the impusame common seasons throughout the year, and the same tation of his errors, and to prevent their being counted phenomena of the heavenly bodies; but when it is noon- among the number of his followers, openly adopted the day with the one, it is midnight with the other, there philosophy of Aristotle. Nor was any philosophy more being twenty-four hours in an east or west direction. proper for furnishing those weapons of subtle distinctions These are found on the globe by the hour-index, or by and captious sophisms, which were used in the Nestorian, turning the globe half round, that is, 180 degrees either Arian, and Eutychian controversies. About the end way.

of the sixth century, the Aristotelian philosophy, as well PERIOSTEUM, or PERIOSTIUM, in Anatomy, a


as science in general, was almost universally decried ; nervous vascular membrane, endued with a very quick and it was chiefly owing to Boetius, who explained and sense, immediately surrounding, in every part, both the recommended it, that it obtained a bigher degree of internal and external surfaces of all the bones in the bo

the Latins than it bad hitherto enjoyed. dy, excepting only so much of the teeth as stand above Towards the end of the seventh century, the Grecko the gums, and the peculiar places on the bones in which abandoned Plato to the monks, and gave themselves up the muscles are inserted. It is hence divided into the entirely to the direction of Aristotle ; and in the next external and internal periosteum; and where it exter- century, the Peripatetic philosophy, was taught everynally surrounds the bones of the skull, it is generally where in their public schools, and propagated in all placalled the pericranium. See ANATOMY Index.

ces with considerable success. John Damascenus very PERIPATETICS, philosophers, followers of Ari- much contributed to its credit and influence, by comstotle, and maintainers of the peripatetic philosophy; posing a concise, plain, and comprehensive view of the called also Aristotelians. Cicero says, that Plato left doctrines of the Stagirite, for the instruction of the two excellent disciples, Xenocrates and Aristotle, who more ignorant, and in a manner adapted to common cafounded two sects, which only differed in name : the pacities. Under the patronage of Photius, and the proformer took the appellation of Academics, who were tection of Bardas, the study of philosophy for some those that continued to hold their conferences in the time declined, but was revived again about the end of Academy, as Plato had done before; the others, who the ninth century. About the middle of the sith cenfollowed Aristotle, were called Peripatetics, from trigira- tury, a revolution in philosophy commenced in France;

“I walk;" because they disputed walking in the when several famous logicians, who followed Aristotle Lyceum.

as their guide, took nevertheless the liberty of illustraAmmonius derives the name Peripatetic from Plate ting and modelling anew his philosophy, and extending himself, who only taught walking; and adds, that the it far beyond its ancient limits. In the 12th century, disciples of Aristotle, and those of Xenocrates, were three methods of teaching philosophy were in use by equally called Peripatetics; the one Peripatetics of the the different doctors : the first was the ancient and plain Academy, the other Peripatetics of the Lyceum : but method, which confined its researches to the philosophithat in time the former quitted the title Peripatetic for cal notions of Porphyry, and the dialectic system, comthat of Academic, on account of the place where they monly attributed to St Augustine, and in which was assembled ; and the latter retained simply that of Peri- laid down this general rule, that philosophical inquiries patetic. The greatest and best part of Aristotle's phi- were to be limited to a small number of subjects, lest losophy was borrowed from Plato. Serranus asserts, and by their becoming too extensive, religion might suffer says he could demonstrate, that there is nothing exqui- by a profane mixture of buman subtilty with its divine site in any part of Aristotle's philosophy, dialectics, wisdom. The second method was called the Aristoethics, politics, physics, or metaphysics, but is found telian, because it consisted in explications of the works in Plato. And of this opinion are many of the ancient of that philosopher, several of whose books being transauthors, such as Clemens Alexandrinus, &c. Gale at- lated into Latin, were almost everywhere in the bands tempts to show, that Aristotle borrowed a good deal of of the learned. The third was termed the free method, his philosophy, both physical, about the first matter, employed by such as were bold enough to search



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