« AnteriorContinua »
Pepin narchs, was mayor of the palace to Childeric III. a and being examined by the microscope, will be seen all Pepper
11 weak prince: he contrived to confine him and his son in motion : the animals, at first sight, are so small as not Pepper. Thierri in different monasteries : and then, with the to be distinguishable, unless to the greatest magnifiers;
11 Water. assistance of Pope Stephen III. he usurped the sovereign but they grow daily till they arrive at their full size. Perambulapower. He died in 768, aged 54.
Their numbers are also continually increasing, till the PEPLIS, a genus of plants belonging to the hexan- whole surface of the liquor is full of them, to a considerdria class, and in the natural method ranking under able depth. When disturbed, they will sometimes all the 17th order, Calycanthemæ, See BOTANY Index. dart down to the bottom; but they soon after come up
PEPLUS, a long robe worn by the women in an- to the surface again. The skin appears soonest in warm
cient times, reaching down to the feet, without sleeves, weather, and the animals grow the quickest: but in the
and so very fine, that the shape of the body might be severest cold it will succeed, unless the water freezes.
seen through it. The Athenians used much ceremony About the quantity of a pin's head of this scum,
in making the peplus, and dressing the statue of Miner- taken up on the nib of a new pen, or the tip of a hair-
va with it. Homer makes frequent mention of the pep-' pencil, is to be laid on a plate of clear glass; and if
Jus of that goddess.
applied first to the third magnifier, then to the second,
PEPPER, PIPER, in Natural History, an aromatic and finally to the first, will show the diflerent animal.
berry of a hot quality, chiefly used in seasoning. We cules it contains, of several kinds and shapes as well as
have three kinds of pepper at present used in the shops, sizes.
the black, the white, and the long pepper.
PEPPERMINT-TREE. See EUCALYPTUS, BOTA-
Black pepper is the fruit of the piper, and is brought NY Index.
from the Dutch settlements in the East Indies. See PERA, one of the suburbs of Constantinople, where
PIPER, BOTANY Index.
Ambassadors and Christians usually reside. See Con-
The common white pepper is factitious, being pre- STANTINOPLE.
pared from the black in the following manner: they
PERAMBULATOR, in surveying, an instrument
steep this in sea-water, exposed to the heat of the sun for measuring distances, called also odometer, pedometer,
for several days, till the rind or outer bark longens; they way-wiser, and surveying-wheel.
then take it out, and, when it is half dry, rub it till the It connsists of a wheel AA, fig. 1. two feet seven
rind falls off ; then they dry the white fruit, and the re- inches and a half in diameter; consequently half a pole, CCCCIX.
mains of the rind blow away like chaff. A great deal or eight feet three inches, in circunference. On one fig. 1.
of the heat of the pepper is taken off by this process, so end of the axis is a nut, three quarters of an inch in dia-
that the white kind is more fit for many purposes than
meter, and divided into eight teeth ; which, upon mothe black. However, there is a sort of native white ving the wheel round, fall into the eight teeth of anpepper produced on a species of the same plant; which other nut c, fixed on one end of an iron-rod Q, and is much better than the factitious, and indeed little in. thus turn the rod once round in the time the wheel ferior to the black.
makes one revolution. This rod, lying along a groove
The long pepper is a dried fruit, of an inch or an in the side of the carriage of the instrument, under the
inch and a half in length, and about the thickness of dotted line, bas at its other end a square hole, into which
a large goose quill: it is of a brownish gray colour, cy- is fitted the end 6 of a small cylinder P. This cylinder
lindrical in figure, and said to be produced on a plant is disposed under the dial-plate of a movement, 'at the
of the same genus.
end of the carriage B, in such a manner as to be move-
Pepper is principally used by us in food, to assist di. able about its axis : its end a is cut into a perpetual
gestion : but the people in the East Indies esteem it screw, which falling into the 32 teeth of a wheel per-
as a stomachic, and drink a strong infusion of it in wa. pendicular thereto, upon driving the instrument forward,
ter by way of giving them an appetite: they have al- that wheel makes a revolution each 16th pole. On the
so a way of making a fiery spirit of fermented fresh axis of this wheel is a pinion with six teeth, which fall-
pepper with water, which they use for the same pur. ing into the teeth of another wheel of 60 teeth, carries
poses. They have also a way of preserving the com. it round every 16oth pole, or half a mile.
mon and long pepper in vinegar, and eating them af. This last wheel, carrying a hand or index round with
terwards at meals.
it over the divisions of a dial-plate, whose outer limb is Jamaica Pepper, or Pimento. See LAURUS, Bo. divided into 160 parts, corresponding to the 160 poles, TANY Index.
points out the number of poles passed over. Again, on PEPPER-Mint. See MENTHA, BOTANY and MA- the axis of this last wheel is a pinion, containing 20 TERIĄ MEDICA Inde.v.
teeth, which falling into the teeth of a third wheel PEPPER-Pot. See CAPSicum, BOTANY Index. which hath 40 teeth, drives it onco round in 320 poles,
Pepper-Water, a liquor prepared in the following or a mile. On the axis of this wheel is a pinion of 12
manner, for microscopical observations : Put common teeth, which, falling into the teeth of a fourth wheel
black pepper, grossly powdered, into an open vessel so having 72 teeth, drives it once round in 12 miles.
as to cover the bottom of it half an inch thick, and This fourth wheel, carrying another index over the
put to it rain or river water till it covers it an inch ; inner limh of the dial-plate, divided into 12 for miles,
shake or stir the whole well together at the first mix and each mile subdivided into balves, quarters, and fur:
ing, but never disturb it afterwards : let the vessel be longs, serves to register the revolutions of the other
exposed to the air uncovered ; and in a few days there hand, and to keep account of the half miles and miles
will be seen a pellicle or thin skin swimming on the sur. passed over as far as 12 miles.
faoo of the liquor, presenting several colours.
The use of this instrument is obvious from its con-
This is a congeries of multitudes of small animals; struction. Its proper office is in the surveying of roads
Perainbula- and large distances, where a great deal of expedition, It has been susposed that the ancient Romans were Pera
and not much accuracy, is required. It is evident, that acquainted with an instrument of this kind. The foundriving it along and observing the hands, has the same dation of this opinion is an expression of Julius Capitoeffect as dragging the chain and taking account of the linus in his life of the emperor Pertinax. The words
Perce chains and liuks.
are, Et alia (vehicula), iter metientia, et horas monIts advantages are its hardiness and expedition ; its strantia.”
strantia.” “Carriages for measuring the length of the contrivance is such, that it may be fitted to the wheel road, and marking the time of the journey." of a coach, in which state it performs its office, and PERCA, the PERCH; a genus of fishes belonging to measures the road without any trouble at all.
the order of thoracici. See ICHTHYOLOGY Index. :. The following is a description of an instrument in- PERCEPTION, is a word which is so well undervented by Mr Edgeworth for the same purpose. stood, that it is difficult for the lexicographer to give
This odometer,” says Mr Edgeworth,“ is more any explanation of it. It has been called the first and simple than any which I have seen, is less liable to be most simple act of the mind by which it is conscious out of order, and may be easily attached to the axle- of its own ideas. This definition, however, is improtree bed of a post-chaise, gig, or any other carriage. per, as it confounds perception with consciousness ; al
“ One turn and a half of a screw is formed round the though the objects of the former faculty are things withnave of one of the hinder wheels by a slip of iron three out us, those of the latter the energies of our own miods. quarters of an inch broad and one-eighth of an inch Perception is that power or faculty by which, through thick ; this is wound round the nave, and fastened to it the medium of the senses, we have the cognizance of by screws passing through five or six cocks, which are objects distinct and apart from ourselves, and learn that turned up at right angles on the slip of iron. The belix we are but a small part in the system of nature. By
so formed on the nave of the carriage wheel acts as a what process the senses give us this information, we Fig. 2.
worm or screw upon the teeth of the wheel A, fig. 2. have endeavoured to show elsewhere,(see METAPHYSICS,
upon the arbor of which another screw of brass B is Part I. chap. i.); and we should not again introduce
formed, wbich acts upon the brass wheel C. This wheel the subject, but to notice a singular opinion of a very
C serves also as a dial-plate, and is divided into miles, able writer, whose work has been given to the public
halves, quarters, and furlongs; the figures indicating the since our article alluded to had issued from the press.
miles are nearly three quarters of an inch long, so as to Dr Sayers has endeavoured to prove that no man can
be quite distinct; they are pointed out by the index perceive two objects, or be conscious of two ideas at the
D, which is placed as represented in the plate, in such same instant. If this be true, not only our theory of
a manner as to be easily seen from the carriage. time (see METAPHysics, Part II. chap. vii.) is grossly
“ These two brass wheels are mounted by the irons absurd, but even memory itself seems to be an imaginary
EE upon a block of wood F, eight inches long, two faculty. If a man be not conscious of his present exist.
inches thick; and five inches broad. This block may ence, at the very instant when he thinks of a past event,
be screwed upon the axle-tree-bed by two strong square- or reviews a series of past transactions, it is difficult, to
headed wood screws. If the carriage permits, this block us indeed impossible, to conceive what idea he can have
should be fixed obliquely on the axle-tree-bed, so that of time, or what he can mean when he says that he re-
the dial-plate may be raised up toward the eye of the members a thing. But let us examine the reasoning by
person locking out from the carriage.
which the ingenious author endeavours to establish his
“ H is a ratchet wheel attached to the arbor of the opinion.
wheel A, which, by means of the click I, allows the “ If we reflect (says het) upon the surprising velocity t Disquisie
wheel to be set with a key or bandle fitted to the squa- with which ideas pass through the mind, and the remark-tions Vieta-
red end of the arbor at K. L is a long spring screwed able rapidity with which the mind turns itself, or is di- and Lite-
on the block; it presses on the wheel A, to prevent it rected from one object of contemplation to another, this
from shaking by the motion of the carriage. A small might alone give us some suspicion that we may probably
triangular spring is put under the middle of the dial- be mistaken in supposing ideas to be synchronously per-
plate wheel for the same purpose.
ceived. Other arguments may be adduced to strengthen “ If the wheel of the carriage is exactly five feet three this suspicion. It will be granted, I believe, that the inches in circumference, the brass-toothed wheel which mind, whether immaterial or the result of organization, it turns should have twenty teeth, and that wbich serves has certainly a wholeness or unity belonging to it, and as a dial plate should have eighty; it will then count that it is either not composed of parts, or that no one of five miles. If the carriage wheel is either larger or the parts from which it originates is itself mind : in this smaller, a mile should be carefully measured on a smooth case,
it is difficult to conceive how two ideas should be road, and the number of turns which the carriage wheel impressed upon the mind at the same instant : for this makes in going this mile may easily be courted by tying would be supposing that part of the mind could receive a piece of fine packthread to one of the spokes, and let- one idea, and part another, at the same time; but if the ting the wheel, as it moves slowly forward, wind up the parts do not perceive singly, this is evidently impossible. packthread on its nave. When the wheel has proceed- if, on the other hand, this self-division of the mind does ed a half or a quarter of a mile, unwind the string and not take place, then if two ideas are nevertheless to be count the number of turns which it has made.
perceived at the same instant, it would seem that those By the addition of another wheel of eighty-one ideas must be so blended with each other, that neither of
teeth placed under the dial-plate wheel, and moved by them could appear distinct. If we examine the manner Nich
the screw C, with a proper hand fitted to it, and proper in which a complex idea is perceived, we shall find very
figures on the dial. plate, this machine would count four clearly, that the whole of such an idea is never present
bundred miles *."
to the mind at once. In thinking of a centaur, for in
Perception. stance, can we at the same moment be thinking of the from one mode of operation to another ; with which, Perception
parts of a man and the parts of a horse ? Can we not al- upon ackpowledged principles, it can have nothing in ll nost detect the gliding of the mind from the one to the
other? In contemplating the complex idea of gold, are By far the greater part of our ideas are relicts of
the ideas of its colour, ductility, hardness, and weight, visible sensations; and of every thing which we can ac-
all present to the mind at the same instant? I think, if tually see at once, we at once contemplate the idea.
we accurately attended to it, we shall find a perceptible That we could at once perceive a centaur, if such a be-
time has elapsed before this complex idea has been per- ing were presented to us, cannot surely be doubted by
fectly formed in our mind : but if all the parts of a com- any one who has ever looked at a man on horseback;
plex idea cannot be recalled at the same instant, is it not and therefore that we can at the same moment contem-
reasonable to infer that these parts are also singly impres- plate the whole idea of a centaur, is a fact of which con-
sed, and not all originally perceived at the same instant?” sciousness will not permit us to doubt.-It, indeed, we
This reasoning is plausible, but perhaps not convin- choose to analyze this complex idea into its component
cing. Surely we have all been conscious of bodily pain parts, it is self evident that the mind must glide from the
or pleasure with our eyes open, and been offended by one to the other, because the very analysis consists in
disagreeable smells at the very instant that we looked at the separation of the parts, of which, if after that pro-
objects beautifully coloured. That our ideas pass through cess we think of them, we must think in succession :
the mind with great velocity, and that the mind can but that we may have at the same instant, either an ac-
rapidly turn itself from one subject of contemplation to tual or ideal view of all the parts of :he centaur united,
another, are truths which cannot be controverted; but is a proposition so evident as to admit of no other proof
instead of leading us to suppose that two or more objects than an appeal to experience. In contemplating what
cannot be synchronously perceived, or two or more ideas the author calls the complex idea of gold, it cannot be
synchronously apprehended, they appear to furnish a denied that the ideas of its colour, ductility, bardness,
complete proof of the reverse of all this. For we beg and weight, are never all present to the mind at the
leave to ask how we come to know that ideas pass with same instant: but the reason is obvious. These are not
velocity through the mind, if we be not all the while all ideas, in the proper sense of the word, but some of
conscious of something that is permanent ? If we can them are ideas, and some notions, acquired by very dif-
contemplate but one idea at once, it is plainly impossi- ferent processes and very different faculties. "Colour is
ble that two or more can be compared together; and an idea of sensation, immediately suggested through the
therefore we cannot possibly say that any particular train organ of sight; ductility is a relative notion, acquired
has passed through the mind with a degree of velocity by repeated experiments; and gold might be made the
greater or less than that which we have usually experi- object of every sense, without suggesting any such no-
erced; nay, we cannot say that we have ever experi- tion. The writer of this article never saw any experi-
enced a train of ideas at all, or even been conscious of a ment made on the ductility of gold, and has therefore
single idea, besides the immediate object of present ap- a very obscure and indistinct notion of that property of
prehension. That the mind is an individual, we most the metal; but he is conscious, that he can perceive, at
readily grant; but that it should therefore be incapable the same instant, the yellow colour and circular figure
of having two ideas synchronously excited in it, is a pro- of a guinea, and have a very distinct, though relative
position for which the author has brought no evidence. notion, of its hardness.
That it is difficult to conceive how this is done, we ac- We conclude, therefore, that the mind is capable of
knowledge ; but not that it is more difficult than to con- two or more synchronous perceptions, or synchronous
ceive how a single idea is excited in the mind; for of ideas ; that during every train which passes through it,
the mode in which mind and matter mutually operate it is conscious of its own permanent existence; and that
on each other, we can form no conception. We know if it were limited to the apprehension of but one idea at
that objects make an impression on the organs of sense, once, it could have no remembrance of the past, or anti-
that this impression is by the nerves communicated to cipation of the future, but would appear to itself, could
the brain, and that the agitation of the brain excites it make any comparison, to pass away like a flash of
sensation in the mind : but in what way it excites sen- lightning.
sation we know not; and therefore have no reason to PERCH, in land-measuring, a rod or pole of 16
suppose that two or more different agitations may not feet in length, of which 40 in length and 4 in breadth
excite two or more synchronous sensations, as well as one make an acre of ground. But, by the customs of se.
agitation excites one sensation. That the agitation gi- veral counties, there is a difference in this measure. In
ven to the brain operates on the nind, is known by Staffordshire it is 24 feet; and in the forest of Sherwood
experience; but experience gives us no information re- 25 feet, the foot being there 18 inches long; and in
pecting the mode of that operation. If the mind be, as Herefordshire a percb of ditching is 21 feet, the perch
our author and we suppose, one individual, it cannot, as of walling 16 feet, and a pole of denshiered ground is
mind, be eitber divisible or extended ; and therefore it 12 feet, &c.
is certain that the operation in question cannot be, in Perch, a fish. See PERCA, ICHTHYOLOGY Index.
the proper sense of the word, impression. Hence we PERCHE, a territory of Orleannois in France, 35
have no right to infer, if two objects. be perceived at miles Jong, and 30 broad; bounded on the north by
once, either that the idea of the one must be impressed Normandy; on the south, by Maine and Dunois; on
on a part of the mind different from that which receives the east, by Beauce; and on the west by Maine. It
the impression of the other, or that the two impressions takes its name from a forest, and is pretty fertile. The
must be so blended with each other, that neither of inhabitants carry oo a pretty good trade ; and the prin-
shem could appear distinct ; for this would be to reason cipal town is Bellesme.