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Perambula- and large distances, where a great deal of expedition, It has been susposed that the ancient Romans were Perar

and not much accuracy, is required. It is evident, that acquainted with an instrument of this kind. The foundriving it along and observing the bands, has the same dation of this opinion is an expression of Julius Capito

Perce effect as dragging the chain and taking account of the linus in his life of the emperor Pertinax. The words chains and links.

art, Et alia (vehicula), iter metientia, et horas monIts advantages are its hardiness and expedition ; its strantia.” “Carriages for measuring the length of the contrivance is such, that it may be fitted to the wheel road, and marking the time of the journey." of a coach, in which state it performs its office, and PERCA, the PERCH; a genus of fishes belonging to measures the road without any trouble at all.

the order of thoracici. See ICHTHYOLOGY Index. The following is a description of an instrument in- PERCEPTION, is a word which is so well undervented by Mr Edgeworth for the same purpose.

stood, that it is difficult for the lexicographer to give “ This odometer,” says Mr Edgeworth, " is more any explanation of it. It has been called the first and simple than any which I have seen, is less liable to be most simple act of the mind by wbich it is conscious out of order, and may be easily attached to the axle- of its own ideas. This definition, bowever, is improtree bed of a post.chaise, gig, or any other carriage. per, as it confounds perception with consciousness; al

“ One turn and a half of a screw is formed round the though the objects of the former faculty are things withnave of one of the hinder wheels by a slip of iron three out us, those of the latter the energies of our own miods. quarters of an inch broad and one-eighth of an inch Perception is that power or faculty by which, through thick ; this is wound round the nave, and fastened to it the medium of the senses, we have the cognizance of by screws passing through five or six cocks, which are objects distinct and apart from ourselves, and learn that turned up at right angles on the slip of iron. The helix we are but a small part in the system of nature. By

so formed on the nave of the carriage wheel acts as a what process the senses give us this information, we Fig. 2.

worm or screw upon the teeth of the wheel A, fig. 2. have endeavoured to show elsewhere, (see METAPHYSICS,
upon the arbor of which another screw of brass B is Part I. cbap. i.); and we should not again introduce
formed, wbich acts upon the brass wheel C. This wheel the subject, but to notice a singular opinion of a very
C serves also as a dial-plate, and is divided into miles, able writer, whose work has been given to the public
halves, quarters, and furlongs; the figures indicating the since our article alluded to had issued from the press.
miles are nearly three quarters of an inch long, so as to Dr Sayers has endeavoured to prove that no man can
be quite distinct; they are pointed out by the index perceive two objects, or be conscious of two ideas at the
D, which is placed as represented in the plate, in such same instant. If this be true, not only our theory of
a manner as to be easily seen from the carriage. time (see METAPHYSICS, Part II. chap. vii.) is grossly

“ These two brass wheels are mounted by the irons absurd, but even memory itself seems to be an imaginary
EE upon a block of wood F, eight inches long, two faculty. If a man be not conscious of his present exist.
inches thick; and five inches broad. This block may ence, at the very instant when he thinks of a past event,
be screwed upon the axle-tree-bed by two strong square- or reviews a series of past transactions, it is difficult, to
headed wood screws. If the carriage permits, this block us indeed impossible, to conceive what idea he can bave
should be fixed obliquely on the axle-tree-bed, so that of time, or what he can mean when he says that he re-
the dial-plate may be raised up toward the eye of the members a thing. But let us examine the reasoning by
person looking out from the carriage.

which the ingenious author endeavours to establish his
“ H is a ratchet wheel attached to the arbor of the opinion.
wheel A, which, by means of the click I, allows the “ If we reflect (says he t) upon the surprising velocity Disquisi-
wheel to be set with a key or bandle fitted to the squa- with which ideas pass through the mind, and the remark-tions ieta-
red end of the arbor at K. L is a long spring screwed able rapidity with which the mind turns itself, or is di-physicale

and on the block; it presses on the wheel A, to prevent it rected from one object of contemplation to another, this rary. from shaking by the motion of the carriage. A small might alone give us some suspicion that we may probably triangular spring is put under the middle of the dial- be mistaken in supposing ideas to be synchronously

wheel for the same purpose.

ceived. Other arguments may be adduced to strengthen
“ If the wheel of the carriage is exactly five feet three this suspicion. It will be granted, I believe, that the
inches in circumference, the brass-toothed wheel wbich mind, whether immaterial or the result of organization,
it turns should have twenty teeth, and that which serves has certainly a wholeness or unity belonging to it, and
as a dial plate should have eighty; it will then count that it is either not composed of parts, or that no one of
five miles. If the carriage wheel is either larger or the parts from which it originates is itself mind : in this
smaller, a mile should be carefully measured on a smooth case, it is difficult to conceive how two ideas should be
road, and the number of turns which the carriage wheel impressed upon the mind at the same instant : for this
makes in going tbis mile may easily be courted by tying would be supposing that part of the mind could receive
a piece of fine packthread to one of the spokes, and Jet- one idea, and part another, at the same time; but if the
ting the wheel, as it moves slowly forward, wind up the parts do not perceive singly, this is evidently impossible.
packthread on its nave. When the wheel has proceed- if, on the other hand, this self-division of the mind does
ed a half or a quarter of a mile, unwind the string and not take place, then if two ideas are nevertheless to be
count the number of turns which it has made.

perceived at the same instant, it would seem that those “ By the addition of another wheel of ideas must be so blended with each other, that neither of

teeth placed under the dial-plate wheel, and moved by them could appear distinct. If we examine the manner Nich.

the screw C, with a proper hand fitted to it, and proper in which a complex idea is perceived, we shall find very
figures on the dial plate, this machine would count four clearly, that the whole of such an idea is never present
bundred miles

to the mind at once. In thinking of a centaur, for in




Jour. 15.



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Perception. stance, can we at the same moment be thinking of the from one mode of operation to another ; with which, Perception

parts of a man and the parts of a horse ? Can we not al- upon acknowledged principles, it can have nothing in
nost detect the gliding of the mind from the one to the

other? In contemplating the complex idea of gold, are By far the greater part of our ideas are relicts of
the ideas of its colour, ductility, bardness, and weight, visible sensations; and of every thing which we can ac-
all present to the mind at the same instant? I think, if tually see at once, we at once contemplate the idea.
we accurately attended to it, we shall find a perceptible That we could at once perceive a centaur, if such a be-
time has elapsed before this complex idea has been per- ing were presented to us, cannot surely be doubted by
fectly formed in our mind : but if all the parts of a com- any one who has ever looked at a man on horseback;
plex idea cannot be recalled at the same instant, is it not and therefore that we can at the same moment contem-
reasonable to infer that these parts are also singly impres- plate the whole idea of a centaur, is a fact of which con-
sed, and not all originally perceived at the same instant?” sciousness will not permit us to doubt.-It, indeed, we

This reasoning is plausible, but perhaps not convin- choose to analyze this complex idea into its component cing. Surely we have all been conscious of bodily pain parts, it is self evident that the mind must glide from the or pleasure with our eyes open, and been offended by one to the other, because the very analysis consists in disagreeable smells at the very instant that we looked at the separation of the parts, of which, if after that proobjects beautifully coloured. That our ideas pass through cess we think of them, we must think in succesion : the mind with great velocity, and that the mind can but that we may have at the same instant, either an acrapidly turn itself from one subject of contemplation to tual or ideal view of all the parts of :he centaur united, another, are truths which cannot be controverted ; but is a proposition so evident as to admit of no other proof instead of leading us to suppose that two or more objects than an appeal to experience. In contemplating what cannot be synchronously perceived, or two or more ideas the author calls the complex idea of gold, it cannot be synchronously apprehended, they appear to furnish a denied that the ideas of its colour, ductility, bardness, complete proof of the reverse of all this. For we beg and weight, are never all present to the mind at the leave to ask how we come to know that ideas


with same instant : but the reason is obvious. These are not
velocity through the mind, if we be not all the while all ideas, in the proper sense of the word, but some of
conscious of something that is permanent ? If we can them are ideas, and some notions, acquired by very dif-
contemplate but one idea at once, it is plainly impossi- ferent processes and very different faculties. Colour is
ble that two or more can be compared together; and an idea of sensation, immediately suggested through the
therefore we cannot possibly say that any particular train organ of sight; ductility is a relative notion, acquired
has passed through the mind with a degree of velocity by repeated experiments; and gold might be made the
greater or less than that which we have usually experi. object of every sense, without suggesting any such no-
esced; nay, we cannot say tbat we bave ever experi- tion. The writer of this article never saw any experi-
enced a train of ideas at all, or even been conscious of a ment made on the ductility of gold, and has therefore
single idea, besides the immediate object of present ap- a very obscure and indistinct notion of that property of
prehension. That the mind is an individual, we most the metal; but he is conscious, that he can perceive, at
readily grant; but that it should therefore be incapable the same instant, the yellow colour and circular figure
of having two ideas synchronously excited in it, is a pro- of a guinea, and have a very distinct, though relative.
position for which the author has brought no evidence. notion, of its hardness.
That it is difficult to conceive how this is done, we ac- We conclude, therefore, that the mind is capable of
knowledge ; but not that it is more difficult than to con- two or more synchronous perceptions, or synchronous
ceive how a single idea is excited in the mind; for of ideas; that during every train which passes through it,
the mode in which mind and matter mutually operate it is conscious of its own permanent existence; and that
on each other, we can form no conception. We know if it were limited to the apprehension of but one idea at
that objects make an impression on the organs of sense, once, it could have no remembrance of the past, or anti-
that this impression is by the nerves communicated to cipation of the future, but would appear to itself, could
the brain, and that the agitation of the brain excites it make any comparison, to pass away like a flash of
sensation in the mind : but in what way it excites sen- lightning.
sation we know not; and therefore have no reason to PERCH, in land-measuring, a rod or pole of 16
suppose that two or more different agitations may not feet in length, of which 40 in length and 4 in breadth
excite two or more synchronous sensations, as wellas one make an acre of ground. But, by the customs of se.
agitation excites one sensation. That the agitation gi- veral counties, there is a difference in this measure. In
ven to the brain operates on the mind, is known by Staffordshire it is 24 feet; and in the forest of Sherwood
experience; but experience gives us no information re- 25 feet, the foot being there 18 inches long; and in
pecting the mode of that operation. If the mind be, as Herefordshire a perch of ditching is 21 feet, the perch
our author and we suppose, one individual, it cannot, as of walling 16 feet, and a pole of denshiered ground is
mind, be eitber divisible or extended ; and therefore it 12 feet, &c.
is certain that the operation in question cannot be, in PERCH, a fish. See PERCA, ICHTHYOLOGY Inder.
the proper sense of the word, impression. Hence we PERCHE, a territory of Orleannois in France, 35
have no right to infer, if two objects. be perceived at miles Jong, and 30 broad; bounded on the north by
once, either that the idea of the one must be impressed Normandy; on the south, by Maine and Dunois; on
on a part of the mind different from that which receives the east, by Beauce; and on the west by Maine. It
che impression of the other, or that the two impressions takes its name from a forest, and is pretty fertile. The
must be so blended with each other, that neither of inbabitants carry on a pretty good trade; and the prin-
then could appear distinct; for this would be to reason cipal town is Bellesme.





Percolation PERCOLATION, a chemical operation which is perfume ; some are alo composed of aromatic herbs or Pe 11 the same with FILTRATION.

leaves, as lavender, marjoram, sage, thyme, byssop, &c. Perfume.

PERCUSSION, in Mechanics, the impression a The use of perfumes was frequent among the He- Pers body makes in falling or striking upon another; or the brews, and among the orientals in general, before it was shock of two bodies in motion. See DYNAMICS and known to the Greeks and Romans. In the time of MECHANICS.

Moses perfumes must have been known in Egypt, since PERDICIUM, a genus of plants, belonging to the he speaks of the art of the perfumer, and gives the comsyngenesia class; and in the natural method ranking position of two kinds of perfumes (Exod. xxx. 25.), of under the 49th order, Compositæ. See Botany Index. wbich one was to be offered to the Lord upon the

PERDIX, the partridge. See TETRAO, ORNITHO- golden altar which was in the holy place; and the LOGY Inder.

other was appointed for the anointing of the high PEREASLAW, a strong populous town of Poland, priest and bis sons (ibid. 34, &c.) as also of the taberin the palatinate of Kiovia, situated on the river Tribecz; nacle, and all the vessels that were used in divine serin E. Long. 32. 44. N. Lat. 49. 46.

vice. PERENNIALS, or PERENNIAL FLOWERS, in The Hebrews had also perfumes which they made Botany, a term applied to those plants whose roots use of in embalming their dead. The composition is abide many years, whether they retain their leaves in not known, but it is certain that they generally made winter or not. Those which retain their leaves are use of myrrh, aloes, and other strong and astringent called ever-greens ; but such as cast their leaves are drugs, proper to prevent putrefaction (John xix. 49.). nanied deciduous or perdifols.

See the article EMBALMING, PERFECT, something to which nothing is want- Besides the perfumes for these purposes, the Scripture ing, or that has all the requisites of its nature and mentions other occasions whereon the Hebrews used kind.

perfumes. The spouse in the Canticles (i. 3.) comPerfect Cadence, in Music. See CADENCE. mends the scent of the perfumes of her lover; and her Perfect Tense, in Grammar. See PRETERITE. lover in return says, that the scent of the perfumes of

PERFECTION, the state or quality of a thing his spouse surpasses the most excellent odours (id, iv. PERFECT.

10–14.). He names particularly the spikenard, the Perfection is divided, according to Chauvinus, into calamus, the cinnamon, the myrrh, and the aloes, as physical, moral, and metaphysical.

making a part of these perfumes. The voluptuous woPhysical or natural perfection, is that whereby a man described by Solomon (Prov. vji. 17.) says, that thing has all its powers and faculties, and those too she bad perfumed her bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnain full vigour; and all its parts both principal and se- The epicures in the book of Wisdom (ii. 7.) condary, and those in their due proportion, constitu, encourage one anotlier to the luxuriant use of odours tion, &c. in which sense man is said to be perfect and costly perfumes. when he has a sound mind in a sound body. This Isaiah (Ivii. 9.) reproaches Judea, whom he describes perfection is by the schools frequently termed gratimu, as a spouse faithless to God, with being painted and because a thing is enabled thereby to perform all its perfumed to please strangers, « Thou wentest to the operations.

king with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes." Moral perfection is an eminent degree of virtue or Ezekiel (xxiii. 41.) seems to accuse the Jews with moral goodness, to which men arrive by repeated acts having profaned the odours and perfumes, the use of of piety, beneficence, &c. This is usually subdivided which was reserved to sacred things, by applying them into absolute or inherent, which is actually in him to

to their own use.
whom we attribute it; and imputative, which exists in They came afterwards to be very common among
some other, and not in him it is attributed to.

the Greeks and Romans, especially those composed of
Metaphysical, transcendental, or essential perfection, musk, ambergris, and civet. The nardus and malo-
is the possession of all the essential attributes, or of all bathrum were held in much estimation, and were im-
the parts necessary to the integrity of a substance; or ported from Syria. The unguentum nardinum was va-
it is that whereby a thing has or is provided of every riously prepared, and contained many ingredients.
thing belonging to its nature. This is either absolute, Malobathrum was an Indian plant. Perfumes were a)-
where all imperfection is excluded, such is the perfec. so used at sacrifices to regale the gods; at feasts, to
tion of God; or secundum quid, and in its kind. increase the pleasures of sensation ; at funerals, to

overpower cadaverous sinells, and please the mages of

See ANATOMY, Table the dead; and in the theatres, to prevent the offen-
PERFORATUS MANUS. of the Muscles. sive eflluvia, proceeding from a crowd, from being per-

PERFUME, denotes either the volatile effluvia from Since people are become sensible of the harm they
any body affecting the organ of smelling, or the sub- do to the head, perfumes are generally disused among
stance emitting those effluvia; in which last sense the us; however, they are still common in Spain and Italy.
word is most commonly used. The generality of per- :

PERGAMA, (Virgil), the citadel of Troy; which,
fumes are made up of musk, ambergris, civet, rose and because of its extraordinary height, gave name to all
cedar woods, orange-flowers, jessamines, jonquils, tube- high buildings (Servius). Others say the walls of Troy
roses, and other odoriferous flowers. Those drugs com- were called Pergama.
monly called aromatics, such as storax, frankincense PERGAMUM, (Pliny); called also Pergamea,
benzoin, cloves, mace, &c. enter the composition of a.. (Virgil); Pergamia, (Plutarch; a town of Crete,





Pergamum, built by Agamemnon in memory of his victory, (Vel- ding to Liry, was the first of the Asiatic princes who Pergamus.
Pergamus. leius). Here was the burying-place of Lycurgus (Ari- refused to pay a contribution to these barbarians,

stoxenus, quoted by Plutarch). It was situated near When Seleucus Cerauuus was engaged in other wars, he
Cydonia (Servius); to what point not said: but Scylax invaded his territories, and conquered all the provinces
helps him out, who places the Dactynnean temple of on this side of Mount Taurus; but was soon driven
Diana, which stood near Cydonia (Strabo), to the north out of his new acquisitions by Seleucus and bis grand-
of the territory of Pergamia.--- Another PERGAMUM father Achæus, who entering into an alliance against
(Pliny, Strabo); a town of Mysia, situated on the Cai, him, deprived him of all his newly acquired territo-
cus, wbich runs by it. It was the royal residence of ries, and even besieged him in his capital. Upon this
Eumenes, and of the kings of the Attali (Livy). Attalus invited to his assistance the Gauls who had
There an ancient temple of Esculapius stood; an asy- settled in Thrace : and with their help not only obli.
lum (Tacitus). The ornament of Pergamum was the ged the enemy to raise the siege of Pergamus, but
royal library, vying with that of Alexandria in Egypt; quickly recovered all the provinces he had lost. Af-
the kings of Pergamum and Egypt rivalling each other ter this he invaded Ionia and the neighbouring pro-
in this respect (Pliny). Strabo ascribes this rivalry to vinces, where several cities voluntarily submitted to
Eumenes. Plutarch reckons up 200,000 volumes in him. The Teians, Coloplıonians, with the inhabitants
the library at Pergamum. Here the membrana perga- of Egea and Lemnos, sent deputies declaring themselves
mena, whence the name parchment, were invented for ready to acknowledge him for their sovereign ; the Car-
the use of books, (Varro, quoted by Pliny). The coun- senes, on the other side the river Lycus, opened their gates
try of Galen, and of Oribasius chief physician to Julian to him, having first expelled the governor set over them
the Apostate (Eunapius), called by some the ape of by Achæus. From thence he advanced to Apia, and
Galen. Here P. Scipio died (Cicero). Attalus son of encamping on the banks of the river Megithus, received
Eumenes dying without issue, bequeathed bis kingdom homage from the neighbouring nations. But here the
to the Roman people, who reduced it to a province, Gauls being frightened by an eclipse of the moon, re-
(Strabo). Pergameus, the epithet (Martial). Here fuse to proceed farther ; which obliged Attalus to re-
was one of the nine conventus juridici, or assemblies of turn to the Hellespont, where he allowed his allies to
the Asia Romana, called Pergamenus, and the ninth settle, giving them a large and fruitful territory, and
in order (Pliny); which he also calls jurisdictio Per- promising that he would always assist and protect them

to the utmost of his power.
PERGAMUS, an ancient kingdom of Asia, form- Attalus having thus settled his affairs with equal
ed out of the ruins of the empire of Alexander the honour and advantage to himself, entered into an al-
Great. It commenced about the year 283 B. C. The liance with Rome, and afterwards joined them in their
first sovereign was one Philetærus an eunuch, by birth war against Philip king of Macedon, Here he had the
a Paphlagonian, of a mean descent, and in his youth a command of the Rhodian fleet; with which he not only
menial servant to Antigonus one of Alexander's cap- drove the Macedonians quite out of the seas, but having
tains. He afterwards served Lysimachus king of Ma- !anded bis men, he, in conjunction with the Athenians,
cedon and Thrace, who appointed him keeper of his invaded Macedon, and obliged Philip to raise the siege
treasures lodged in Pergamus. While be held this of Athens, which he had greatly distressed; for which
employment, having fallen under the displeasure of services the Athenians not only heaped on him all the
Arsinoe wife to Lysimachus, she found means to make favours they could, but called one of their tribes by his
a quarrel between him and his master; upon wbich name ; an honour they had never bestowed on any

Philetæras seized on the castle of Pergamus, together reigner before..
with the treaures entrusted to his care, amounting to Attalus, not contented with all he had yet done
90,000 talents. At first he offered his service, toge. against Philip, attempted to form a general confederacy
ther with his treasure, to Seleucus king of Syria : of the Greeks against him. But while he was ha-
but both Seleucus and Lysimachus dying soon after, ranguing the Boeotians to this purpose, and exhorting
be kept possession of the town and treasure also till his them with great vehemence to enter into an alliance
death ; which happened 20 years after his revolt from with the Romans against their common enemy, he fell

down speechless. However he came to himself again,
Philetærus left the city of Pergamus to his brother, and desired to be carried by sea from Thebes to Perga-
or, according to some, to his brother's son Eumenes I. mus, where he died soon after his arrival, in the 720
and he, laying hold of the opportunity offered by year of his age and 43d of his reign.
the dissensions among the Seleucidæ, possessed himself This prince was a man of great generosity, and such
of many strong-bolds in the province of Asia; and an enthusiast in learning and learned men, that he
having hired a body of Galatians, defeated Antiochus caused a grammarian named Daphidas to be thrown in-
at he was returning from a victory gained over his bro- to the sea from the top of a biglı rock, because he
ther Seleveus Callinicus. By this victory be obtained spoke disrespectfully of Homer.
possession of the greater part of Asia : however, he Attalus was succeeded by his eldest son Eumenes II.
did not long enjoy his acquisitions ; for he died next He was exceedingly attached to the Romans, insomuch
year of immoderate drinking, a vice to which he was that he refused the daughter of Antiochus the Great in
greatly addicted.

marriage, lest he should thus have been led into a dif-
Eumenes was succeeded by Attalus I, nephew ofference with that people. He also gave notice to the
Philetærus, and the first who took upon him the title Roman senate of the transactions of Ariarathes king of
of king of Pergamus. He defeated the Gauls, who Cappadocia, who was making great preparations both ,
were desirous of settling in his territory; and, accor- by sea and land. Nor did Eumenes stop here ; for


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Pergamus. when he saw the war about to break out between An- golden crown, worth 15,000 talents, to complain of Pergam

tiochus and the Romans, he sent his brother Attalus Prusias for making war on the allies of the Roman
to Rome to give information of the proceedings of people without any provocation. The senate accepted
Antiochus. The senate heaped honours both on Eu- the present, and promised to adjust every thing to the
menes and bis brother; and in the war which followed, satisfaction of their friend Eumenes, whom they look-
gave the command of their fleet to the king of Perga- ed upon to be the most steady ally they had in Asia.
mus in conjunction with C. Livius Salinator. The But in the mean time Prusias, having ventured another
victory gained on this occasion was in a great measure sea-fight, by a contrivance of Hannibal's gained a
owing to Eumenes, who boarded some of the enemy's complete victory. The Carthaginian commander ad-
ships in person, and during the whole action behaved vised him to fill a great many earthen vessels with va-
with uncommon bravery. Some time afterwards Eu- rious kinds of serpents and other poisonous reptiles,
menes, entering the territories of Antiochus with a and in the heat of the fight to throw them into the
body of 5000 men, ravaged all the country about enemies ships so as to break the pots and let the ser-
Thyatira, and returned with an immense booty. But pents loose. All the soldiers and seamen were com-
in the mean time Antiochus invading Pergamuis in his manded to attack the ship in which Eumenes was,
turn, ravaged the whole country, and even laid siege and only to defend themselves as well as they could
to the capital. Attalus, the king's brother, held out against the rest ; and that they might be in no danger
with a handful of men till the Achæans, who were of mistaking the ship, a herald was sent before the en-
in alliance with Eumenes, sent 1000 foot and 100 gagement with a letter to the king. As soon as the
horse to his assistance. As this small body of auxili- two fleets drew near, all the ships of Prusias, singling
aries were all chosen men, and commanded by an ex- out that of Eamenes, discharged such a quantity of
perienced officer, they behaved with such bravery that serpents into it, that neither soldiers nor sailors could
the Syrians were obliged to raise the siege. At the do their duty, but were forced to fly to the shore, lest
battle of Magnesia, too, Eumenes behaved with the they should fall into the enemy's hands. The other
greatest bravery: not only sustaining the first attack slips, after a faint resistance, followed the king's ex-
of the enemy's elephants, but driving them back again ample, and were all driven ashore with great slaughter,
on their own troops, which put the ranks in dis- the soldiers being no less annoyed by the stings of the
order, and gave the Romans an opportunity of giving serpents, than by the weapons of the enemy. The
them a total defeat by attacking them opportunely greatest part of the ships of Eumenes were burnt, several
with their horse. In consequence of this defeat, Anti- taken, and the others so much shattered that they be-
ochus was obliged to conclude a peace with the Romans came quite unserviceable. The same year Prusias gain-
on such terms as they pleased to prescribe ; one of ed two remarkable victories over Eumenes by land,
which was, that he should pay Eumenes 400 talents, both of which were entirely owing to stratagems of
and a quantity of corn, in recompense for the damage Hannibal. But, while matters were thus going on to
he had done bim.

the disadvantage of Eumenes, the Romans interfered,
Eumenes now thought of obtaining some reward and by their deputies not only put an end to the differ-
from the Romans equivalent to the services he had ences between the two kings, but prevailed on Prusias
done them. Having gone to Rome, be told the se- to betray Hannibal; upon which he poisoned himself,
nate, that he was come to beg of them that the Greek as hath been related under the article HANNIBAL.
cities which bad belonged to Antiochus before the Eumenes being thus freed from such a dangerous ene-
commencement of the late war, might now be added my, engaged in a new war with the kings of Cappado-
to his dominions ; but his demand was warmly opposed cia and Pontus, in which also he proved victorious. His
by the ambassadors from Rhodes, as well as by depu- friendship for the Romans he carried to such a degree of
ties from all the Greek cities in Asia. The senate, enthusiasm, that he went in person to Rome to inform
however, after hearing both parties, decided the mat- them of the machinations of Perses king of Macedon.
ter in favour of Eumenes, adding to his dominions all He had before quarrelled with the Rhodians, who sent
the countries on this side of Mount Taurus which be- ambassadors to Rome to complain of him. But as the
longed to Antiochns; the other provinces lying be- ambassadors happened to arrive while the king himself
tween that mountain and the river Mæander, excepting was present in the city, the Rhodian ambassadors could
Lycia and Caria, were bestowed on the Rbodians. All not obtain any hearing, and Eumenes was dismissed with
the cities, which had paid tribute to Attalus, were or- new marks of favour. This journey, however, had al.
dered to pay the same to Eumenes ; but such as bad most proved fatal to him ; for, on his return, as he was
been tributary to Antiochus were declared free. going to perform a sacrifice at Delphi, two assassins,

Soon after this Eumenes was engaged in a war with sent by Perses, rolled down two great stones upon bim
Prusias king of Bithynia, who made war upon him

With one
*by the advice of Hannibal the celebrated Carthaginian he was dangerously wounded on the head, and with the
general. But Eumenes, being assisted by the Romans, other on the shoulder. He fell with the blows from a
defeated Prusias in an engagement by sea, and another steep place, and thus received many other bruises ; so
by land ; which so disheartened him, that he was ready that he was carried on board his ship when it could not
to accept of peace on any terms. However, before well be known whether he was dead or alive. His
the treaty was coneluded, Hannibal found means to people, however, soon finding that he was still alive,
draw Philip of Macedon into the confederacy, who conveyed him to Corinth, and from Corinth to Ægina,
sent Philocles, an old and experienced officer, with a having caused their vessels to be carried over the
considerable body of troops to join Prusias. Hereupon isthmus.
Eumenes sent his brother Attalus to Rome with a Eumenes remained at Ægina till his wouncis were

as he entered the straits of the mountains.



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