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Penta- less than one-half the original, or when it is required rah, Adamalı

, and Zeboim, were all consumed by fre Pentapolis, graph

greater than the original, the longer scales are to be from heaven, and in the place where they stood was Il used.

made the lake Asphaltites, or the lake of Sodom. Pentapolis,

For greater than one-half the original drawing.- PENTAPOLIS (Ptolemy), a district of Cyrenaica;
Suppose it be required to make a drawing, two-thirds situated on the Mediterranean ; denominated from its
three-fourths, four-fifths, &c. Set the boxes, B and D, five cities ; namely, Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Cy.

to corresponding divisions, as two-thirds, three-fourths, rene, and Apollonia.
four-fifths, &c. on the shorter scales, place the fulcrum PENTAPOLIS of the Philistines, (Josephus) ; taking
at D, the crayon at B, and tracer at C.

name from five principal cities, Gaza, Gath, Ascalon,
" When the original drawing is to be enlarged. Azotus, and Ekron.
Suppose one-eighth, one sixth, &c. set the boxes B and PENTATEUCH. This word, which is derived
D, to one-eighth, one-sixth, &c. on the longer scales, from the Greek Islatexos, from tits, five, and TivXos,
place the fulcrum at D, the crayon at C, and tracer an instrument or volume, signifies the collection of the

five instruments or books of Moses, which are Genesis,
There the copy is required of a size differing from Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy : each
the fractional parts laid down on the instrument.--For of which books we have given an account of under
this purpose there are two scales laid down, containing their several names.
100 unequal parts, one scale numbered from 10 to 80, There are some modern critics who have disputed
the other from 50 to 100.

Moses's right to the Pentateuch. They observe that the
If the copy is to be under one-half the original size, author speaks always in the third person. “ Now the
place the boxes B and. , to any two corresponding man Moses was very meek above all the men which
divisions under 50, the fulcrum at B, and crayon at were upon the face of the earth. The Lord spake unto

Moses, saying, &c. Moses said to Pharaoh, &c." Thus If the copy is to be larger than one-half the original, they think he would never have spoken of himself; but place the boxes B and D, to corresponding divisions be- would at least sometimes have mentioned himself in the tween 50 and 100; the fulcrum at B, and crayon first person. Besides this, say they, the author of the

Pentateuch sometimes abridges his narration like a wriTo change the situation of the pantographer.- Copy ter who collected from some ancient memoirs. Some. first as much as the pantographer will take in ; then times he interrupts the thread of his discourse ; for exmake three points on the original, and as many corre- ample, he makes Lamech the bigamist to say (Gen. iv. sponding points on the copy. Then remove the fulcrum 23.), “ Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken to another situation, but so, that when the tracing point unto my speech; for I have slain a man to my woundis applied to the three points marked on the original

, ing, and a young man to my burt,” without informing the crayon may exactly coincide with the other three us before-hand to whom this is related. These observapoints on the copy, and proceed as before; and so on tions, for example (Gen. xii. 6.), " And the Canaanite for every change in the situation of


instrument, was then in the land,” cannot be reconciled to the age and by this means a pantographer of two feet and a of Moses, since the Canaanites continued to be the mahalf in length will copy a drawing of any size whatso- sters of Palestine all the time of Moses. The passage

out of the book of the wars of the Lord, quoted in the
PENTAMETER, in ancient poetry, a kind of book of Numbers (xxi. 14.) seems to have been clap-
verse, consisting of five feet, or metres, whence the ped in afterwards, as also the first verses of Deuterono-
name. The two first feet may be either dactyls or my. The account of the death of Moses, which is at
spondees at pleasure; the third is always a spondee; the end of the same book, cannot certainly belong to
and the two last anapestes : such is the following verse this legislator; and the same judgment may be made
of Ovid.

of other passages, wherein it is said, that the places men-

tioned lay beyond Jordan ; that the bed of Og was at
Carmini|bus vil ves tem pus in om ne meis. Ramah to this day : that the havoth of Jair, or the ci-
A pentameter verse subjoined to an hexameter, con- ties of Jair, were known to the author, though probably
stitutes what is called elegiac. See ELEGIAC.

they had not that name till after Moses's time (Numb.
PENTANDRIA (from tits, five, and amg,

xxxii. 41. Deut. ii. 14.).
or husband); the name of the fifth class in Linnæus's It is observed also in the text of the Pentateuch, that
sexual method, consisting of plants which have herma- there are some places that are defective ; for example,
phrodite flowers, with five stamina or male organs. See in Exodus (xii. 8.), we see Moses speaking to Pharaoli


where the author omits the begiming of his discourse. PENTAPETALOUS, an appellation given to The Samaritan inserts in the same place what is wanting flowers which consist of five petals or leaves.

in the Hebrew. In other places, the same Samaritan PENTAPETES, a genus of plants belonging to copy adds what is deficient in the Hebrew text; and the monadelphia class, and in the natural method rank. what it contains more than the Hebrew seems so well ing under the 37th order, Columniferæ. See BOTANY connected with the rest of the discourse, that it would Index.

be difficult to separate them. Lastly, they believe that PENTAPOLIS. This name is given to the five they observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch which cities, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah, Zeboim, and Zoar can hardly agree with Moses, who was born and bred (Wisdom x. 6.). They were all five condemned to in Egypt; as what he says of the earthly paradise; of utter destruction, but Lot inteceded for the preserva- the rivers that watered it, and ran through it; of the tion of Zoar, otherwise called Bala. Sodom, Gomor- cities of Babylon, Erech, Resen, and Calneb ; of the

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Pentateuch gold of Pison, of the belliún, of the stone of Sohem, gynia order, belonging to the pentandria class of plants. Per

or onyx-stone, which was to be found in that country. The calyx is quinquefid; there are either five petals Penthorun. These particulars, observed with such curiosity, seem to or none; the capsule is five-pointed and quinquelo

prove, that the author of the Pentateuch lived beyond cular.
the Euphrates. Add what he says concerning the ark PENTLAND, or PICTLAND FRITH, is a narrow
of Noab, of its construction, of the place where it rested, strait of six miles between the mainland of Scotland and
of the wood wherewith it was built, of the bitumen of the Orkney isles. This strait is the great thoroughfare

Babylon, &c. But in answer to all these objections, of shipping between the eastern and western seas, the * Jenkin's we may observe in general, from an eminent writer* of terror of mariners, and has been the grave of thousands. Reasona

our own country, that these books are by the most an- The navigation of this frith was formerly extremely bleness of cient writers ascribed to Moses ; and it is confirmed by dangerous by the island of Stroma, and two rocks called nity.

tlre autliority of heathen writers themselves, that they the Skerries, lying near the middle of it; but it is now
are of his writing: hesides this, we have the unanimous greatly improved, and comparatively safe, in consequence
testimony of the whole Jewish nation, ever since Moses's of a lighthouse erected on the Skerries.
time, from the first writing of them. Divers texts of PENULA, among the ancient Romans, was a coarse
the Pentateuch implý that it was written by Moses; and garment or cloak worn in cold or rainy weather. It
the book of Joshua, and other parts of scriptore, import was shorter than the lacerna, and therefore more proper
a's much; and though some passages have been thought for travellers. It was generally brown, and succeeded
to imply tlie contrary, yet this is but a late opinion, and the toga after the state became monarchical, Augustus
Iras been sufficiently confuted by several learned men. abolished the custom of wearing the penula over the
The Samaritans receive no other scriptures but the Pen- toga, considering it as too effeminate for Romans; and
tatouch, rejecting all the other books which are still in the ædiles had orders to suffer none to appear in the
the Jewish canon.

circus or forum with the lacerna or penula. Writers PENTATHLON, in antiquity, a general name for are not agreed as to the precise difference between these · the five exercises performed at the Grecian games, viz. two articles of dress; but we are told that they were Wrestling, boxing, leaping, ruming, and playing at the chiefly worn by the lower orders of people. See LAdiscus.

PENTECOST, a solemn festival of the Jews; so PENULTIMA, or Penultimate Syllable, in Gramcalled, because it was celebrated on the goth day after mar, denotes the last syllable but one of a word ; and the 16th of Nisan, which was the second day of the hence the antepenultimate syllable is the last but two, passover. The Hebrews called it the feast of weeks, be- or that immediately before the penultima. cause it was kept seven weeks after the passover. They PENUMBRA, in Astronomy, a partial shade obthen offered the first fruits of the theat barvest, which served between the perfect shadow and the full light in was then completed : besides which they presented at an eclipse. It arises from the magnitude of the son's the temple seven lambs of that year, one calf, and two body : for were he only a luminous point, the shadow l'ams, for a burnt-offering; two lambs_for a peace-of- would be all perfect; but, by reason of the diameter of fering ; and a goat for a sin-offering (Levit. xxiii. 15, the sun, it happens, that a place which is not illumina16. Exod. xxxiv. 22. and Deut. xvi. 9, 10.). The ted by the whole body of the sun, does yet receive rays feast of Pentecost was instituted among the Israelites, from a part thereof. first to oblige them to repair to the temple of the Lord, PEON, in the language of Hindostan, means a foot there to acknowledge his absolute dominion over the soldier, armed with sword and target. In common use whole country, and to offer him the first-fruits of their it is a footman, so armed, employed to run before a pabarvest; and, secondly, that they might call to mind, lanquin. Piaaah is the proper word; from which peon and give thanks to God, for the law which he had given is a corruption. them from Mount Sinai, on the goth day after their PEOR, a famous mountain beyond Jordan, which coming out of Egypt.

Eusebios places between Heslibon and Livias. The
The modern Jews celebrate the Pentecost for two mountains Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were near one
days. They deck the synagogue and their own houses another, and probably made but the same chain of
with garlands of flowers. They hear a sermon or ora- mountains. It is very likely that Peor took its name
tion in praise of the law, which they suppose to have from some deity of the same name, wliich was worship-
been delivered on this day. The Jews of Germany ped there; for Peor, Phegor, or Baal-peor, was known
make a very thick cake, consisting of seven layers of in this country. See Numb. xxv. 3. Deut. iv. 3. Psal.
paste, which they call Sinai. The seven layers repre-
sent the seven lieavens, which they think God was obli- PEor, was a city of the tribe of Judah, which is not
ged to reascend from the top of this mountain. See Leo read in the Hebrew, nor in the Vulgate, but only in the
of Modena and Buxtorf's synag. Jud.

Greck of the Septuagint (Josh. xv. 60.). Eusebius says
It was on the feast of Pentecost that the Holy Ghost it was near Bethlehem, and Jerome adds, that in his
miraculously descended on the apostles of our Lord, who time it was called Paora.
were assembled together after bis ascension in a house PEPIN DE HERISTAL, or Le Gros, mayor of the
at Jerusalem (Acts ii.).

palace under Clovis IlI. Childebert, and Dagobert.
PENTHESILEA, queen of the Amazons, succeed- The p'wer of these marors in France was so great, that
-ed Orythia, and gave proofs of her courage at the siege they left the sovereign only the empty title, and in the
of Troy, where she was killed by Achilles. Pliny says end seized on the throne itself.
that she invented the battle-axe.

PEPLY' Bits, or le Petii, grandson to Pepin the PENTHORUM, in Botany, a geius of the penta- Gros, and first king of the second race of French mo5


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Pepin narchs, was mayor of the palace to Childeric III. a and being examined by the microscope, will be seen all Pepper

ll weak prince : he contrived to confine him and his son in motion : the animals, at first sight, are so small as not Pepper. Thierri in different monasteries: and then, with the to be distinguishable, unless to the greatest magnifiers ;

11 Water. assistance of Pope Stephen III. he usurped the sovereign


but they grow daily till they arrive at their full size. power. He died in 768, aged 54.

Their numbers are also continually increasing, till the PEPLIS, a genus of plants belonging to the hexan- whole surface of the liquor is full of them, to a considerdria class, and in the natural method ranking under able depth. When disturbed, they will sometimes all the 17th order, Calycanthemæ. See BOTANY Index. dart down to the bottom; but they soon after come up

PEPLUS, a long robe worn by the women in an- to the surface again. The skin appears soonest in warm
cient times, reaching down to the feet, without sleeves, weather, and the animals grow the quickest: but in the
and so very fine, that the shape of the body might be severest cold it will succeed, unless the water freezes.
been through it. The Athenians used much ceremony About the quantity of a pin's head of this scum,
in making the peplus, and dressing the statue of Miner. taken up on the nib of a new pen, or the tip of a hair-
va with it. Homer makes frequent mention of the pep-' pencil, is to be laid on a plate of clear glass ; and if
lus of that goddess.

applied first to the third magnifier, then to the second,
PEPPER, Piper, in Natural History, an aromatic and finally to the first, will show the different animal-
berry of a hot quality, chiefly used in seasoning. We cules it contains, of several kinds and shapes as well as
have three kinds of pepper at present used in the shops, sizes.
the black, the white, and the long pepper.

Black pepper is the fruit of the piper, and is brought NY Index.
from the Dutch settlements in the East Indies. See PERA, one of the suburbs of Constantinople, where

Ambassadors and Christians usually reside. See Con.
The common white pepper is factitious, being pre- STANTINOPLE.
pared from the black in the following manner: they

PERAMBULATOR, in surveying, an instrument
steep this in sea-water, exposed to the heat of the sun for measuring distances, called also odometer, pedometer,
for several days, till the rind or outer bark loosens; they way-wiser, and surveying-wheel.
then take it out, and, when it is half dry, rub it till the It connsists of a wheel AA, fig. 1. two feet seven Plato
rind falls off, then they dry the white fruit, and the re- inches and a half in diameter; consequently half a pole, CCCCIX.
mains of the rind blow away like chaff. A great deal or eight feet three inches, in circunference. On one fig. 1.
of the heat of the pepper is taken off' by this process, so end of the axis is a nut, three quarters of an inch in dia-
that the white kind is more fit for many purposes than meter, and divided into eight teeth ; which, upon mo-
the black. However, there is a sort of native white ving the wheel round, fall into the eight teeth of an-
pepper produced on a species of the same plant; which other nut c, fixed on one end of an iron-rod Q, and
is much better than the factitious, and indeed little in- thus turn the rod once round in the time the wheel
ferior to the black.

makes one revolution. This rod, lying along a groove The long pepper is a dried fruit, of an inch or an in the side of the carriage of the instrument, under the inch and a half length, and about the thickness of dotted line, has at its other end a square hole, into which a large goose quill: it is of a brownish

gray colour,


is fitted the end b of a small cylinder P. This cylinder lindrical in figure, and said to be produced on a plant is disposed under the dial-plate of a movement, at the of the same genus.

end of the carriage B, in such a manner as to be movePepper is principally used by us in food, to assist di. able about its axis : its end a is cut into a perpetual gestion : but the people in the East Indies esteem it screw, which falling into the 32 teeth of a wheel peras a stomachic, and drink a strong infusion of it in wa. pendicular thereto, upon driving the instrument forward, ter by way of giving them an appetite : they have alihat wheel makes a revolution each 16th pole. On the B0 a way of making a fiery spirit of fermented fresh axis of this wheel is a pinion with six teeth, which fallpepper with water, which they use for the same pur. ing into the teeth of another wheel of 60 teeth, carries poses. They have also a way of preserving the com- it round every 16oth pole, or half a mile. mon and long pepper in vinegar, and eating them af. This last wheel, carrying a hand or index round with tertyards at meals.

it over the divisions of a dial-plate, whose outer limb is Jamaica PEPPER, or Pimento. See LAURUS, Bo. divided into 160 parts, corresponding to the 160 poles, TANY Inder.

points out the number of poles passed over. Again, on Peppen-Mint. See MENTHA, BOTANY and MA. the axis of this last wheel is a pinion, containing 20 TERIA MEDICA Inde.v.

teeth, which falling into the teeth of a third wheel
PEPPER-Pot. See CAPSICUM, BOTANY Index. which bath 40 teeth, drives it once round in 320 poles,
PEPPER-Water, a liquor prepared in the following or a mile. On the axis of this wheel is a pinion of 12
manner, for microscopical observations : Put common teeth, which, falling into the teeth of a fourth wheel
black pepper, grossly powdered, into an open vessel so having 72 teeth, drives it once round in 12 miles.
As to cover the bottom of it half an inch thick, and This fourth wheel, carrying another index over the
put to it rain or river water till it covers it an inch ; inner limh of the dial-plate, divided into 12 for miles,
shake or stir the whole well together at the first mix- and each mile subdivided into halves, quarters, and fur:
ing, but never disturb it afterwards ; let the vessel be longs, serves to register the revolutions of the other
exposed to the air uncovered ; and in a few days there hand, and to keep account of the half miles and miles
will be seen a pellicle or thin skin swimming on the sur- passed over as far as 12 miles.
face of the liquor, presenting several colours.

The use of this instrument is obvious from its con-
This is a congeries of multitudes of small animals

; struction. Its proper office is in the surveying of roads
Vol. XVI. Part I.





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