Imatges de pÓgina


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Pensilva- merous, and remarkably well conducted. Schools are Pensilvania, though it has but one considerable port Pepsiira nia. also numerous, and it has been resolved to establish an (Philadelphia) carries on a very extensive commerce.

academy in each county. The university of Pensilva- T'he whole exports in 1817 amounted to 8,735,592 dol-
nia is in a flourishing condition, and has received va- lars, of which 5,538,003 consisted of domestic produce,
rious grants from the legislature. There are six pro- and 3,197,589 of foreign. The domestie articles of ex-
fessors in the medical school, four in that of philosophy port consist chiefly of wheat and flour, beef and pork,
and languages, and five in that of natural science. flax seed, iron utensils, lumber, soap and candles; the
The number of students in 1811 was 500. The pro- imports, of British manufactures, wine, gin, rum, sugar,
fessors have each a salary of soo dollars. Dickinson teas, nankeens, and silk. There were nine banks in
College has professors of logic, metaphysics, mathema- the state in 1816, whose capitals together amounted to
tics, the learned languages, modern languages, philoso- 10,534,130 dollars; the deposits including those due to
phy and chemistry, with a considerable library. Frank- other banks, to 8,449,474 dollars; and the notes dis-
lin college, established in 1783, by some Germans, counted to 13,329,091 dollars.
bas not flourished. Washington college, near Pitts- There are three handsome bridges over the Schuyl-
burg, was established in 1802.

kil in this state. One of these cousists of a single
The eastern districts of Pensilvania are among the wooden arch of 343 feet span, and 42 feet in lareadıb.
most improved parts of North America. The business The Leheigh ehain bridge is 475 feet long, in two whole,
of farming is carried on with spirit and skill, the soil and two balf spans. The wire bridge near Philadelphia
being good, and many of the farmers wealthy and in- is 400 feet long. The whole weight is only 4700 pounds.
terprising. Besides the usual kinds of manure applied There are many other bridges deserving of potice,
to the ground, gypsum is used for this purpose in great though generally of wood : one at Columbia, over the
quantities, and is reckoned extremely beneficial; the Susquehanna, is above a mile in lengtb ; another at
rotation of crops is well understood ; artificial grasses Harrisburgh, about three fourths of a mile. There are
have been introduced ; and excellent crops of bay are at other places steam ferry boats, for the conveyance of
raised from meadow land. Besides the usual species passengers across the rivers. There are also a consider-
of corn, buck wheat is much cultivated. Hemp and able number of steam passage boats which ply on the
flax succeed well. Vines have been found to thrive, Delaware.
and all the fruits of France are produced here. The It was proposed, so far back as 1790, to extend the
breed of horses and black cattle is among the best in water communication from Philadelphia to Lake Erie,
the United States. The common and Merino sheep a distance of 561 miles, by joining the Susquehanpa and
thrive and have multiplied amazingly. The number of the Delaware by a canal to extend from the Swetara to
sheep in 1810 was 618,280, of black cattle 612,990, the Schuylkil. Some progress has been made in this
of horses 225,640. The value of the land increases as undertaking, but the means scarcely exist yet for the
we approach the capital. The average value per acre completion of such an extensive scheme.
was estimated by a committee in 1815, to be for Pbila- The long ascendancy of the Quakers in this state bas
delphia county 120 dollars; for the other counties, from stamped the manners of the people with a character of
52 down to it dollars; and for the whole state, was moderation and order. Factions are less violent here
about 29 dollar3. But this last estimate does not in- than in the other states, and personal animosities less
clude the unoccupied lands. The total value of houses rancorous. The Pensilvanians are less obstinate, sel-
and lands in this state was found, from valuations made fish, and determined, than the people of New England,
in 1799, to be 102,145,900, and from valuations in and less rash and impetuous than the inhabitants of the
1815, 346,633,889 dollars; having increased about 240 southern states. They are, comparatively speaking,
per cent in 15 years.

obliging, well informed, and liberal in their opinions ;
'The manufactures of this state, according to the re- but not distinguished for generosity, a high spirit, or
turns for 1810, were much greater than those of any warmth of character. They have abolished slavery,
other state in the Union. The most considerable are however, and have always been conspicuously active in
those of iron, flax, hemp, wool, cotton, leather, bats,' works of humanity, and in promoting useful improve-
paper, spirits, maple sugar. Many of the manufac- ments. There is perhaps no part of the United States
tores are domestic, and of course upon a small scale, in which an emigrant from Europe will feel himself
but there are also extensive establishments in some of more comfortable than in Pensilvania, so far as depends
them. During the late war with Britain, the manu- on the character of the people.
factures increased with extraordinary rapidity, but the In the Philosophical Transactions for 1757, there
influx of foreign goods since the peace has caused many is an account of a spring in Pensilvania, which rises
of them to be abandoned, and depressed those that still from a copper mine, and yields 800 bogsheads in twenty-
exist. Pittsburg, in the western part of this state, is four hours. The water is of a pale green colour, of
the most considerable manufacturing town in the United an acid, sweet, austere, inky, and nauseous taste.
States. It is situated on a navigable river, in a healthy The saline matter which it holds in solution is probably
situation, and its neighbourhood abounds with wood, sulphate of copper; for a piece of polished iron im-
coal, lime, and iron. The manufactures of this town mersed in it is soon covered with a crust of metallic
in 1814 were estimated at 2,000,000 dollars. The copper. It contains also, it is said, copperas or sulphate
whole amount of manufactures in this state in 1810 of iron.
was estimated, from the returns of the marshal, at Among the other curiosities of this province may be
33,691,111 dollars, exclusive of what were considered reckoned another spring, about 14 feet deep, and about
doubtful articles.

100 square in the neighbourhood of Reading. A full



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Pensilva, mill stream flows from it. The waters are clear, and ment of each member to the houses of the inns of courts Pension,

nia, full of fishes. From appearances it is probable that this are likewise named pensions; and the yearly assembly of Pensioner. Pension. spring is the opening or outlet of a very considerable ri- the society of Gray's Inn, to consult' on the affairs of

ver, which, a mile and a half or two miles above this the bouse, is also called a pension.
place, sinks into the earth, and is conveyed to this out- PENSIONARY, or PENSIONER, a person who bas
let in a subterranean channel. In the northern parts of an appointment or yearly sum, payable during life, by
Pensilvania there is a creek, called Oil creek, which way of acknowledgment, charged on the estate of a
empties into the Alleghany river. It issues from a prince, company, or particular person.
spring, on the top of which floats an oil similar to that Grand PENSIONARY, an appellation formerly given
called Barbadoes tar, and froni which one man may ga- to the first minister of the states of Holland. The grand
ther several gallons in a day. The troops sent to guard pensionary was chairman in the assemblies of the states
the western posts halted at this spring, collected some of of that province ; he proposed the matters to be consult-
the oil, and bathed their joints with it. This gave them ed on ; collected the votes ; formed and pronounced the
great relief from the rheumatic complaints with which resolutions of the states; opened letters; conferred with
they were affected. The waters, of which the troops foreign ministers, &c. His business was also to inspect
drank freely, operated as a gentle purge.

the finances, to maintain the authority of the states, and
There are three remarkable grottoes or caves in this to see that the laws were observed ; and he was perpe-
state ; one near Carlisle in Cumberland coupty; one in tual deputy of the states general of the United Provin-
the township of Durbam, in Bucks county ; and the His commission was, however, only given him for
other at Swetara in Lancaster county. Of the two for-


years ; after which it was deliberated whether or
mer there are no particular descriptions. The latter is not it should be renewed; but there was no instance of
on the east bank of Swetara river, about two miles above its being revoked ; therefore death anly put an end to
its confinence with the Susquehanna. Its entrance is the functions of this important minister.
spacious, and descends so much as that the surface of the PENSIONARY was also the first minister of the regen-
river is rather bigher than the bottom of the cave. The cy of each city in Holland. His office was to give his
vault of this cave is of a solid limestone rock, perhaps advice in affairs relating to the government, either of
20 feet thick. It contains several apartments, some of the state in general, or of the city in particular ; and in
them very higb and spacious. The water is incessantly assemblies of the states of the province, he was speaker
percolating througb the roof, and falls in drops to the in behalf of his city. The function, however, of these

These drops petrify as they fall, pensionaries was not everywhere alike ; in some cities
and have gradually formed solid pillars, wbich appear as they only gave their advice, and were never found in
supports to the roof. Thirty years ago there were ten assemblies of the magistrates, except when expressly
such pillars, each six inches in diameter, and six feet called hither; in others they attended constantly; and
high; all so ranged that the place they enclosed resem- in others they made the propositions on the part of the
bled a sanctuary in a Roman church. No royal throne burgomasters, diew up their conclusions, &c. They
ever exhibited more grandeur than this lusus naturæ. were called pensionaries, because they received an ap- .
The resemblances of several monuments are found 10- portment or pension.
dented in the walls on the sides of the cave, wbicb appear PENSIONER, in general, denotes a person who
like the tombs of departed heroes. Suspended from the ceives a pensiun, yearly salary, or allowance. Hence,
roof is the bell (which is nothing more than a stone pro- The Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, the noblest
jected in an unusual form), so called from the sound that sort of guard to the king's person, consists of 40 gentle- .
it occasions when struck, which is similar to that of a. men, who receive a yearly pension of 100l.
bell. Some of the stalactites are of a colour like sugar. This honourable band was first instituted by King
candy, and others resemble loaf sugar; but their beauty Henry VIII. and their office is to attend the king's
is much defaced by the country people. The water, person, with their battle axes, to and from bis chapel
which percolates through the roof, so much of it as is royal, and to receive him in the presence chamber, or
not petrified in its course, runs down the declivity, and coming out of his privy lodgings; they are also to at.
is both pleasant and wholesome to drink. There are se- tend at all great solemnities, as coronations, St George's
veral holes in the bottom of the cave, descending per- feast, public audiences of ambassadors, at the sovereign's
pendicularly, perhaps into an abyss below, which ren- going to parliament, &c.
ders it dangerous to walk without a light. At the end They are each obliged to keep three double horses
of the cave is a pretty brook, which, after a short and a servant, and so are properly a troop of horse. .
course, loses itself among the rocks. Beyond this brook They wait balf at a time quarterly; but on Christmas-
is an outlet from the cave by a very narrow aperture. day, Faster-day, Whitsunday, &c. and on extraordinary
Through this the vapours continually pass outwards with occasions, they are all obliged to give their attendance.
a strong current of air, and ascend, resembling at night They have likewise the honour to carry up the sove-
the smoke of a furnace. Part of these vapours and fogs reign's dinner on the coronation-day and St George's
appear on ascending to be condensed at the head of this feast; at which times the king or queen usually conter
great alembic, and the more volatile parts to be carried the honour of knighthood on two such gentlemeo of the
off, through the aperture communicating with the exte- band as their captain presents.
rior air before mentioned, by the force of the air in its Their arms are gilt battle-axes ; and their weapons,

on horseback, in time of war, are cuirassiers arms, with
PENSION, a sum of money paid annually for ser- sword and pistols. Their tandard in time of war is,
vices or considerations already past. The yearly pay- argent, a cross gules. Their captain is always a noble-


man, ,



Pensioner man, who has under him a lieutenant, a standard-bear- brought to its present state of perfection by my father, Per

11 er, a clerk of the check, secretary, paymaster, and bar about the year 1750. It is one, among many other Penta. binger.

scientific improvements and inventions completed by graph.

PENSIONER, in the university of Cambridge and in him, that others have ingloriously, and many years after,
that of Dublin, has a very peculiar meaning; for those assumed to themselves.
students, either under graduates or bachelors of arts, are “ The pantographer is usually made of wood, or brass,
called pensioners, who live wholly at their own expence, and consists of four flat rules, two of them long, and two
and who receive do emolument whatever from the colo short. The two longest are joined at the end A, by a
lege of which they are members. They are divided into double pivot, which is fixed to one of the rules, and

two kinds, the greater and the less; the former of which works in two small holes placed at the end of the other.
are generally called fellow-commoners, because they eat Under the joint is an ivory castor, to support this end
with the fellows of their college; the latter are always of the instrument. The two smaller rules are fixed by
called pensioners, and eat with the scholars, who are pivots at E and H, near the middle of the larger
those students of the college, either under-graduates or · rules, and are also joined together at their other
bachelors who are upon the foundation, who receive end, G.
emoluments from the society, and who are capable of “By the construction of this instrument, the four roles
being elected fellows. See SERVITOR and SIZAR. · always form a parallelogram. There is a sliding box on

PENSTOCK, a sluice or flood-gate, serving to re- the longer arm, and another on the shorter arm. These
tain or let go at pleasure the water of a mill-pond, or boxes may be fixed at any part of the rules by means of
the like.

- their milled nuts ; each of these boxes is furnisbed with
PENTACHORD (compounded of Zeytt, five, and a cylindric tube, to carry either the traeing point or
goçon, string), an ancient musical instrument with five crayon or fulcrum.
strings. The invention of the pentachord is referred “ The fulcrum or support K, is a leaden weight inclo-
to the Scythians ; the strings were of bullocks leather, sed in a mahogany box, on this the instrument moves
and they were struck with a plectrum made of goats - when in use; there are two moveable rollers, to support

and facilitate the motions of the pantographer; their
PENTACROSTIC, in Poetry, a set of verses so situation may be varied as occasion requires.
disposed, as that there are always five acrostics of the “ The graduations are placed on two of the rules : on
same name, in five divisions of each verse. See A. each of them are two scales, the fiducial edges of the

boxes are to be set to these, according to the work to
PENTADACTYLON, Five FINGERS, in Botany, be performed by the instrument.
a name given by some authors to the ricinus or palma “ The crayon; the tracer, and fulcrum, must in all
Christi, from the figure of its leaf.

cases be in a right line, so that when they are set, if a
PENTADACTYLOS Piscis, the five-fingered fish, string be stretched over them, and they do not coincide
the trivial name of a fish common in all the seas of the with it, there is an error either in the setting or gra-
East Indies, and called by the Dutch there vif vinger duations.

“ The long tube which carries the pencil or crayon,
PENTAGON, in Geometry, a figure of five sides moves easily up or down another tube; there is a string
and five angles. See GEOMETRY.

affixed to the long or inner tube, passing afterwards In fortification, pentagon denotes a fort with five through the holes in the three small knobs to the tra- bastions.

cing point, wbere it may, if necessary, be fastened. By
PENTAGRAPH, PANTOGRAPH, or PANTOGRA- pulling this string, the pencil is lifted up occasionally,
- PHER, an instrument designed for drawing figures in and thus prevented from making false or improper marks

what proportion you please, without any skill in the upon the copy.
: art.

To use this instrument when the copy is to be of the The instrument is otherwise called a parallelogram. same size as the original.- Place the instrument upon a Geomet. The following is the description of this instrument by large table, and set the sliding boxes B and D, to the and Gra- ,Mr Adams.

divisions marked 12. Put the crayon into the box B,
phic Es.
says, P. 374.

“ It is an instrument (says Mr Adams) as useful to place the box D upon the fulcrum or leaden foot ; the
the experienced draftsman, as to those who have made tracing point at C. Then lay a piece of paper under
but little progress in the art. It saves a great deal of the crayon, and the original drawing under the tracer,
time, either in reducing, enlarging, or copying of the and move the tracing point over the principal strokes of
same size, giving the outlines of any drawing, however the original, and the crayon will form the required
crooked or complex, with the utmost exactness ; nor is copy,
it confined to any particular kind, but may

with equal

To reduce a drawing, &c. to half the size of the
facility be used for copying figures, plans, sea-charts, original.-Set the boxes B and D, to the divisions
maps, profiles, landscapes, &c.

marked one-half, place the fulcrum at B, the
" Description and use of the Pantographer.-I have D, and tracer at C.
not been able to ascertain who was the inventor of this " To reduce a drawing, &c. to less than one-half the
useful instrument. The earliest account I find is that original.-Suppose one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, &c.
of the Jesuit Scheiner, about the year 1631, in a small Place the fulcrum at B, crayon at D, and tracer at C,
tract entitled Pantographice, sive ars nova delineandi. and slide the boxes B and D, to the divisions marked
The principles are self-evident to every geometrician; one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, &c. on the longer scales.
the mechanical construction was first improved and It may be proper to observe here, that if the copy be


crayon at

at B.

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Penta- less than one-half the original, or when it is required rah, Adamalı, and Zeboim, weré all consumed by fire Pentapolis, graph greater than the original, the longer scales are to be from heaven, and in the place where they stood was

Penta11 used.

teuch. Pentapolis,

made the lake Asphallites, or the lake of Sodom.
For greater than one-half the original drawing PENTAPOLIS (Ptolemy), a district of Cyrenaica ;
Suppose it be required to make a drawing, two-thirds situated on the Mediterranean; denominated from it's
three-fourths, four-fifths, &c. Set the boxes, B and D, five cities ; namely, Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Cy.
to corresponding divisions, as two-thirds, three-fourths, rene, and Apollonia.
four-fifths, &c. on the shorter scales, place the fulcrum PentaPOLIS of the Philistines, (Josephus); taking
at D, the crayon at B, and tracer at C.

name from five principal cities, Gaza, Gath, Ascalon,
When the original drawing is to be enlarged. Azotus, and Ekron.
Suppose one-eighth, one sixth, &c. set the boxes B and PENTATEUCH. This word, which is derived
D, to one-eighth, one-sixtb, &c. on the longer scales, from the Greek N8vlcTEvyos, from Tits, five, and Tivyos,
place the fulcrum at D, the crayon at C, and tracer an instrument or volume, signifies the collection of the

five instruments or books of Moses, which are Genesis,
Where the copy is required of a size differing from Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy : each
the fractional parts laid down on the instrument.

For of which books we have given an account of under
this purpose there are two scales laid down, containing their several names.
100 unequal parts, one scale numbered from 10 to 80, There are some modern critics who have disputed
the other from 50 to 100.

Moses's right to the Pentateuch. They observe that the
If the copy is to be under one-half the original size, author speaks always in the third person. “ Now the
place the boxes B and, D), to any two corresponding man Moses was very meek above all the men wbich
divisions under 50, the fulcrum at B, and crayon at were upon the face of the earth. The Lord spake unto

Mozes, saying, &c. Moses said to Pharaoh, &c.” Thus If the copy is to be larger than one-half the original, they think he would never have spoken of himself; but place the boxes B and D, to corresponding divisions be- would at least sometimes have mentioned bimself in the tween 50 and 100; the fulcrum at B, and crayon first person. Besides this, say they, the author of the at D.

Pentateuch sometimes abridges bis narration like a wriTo change the situation of the pantographer.- Copy ter who collected from some ancient memoirs. Somefirst as much as the pantographer will take in ; then times he interrupts the thread of his discourse ; for exmake three points on the original, and as many corre- ample, he makes Lamech the bigamist to say (Gen. iv. sponding points on the copy. Then remove the fulcrum 23.), “ Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken to another situation, but so, that when the tracing point unto my speech; for I have slain a man to my woundis applied to the three points marked on the original, ing, and a young man to my hurt,” without informing the crayon may exactly coincide with the other three us before-hand to whom this is related. These observapoints on the copy, and proceed as before; and so on tions, for example (Gen. xii. 6.), “ And the Canaanite for every change in the situation of your instrument, was then in the land,” cannot be reconciled to the age and by this means a pantographer of two feet and a of Moses, since the Canaanites continued to be the nahalf in length will copy a drawing of any size whatso- sters of Palestine all the time of Moses. The passage ever.”

out of the book of the wars of the Lord, quoted in the PENTAMETER, in ancient poetry, a kind of book of Numbers (xxi. 14.) seems to have been clapverse, consisting of five feet, or metres, whence the ped in afterwards, as also the first verses of Deuterono

The two first feet may be either dactyls or my. The account of the death of Moses, which is at spondees at pleasure ; the third is always a spondee ; the end of the same book, cannot certainly belong to and the two last anapestes : such is the following verse this legislator; and the same judgment may be made of Ovid.

of other passages, wherein it is said, that the places men3 4 5

tioned lay beyond Jordan ; that the bed of Og was at Carmini| bus vil ves tem \pus in om ne meis. Ramah to this day : that the havoth of Jair, or the ciA pentameter verse subjoined to an hexameter, con- ties of Jair, were known to the author, though probably stitutes what is called elegiac. See ELEGIAC.

they had not that name till after Moses's time (Numb.
PENTANDRIA (from Airts, five, and amg, a man

xxxii. 41. Deut. iii. 14.).
or husband); the name of the fifth class in Linnæus's It is observed also in the text of the Pentateuch, that
sexual method, consisting of plants which have herma- there are some places that are defective ; for example,
phrodite flowers, with five stamina or male organs. See in Exodus (xii. 8.), we see Moses speaking to Pharaoh,

where the author omits the beginning of bis discourse.
PENTAPETALOUS, an appellation given to The Samaritan inserts in the same place what is wanting
flowers which consist of five petals or leaves.

in the Hebrew. In other places, the same Samaritan PENTAPETES, a genus of plants belonging to copy adds what is deficient in the Hebrew text; and the monadelphia class, and in the natural method rank- what it contains more than the Hebrew seems so well ing under the 37th order, Columniferæ. See BOTANY connected with the rest of the discourse, that it would Index.


. This name is given to the five t'ley observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch which cities, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah, Zeboim, and Zoar can hardly agree with Moses, who was born and bred (Wisdom x. 6.). They were all five condemned to in Egypt; as what he says of the earthly paradise; of utter destruction, but Lot inteceded for the preserva- the rivers that watered it, and ran through it; of the tion of Zoar, otherwise called BalaSodom, Gomor- cities of Babylon, Erech, Resen, and Calneh ; of the







Pentateuch gold of Pison, of the beellium, of the stone of Sohem, gynia order, belonging to the pentandria class of plants. p.

or onyx-stone, which was to be found in that country. The calyx is quinquefid; there are either five petals Penthorun. These particulars, observed with such curiosity, seem to or none; the capsule is five-pointed and quinquelo

prove, that the author of the Pentateuch lived beyond cular.
the Euphrates. Add what be says concerning the ark PENTLAND, or PicTLAND FRITH, is a narrow
of Noab, of its construction, of the place where it rested, strait of six miles between the mainland of Scotland and
of the wood wherewith it was built, of the bitumen of the Orkney isles. This strait is the great thoroughfare
Babýlon, &c. Bat in answer to all these objections, of shipping between the eastern and western seas

, the * Jenkin's we may observe in general, from an eminent writer * of terror of mariners, and has been the grave of thousands. Reasona our own country, that these books are by the most an. The navigation of this frith was formerly extremely blemes cient writers ascribed to Moses ; and it is confirmed by dangerous by the island of Stroma, and two rocks called

tlve authority of beathen writers themselves, that they the Skerries, lying near the middle of it; but it is now
ate of bis writing: hesides this, we have the unanimous greatly improved, and comparatively safe, in consequence
testimony of the whole Jewish nation, ever sioce Moses's of a lighthouse erected on the Skerrics.
time, from the first writing of them. Divers texts of PENULA, among the ancient Romans, was a coarse
the Pentatench implý that it was written by Moses ; and garment or cloak worn in cold or rainy weather. It
the book of Joshua, and other parts of scriptore, import was shorter than the lacerna, and therefore more proper
a's much; and tbough some passages bave been thought for travellers. It was generally brown, and succeeded
to imply the contrary, yet this is but a late opinion, and the toga after the state became monarchical. Angustus
has been sufficiently confuted by several learned men. abolished the custom of wearing the penula over the
The Samaritans receive no other scriptures but the Pen- toga, considering it as too effeminate for Romans; and
tateuch, rejecting all the other books which are still in the ædiles had orders to suffer nove to appear in the
the Jewish canon.

circus or forum with the lacerna or penula. Writers PENTATHLON, in antiquity, a general name for are not agreed as to the precise difference between these the five exercises performed at the Grecian games, viz. two articles of dress; but we are told that they were Wrestling, boxing, leaping, running, and playing at the chiefly worn by the lower orders of people. See LAdiscus.

CERNA. PENTECOST, á solemn festival of the Jews ; so PENULTIMA, or PenulTIMATE Syllable, in Gramcalled, because it was celebrated on the goth day after mar, denotes the last syllable but one of a word ; and thie róth of Nisan, which was the second day of the hence the antepenultimate syllable is the last but two, passover. The Hebrews called it the feast of weeks, be- or that immediately before the penultima. cause it was kept seven weeks after the passover. They PENUMBRA, in Astronomy, a partial shade obthen offered the first fruits of the wheat barvest, which served between the perfect shadow and the full light in was then completed : besides which they presented at an eclipse. It arises from the magnitude of the sun's the temple seven lambs of that year, one calf, and two body: for were he only a luminous point, the shadow rams, for a burnt-offering; two lambs for a peace-of- would be all perfect ; but, by reason of the diameter of fering ; and a goat for a sin-offering (Levit. xxiii. 15, the sun, it happens, that a place which is not illumina16. Exod. xxxiv. 22. and Deut. xvi. 9, 10.). The ted by the whole body of the sun, does yet receive rays feast of Pentecost was instituted among the Israelites, from a part thereof. first to oblige them to repair to the temple of the Lord, PEON, in the language of Hindostan, means a foot there to acknowledge his absolute dominion over the soldier, armed with sword and target. In common use whole country, and to offer him the first-fruits of their it is a footman, so armed, employed to run before a paharvest ; and, secondly, that they might call to mind, lanquin. Piaaah is the proper word; from which peon and give thanks to God, for the law which he had given is a corruption. them from Mount Sinai, on the goth day after their PEOR, a famous mountain beyond Jordan, which coming out of Egypt.

Eusebios places between Heslabon and Livias. The The modern Jews celebrate the Pentecost for two mountains Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were near one days. They deck the synagogue and their own houses another, and probably made but the same chain of with garlands of flowers. They hear a sermon or ora- mountains. It is very likely that Peor took its name tion in praise of the law, wbich they suppose to have from some deity of the same name, which was worshipbeen delivered on this day. The Jews of Germany ped there; for Peor, Phegor, or Baal-peor, was known make a very thick cake, consisting of seven layers of in this country. See Numb. xxv. 3. Deut. iv. 3. Psal

. paste, which they call Sinai. The seven layers represent the seven heavens, which they think God was obli- Peor, was a city of the tribe of Judah, which is not ged to reascend from the top of this mountain. See Leo read in the Hebrew, nor in the Vulgate, but only in the of Modena and Buxtorf's synag. Jud.

Greck of the Septuagint (Josh. xv. 60.). Eusebius says It was on the feast of Pentecost that the Holy Ghost it was near Bethlehem, and Jerome adds, that in bis miraculously descended on the apostles of our Lord, who time it was called Paora. were assembled together after bis ascension in a house PEPIN DE HERITAL, or Le Gros, mayor of the at Jerusalem (Acts ii.).

palace under Clovis III. Childebert, and Dagobert. PENTHESILEA, queen of the Amazons, succeed- The pier of these marors in France was so great, that .ed Orythia, and gave proofs of her courage at the siege they left the sovereign only the empty title, and in the of Troy, where she was killed by Achilles. Pliny says end seized on the throne itself. that she invented the battle-axe.

Prply B , or le Petii, grandson to Pepin the PENTHORUM, in Botany, a genus of the penta- Gros, and first king of the second race of French mo


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