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Penta- less than one-half the original, or when it is required rah, Adamalı
, and Zeboim, were all consumed by fre Pentapolis, graph
greater than the original, the longer scales are to be from heaven, and in the place where they stood was Il used.
made the lake Asphaltites, or the lake of Sodom. Pentapolis,
“ For greater than one-half the original drawing.- PENTAPOLIS (Ptolemy), a district of Cyrenaica;
name from five principal cities, Gaza, Gath, Ascalon,
five instruments or books of Moses, which are Genesis,
Moses's right to the Pentateuch. They observe that the
Moses, saying, &c. Moses said to Pharaoh, &c." Thus • If the copy is to be larger than one-half the original, they think he would never have spoken of himself; but place the boxes B and D, to corresponding divisions be- would at least sometimes have mentioned himself in the tween 50 and 100; the fulcrum at B, and crayon first person. Besides this, say they, the author of the
Pentateuch sometimes abridges his narration like a wri• To change the situation of the pantographer.- Copy ter who collected from some ancient memoirs. Some. first as much as the pantographer will take in ; then times he interrupts the thread of his discourse ; for exmake three points on the original, and as many corre- ample, he makes Lamech the bigamist to say (Gen. iv. sponding points on the copy. Then remove the fulcrum 23.), “ Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken to another situation, but so, that when the tracing point unto my speech; for I have slain a man to my woundis applied to the three points marked on the original
, ing, and a young man to my burt,” without informing the crayon may exactly coincide with the other three us before-hand to whom this is related. These observapoints on the copy, and proceed as before; and so on tions, for example (Gen. xii. 6.), " And the Canaanite for every change in the situation of
instrument, was then in the land,” cannot be reconciled to the age and by this means a pantographer of two feet and a of Moses, since the Canaanites continued to be the mahalf in length will copy a drawing of any size whatso- sters of Palestine all the time of Moses. The passage
out of the book of the wars of the Lord, quoted in the
of other passages, wherein it is said, that the places men-
tioned lay beyond Jordan ; that the bed of Og was at
they had not that name till after Moses's time (Numb.
xxxii. 41. Deut. ii. 14.).
where the author omits the begiming of his discourse. PENTAPETALOUS, an appellation given to The Samaritan inserts in the same place what is wanting flowers which consist of five petals or leaves.
in the Hebrew. In other places, the same Samaritan PENTAPETES, a genus of plants belonging to copy adds what is deficient in the Hebrew text; and the monadelphia class, and in the natural method rank. what it contains more than the Hebrew seems so well ing under the 37th order, Columniferæ. See BOTANY connected with the rest of the discourse, that it would Index.
be difficult to separate them. Lastly, they believe that PENTAPOLIS. This name is given to the five they observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch which cities, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah, Zeboim, and Zoar can hardly agree with Moses, who was born and bred (Wisdom x. 6.). They were all five condemned to in Egypt; as what he says of the earthly paradise; of utter destruction, but Lot inteceded for the preserva- the rivers that watered it, and ran through it; of the tion of Zoar, otherwise called Bala. Sodom, Gomor- cities of Babylon, Erech, Resen, and Calneb ; of the
Pentateuch gold of Pison, of the belliún, of the stone of Sohem, gynia order, belonging to the pentandria class of plants. Per
or onyx-stone, which was to be found in that country. The calyx is quinquefid; there are either five petals Penthorun. These particulars, observed with such curiosity, seem to or none; the capsule is five-pointed and quinquelo
prove, that the author of the Pentateuch lived beyond cular.
Babylon, &c. But in answer to all these objections, of shipping between the eastern and western seas, the * Jenkin's we may observe in general, from an eminent writer* of terror of mariners, and has been the grave of thousands. Reasona
our own country, that these books are by the most an- The navigation of this frith was formerly extremely bleness of cient writers ascribed to Moses ; and it is confirmed by dangerous by the island of Stroma, and two rocks called nity.
tlre autliority of heathen writers themselves, that they the Skerries, lying near the middle of it; but it is now
circus or forum with the lacerna or penula. Writers PENTATHLON, in antiquity, a general name for are not agreed as to the precise difference between these · the five exercises performed at the Grecian games, viz. two articles of dress; but we are told that they were Wrestling, boxing, leaping, ruming, and playing at the chiefly worn by the lower orders of people. See LAdiscus.
PENTECOST, a solemn festival of the Jews; so PENULTIMA, or Penultimate Syllable, in Gramcalled, because it was celebrated on the goth day after mar, denotes the last syllable but one of a word ; and the 16th of Nisan, which was the second day of the hence the antepenultimate syllable is the last but two, passover. The Hebrews called it the feast of weeks, be- or that immediately before the penultima. cause it was kept seven weeks after the passover. They PENUMBRA, in Astronomy, a partial shade obthen offered the first fruits of the theat barvest, which served between the perfect shadow and the full light in was then completed : besides which they presented at an eclipse. It arises from the magnitude of the son's the temple seven lambs of that year, one calf, and two body : for were he only a luminous point, the shadow l'ams, for a burnt-offering; two lambs_for a peace-of- would be all perfect; but, by reason of the diameter of fering ; and a goat for a sin-offering (Levit. xxiii. 15, the sun, it happens, that a place which is not illumina16. Exod. xxxiv. 22. and Deut. xvi. 9, 10.). The ted by the whole body of the sun, does yet receive rays feast of Pentecost was instituted among the Israelites, from a part thereof. first to oblige them to repair to the temple of the Lord, PEON, in the language of Hindostan, means a foot there to acknowledge his absolute dominion over the soldier, armed with sword and target. In common use whole country, and to offer him the first-fruits of their it is a footman, so armed, employed to run before a pabarvest; and, secondly, that they might call to mind, lanquin. Piaaah is the proper word; from which peon and give thanks to God, for the law which he had given is a corruption. them from Mount Sinai, on the goth day after their PEOR, a famous mountain beyond Jordan, which coming out of Egypt.
Eusebios places between Heslibon and Livias. The
Greck of the Septuagint (Josh. xv. 60.). Eusebius says
palace under Clovis IlI. Childebert, and Dagobert.
PEPLY' Bits, or le Petii, grandson to Pepin the PENTHORUM, in Botany, a geius of the penta- Gros, and first king of the second race of French mo5
Pepin narchs, was mayor of the palace to Childeric III. a and being examined by the microscope, will be seen all Pepper
ll weak prince : he contrived to confine him and his son in motion : the animals, at first sight, are so small as not Pepper. Thierri in different monasteries: and then, with the to be distinguishable, unless to the greatest magnifiers ;
11 Water. assistance of Pope Stephen III. he usurped the sovereign
but they grow daily till they arrive at their full size. power. He died in 768, aged 54.
Their numbers are also continually increasing, till the PEPLIS, a genus of plants belonging to the hexan- whole surface of the liquor is full of them, to a considerdria class, and in the natural method ranking under able depth. When disturbed, they will sometimes all the 17th order, Calycanthemæ. See BOTANY Index. dart down to the bottom; but they soon after come up
PEPLUS, a long robe worn by the women in an- to the surface again. The skin appears soonest in warm
applied first to the third magnifier, then to the second,
PEPPERMINT-TREE. See EUCALYPTUS, BOTA-
Ambassadors and Christians usually reside. See Con.
PERAMBULATOR, in surveying, an instrument
makes one revolution. This rod, lying along a groove The long pepper is a dried fruit, of an inch or an in the side of the carriage of the instrument, under the inch and a half length, and about the thickness of dotted line, has at its other end a square hole, into which a large goose quill: it is of a brownish
is fitted the end b of a small cylinder P. This cylinder lindrical in figure, and said to be produced on a plant is disposed under the dial-plate of a movement, at the of the same genus.
end of the carriage B, in such a manner as to be movePepper is principally used by us in food, to assist di. able about its axis : its end a is cut into a perpetual gestion : but the people in the East Indies esteem it screw, which falling into the 32 teeth of a wheel peras a stomachic, and drink a strong infusion of it in wa. pendicular thereto, upon driving the instrument forward, ter by way of giving them an appetite : they have alihat wheel makes a revolution each 16th pole. On the B0 a way of making a fiery spirit of fermented fresh axis of this wheel is a pinion with six teeth, which fallpepper with water, which they use for the same pur. ing into the teeth of another wheel of 60 teeth, carries poses. They have also a way of preserving the com- it round every 16oth pole, or half a mile. mon and long pepper in vinegar, and eating them af. This last wheel, carrying a hand or index round with tertyards at meals.
it over the divisions of a dial-plate, whose outer limb is Jamaica PEPPER, or Pimento. See LAURUS, Bo. divided into 160 parts, corresponding to the 160 poles, TANY Inder.
points out the number of poles passed over. Again, on Peppen-Mint. See MENTHA, BOTANY and MA. the axis of this last wheel is a pinion, containing 20 TERIA MEDICA Inde.v.
teeth, which falling into the teeth of a third wheel
The use of this instrument is obvious from its con-
; struction. Its proper office is in the surveying of roads