Imatges de pÓgina
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Pennant felt the advances of old age. He died at his seat at ney, or money of account. Camden derives the word Penny

11 Downing in 1798, and in the 72d year of his age. from the Latin pecunia, “ money." Penny. He inherited from nature a strong and vigorous con- The ancient English penny, penig, or pening, was

Penrith.
stitution; his countenance was open and intelligent; the first silver coin struck in England; nay, and the
his disposition active and cheerful; and bis vivacity, only one current among our Saxon ancestors: as is
both in writing and conversation, made him perpetually agreed by Camden, Spelman, Dr Hicks, &c.
entertaining. His heart was kind and benevolent, and The penny was equal in weight to our three-pence;
in the relations of domestic life his conduct was highly five of them made one shilling, or scilling Saxon; 30 a
worthy of imitation. The distresses in which his poor mark or mancuse, equal to 75. 6d.
neighbours were at any time involved gave him un- Till the time of King Edw. 1. the penny was struck
feigned uneasiness, and he endeavoured to relieve them with a cross, so deeply indented in it, that it might be
by every means in liis power. He was possessed of can easily broke, and parted, on occasion, into two parts,
dour, and free from common prejudices, a truth fully thence called half-pennies; or into four, thence called
evinced in all his publications. The people of Scotland fourthings or farthings.—But that prince coined it
were proud to confess, that he was the first English without indenture, in lieu of which, he first struck round
traveller who had fairly represented their country in its halfpence and farthings.
favourable, as well as in its less pleasing appearances. He also reduced the weight of the penny to a stand-
His style is lively, and fitted to convey the ideas which ard; ordering that it should weigh 32 grains of wheat,
he intended to express, but it is not always correct. taken out of the middle of the ear. This penny was
In zoology his arrangement is judicious, and his descrip- called the penny sterling:- Twenty of these pence were
tions characteristic. If we discover several traces of to weigh an ounce; whence the penny became a.
vanity in those works which he published near the close weight as well as a coin. See STERLING and Pennr-
of life, it ought to be remembered that it is the vanity Weight.
of an old man, which is seldom disagreeable; and it is The penny sterling was long disused as a coin ; and
also the vanity of one who in the meridian of life gave was scarce known, but as a money of account, contain-
the world such fruits of his labours as will be justly ad- ing the tirelfth part of a shilling; but of late years it
mired in all succeeding ages, while a taste for polite and has been introduced into the British current coin.
valuable literature is cherished among men.

Penny, in ancient statutes, &c. is used for all sil-
PENNATULA, or SEA-PEN, a genus of animals ver money. And hence the ward-penny, aver.penny,
belonging to the order zoophyta. See HELMINTHOLO- hundred penny, tithing-penny, and brothul-penny.
GY Inder.

Penny-Weight, a Troy weight, containing-twenty-
PENNI, GIOVANNI Francisco, born at Florence four grains ; cach grain weighing a grain of wheat gae-
in 1488, was the disciple of Raphael, who observing his thered out of the middle of the ear, well dried The
genius and integrity, intrusted his domestic concerns name took its rise bence, that this was anciently the
entirely to his management; by which means he got weight of one of our ancient silver pennies. See
the appellation of il fatore, or the steward," wbich he PENNY.
retained ever after. The genius of Penni was univer. Twenty of these penny-weights make an ounce
sal; but his greatest pleasure was in painting landscapes Troy.
and buildings; lie was an excellent designer, and co- PENRITH, an ancient torn of the counts of Cumi-
loured extremely well in oil, distemper, and fresco. berland in England, svated under a lill called Penrith-
He painted portraits in an exquisite style ; and bad Fell; near the rivers Eamont and Lowther. It is a
such happy natural talents, that Raphael left him heir great thoroughfare for travellers; but has little other
to bis fortune in partnership with Julio Romano his fel- trade, excepting tanning, and a small manufacture of
low disciple. After Raphael's death, Penni painted cheeks. Formerly it had a castle, but it is now in ruins.
many pictures at Rome, particularly in the palace of In the churchyard is a monument of great antiquity,
Chigi, so exactly in the style of bis master, that they consisting of two stone pillars 11 feet 6 inches high, and
might not undeservedly have been imputed to bim : he s in circumference in the lower part, which is rounded;
finished, in conjunction with Julio and Pierino del Va- the opper is square, and tapers to a point ; in the square
gr, the celebrated designs of the battles of Constantine, part is some fretwork, and the relievo of a cross; and
and others, which Raphael had left imperfect; but dif- on the interior side of one is the faint representation of
fering with them about a copy of the transfiguration, some animal. Both these stones are mortised at their
which the pope intended for the king of France, they lower part into a round one : they are about 15 feet
separated. Penni went to Naples; but the air of that asunder, and the space between them is inelosed on eachi
country disagreeing with his constitution, he died soon side with two very large but thin semicircular stones; 96
after in 1528. He had a brother called Lucca Penniż that there is left between pillar and pillar a walk off
who worked at Genox and other parts of Italy in con- two feet in breadth. Two of these lesser stones are plain,
junction with Pierino del Vaga, who married his sister; the others have certain figures, at présetit stareely intel-
he went thence to England, where he worked for ligible. Not far from these pillars is another called the
Henry VIII. and for several netchants; was employ giant's thumb, five feet eight inches ligh, with an exi
ed by Francis I. at Fontainbleau; but at last quitted panded head, perforated on both sides; from the middle
the pencil, and devoted himself to engraving

the stone rises again into a legger brad, rounded at top; PENNY, or PENY, in commerce, ar ancient Ena but no part has a tendency to the figure of a cross, being glish coin, which had forni riy considerablê curtency; in no part mutilated. The pillars are said to have been but is now generally dwindled into an imaginary mo set up in memory of Sir Oten 0:esarius, a-famous wars

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Penrith, rior buried here, who killed so many wild bears, which tol. Thither he went; and there he died in 1979, aged Peni Penrose. much infested this county, that the figures of bears, cut 36 years. In 1768 be married Miss Mary Slocock of

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Pensa out on stone, on each side of his grave, were set there in Newbury, by whom he had one child, Thomas, who was remembrance of the execution he made among those educated at Winton College. beasts ; and it is likewise said his body extended from Mr Penrose was respected for bis extensive erudition, one pillar to the other. In the market place there is a admired for his eloquence, and equally beloved andesteemtown-house of wood, beautified with bears olimbing up ed for his social qualities. By the poor, towards whom a ragged staff. There is a memorandum on the north he was liberal to bis utmost ability, he was venerated to side of the vestry without, that, in 1598, 2266 persons the highest degree. In oratory and composition his tadied here of the plague. There is a charity school in lents were great. His pencil was ready as his pen, and this place for 20 boys, and another for 30 girls, main- on subjects of humour had uncommon merit. To his potained by 551. a-year, by the sacrament money and pa- etical abilities the public, by their reception of his rish-stock. In 1715 the Scotch Highlanders entered Flights of Fancy, &c. have given a favourable testithis town, and quartered in it for a night, in their way mony. to Preston, without doing much harm ; but in the last PENRYN, a town of Cornwall, in England, seated rebellion, in 1745, they were, it is said, very rapacious on a hill at the entrance of Falmouth-haven by Pendenand cruel. Its handsome spacious church has been lately dis castle. The inhabitants in 1811 were 2713, and rebuilt, and the roof supported by pillars, whose shafts the streets are broad and well paved. There are so are of one entire reddish stone, dug out of a neighbour- many gardens and orchards in it, that it resembles very ing quarry. On the east part of the parish, upon the much a town in a wood. It is well watered with rivna north bank of the river Eamont, there are two caves or lets, and has an arm of the sea on each side of it, with grottoes, dug out of the solid rock, and sufficient to con- a good custom-house and quay, and other neat buildings. tain rco men. The passage to them is very narrow It drives a considerable trade in pilchards, and in the dangerous; and it is possible that its perilous access may Newfoundland fishery. It was anciently governed by have given it the name of Isis Parlis ; though the a portreeve; but James I. made it a corporation, convulgar teil strange stories of one Isis, a giant, who lived sisting of a mayor, 11 aldermen, 12 common-council. there in former times, and, like Cacus of old, used to merr, with a recorder, steward, &c. an office of record seize men and cattle, and draw them into his den to de- every three weeks, with a prison, and power to try felons vour them. But it is highly probable that these sub- in their jurisdiction. And he granted that the mayor terraneous chambers were made for a secure retreat in and two aldermen should be justices of the peace, and time of sudden danger; and the iron gates, which were that they should have a guildhall. There was once a taken

away not long ago, seem to confirm that supposi- monastery in this place, which was a cell to Kirton; and
tion. The population in 1811 was 4328. W. Long. there are still to be seen a tower, and part of the garden
4. 43. N. Lat. 54. 35.

walls, the ruins of a collegiate church. It has neither
PENROSE, THOMAS, was the son of the reverend church nor chapel, but belongs to the parish of Gluvias,
Mr Penrose, rector of Newbury, Berks, a man of high a quarter of a mile off. It has sent members to parlia-
character and abilities, descended from an ancient Cor- ment ever since the first year of Queen Mary; and
nish family, beloved and respected by all who knew him. James ]I. granted it a new charter, whereby their elec-
Mr Penrose, jun. being intended for the church, pursued tion was vested in the magistracy only; but it was never
his studies with success, at Christ-church, Oxon, until made use of, all the inhabitants that pay scot and lot, who
the summer of 1762, when his eager turn to the naval are not much above 100, being the electors. Mr Rymer
and military line overpowering his attachment to his gives a very remarkable account how Penryn was once
real interest, he left his college, and embarked in the saved by a company of strolling players. He says, that
unfortunate expedition against Nova Colonia, in South towards the latter end of the 16th century the Spani-
America, under the command of Captain Macnamara. ards were landing to burn the town just as the players
The issue was fatal. The Clive (the largest vessel) was were setting Samson opon the Philistines; which per-
burnt; and though the Ambuscade escaped (on board of formance was accompanied with such drumming and
which Mr Penrose, acting as lieutenant of marines, was shouting, that the Spaniards thought some ambush was
wounded), yet the hardships which he afterwards sustain.. laid for them, and scampered back to their ships.
ed in a prize sloop, in which he was stationed, utterly Queen Elizabeth founded a free-school in this place.
ruined his constitution. Returning to England with W. Long. 4. 58. N. Lat. 50. 23.
ample testimonials of his gallantry and good behaviour, PENSACOLA, a town in North America, situated
he finished, at Hereford College, Oxon, his course of upon a bay of the same name in the gulf of Mexico.
studies; and having taken orders, accepted the curacy The bay is about 30 miles long and five broad, except
of Newbury, the income of which, by the voluntary at the entrance, where it does not much exceed a mile;
subscription of the inhabitants, was considerably aug- and is defended by the fort of Barancas, situated about
mented. After he had continued in that station about three miles from its mouth. The town, which is situ.
nine years, it seemed as if the clouds of disappointment, ated about ten miles from the mouth of the bay, is of
which had hitherto overshadowed his prospects, and importance chiefly for its barbour, which is the best in
tinctured his poetical essays with gloom, were clearing the gulf of Mexico.
away; for he was then presented by a friend, who knew The year 1781, so eventful to Britain in many re-
his worth and honoured his abilities, to a living worth spects, was also remarkable for the reduction of Pensa-
near gool. per annum. It came, however, too late; for cola by the Spaniards under Don Bernardo Galvez. Great
the state of Mr Penrose's health was now such as left lit- preparations for this expedition had been making at the
tle hope, except in the assistance of the waters of Bris. Havannah; but a dreadful hurricane obliged it to put back

nia

Pensacola, to repair; bat as soon as the fleet was again judged capa- The town, with the whole province of West Florida, Pensacola

ble of putting to sea, an embarkation was made of near was confirmed to the Spaniards by the treaty of 1783,
8500 men, with Don Bernardo at their head, together and continued in their possession till the 24th May ensilva.
with five ships of the line, who arrived at Pensacola on 1818, when it was taken after a trifling resistance by
the 9th of March 1791. This force was soon augment- the American general Jackson, on pretenee that the
ed by ten ships of the line and six frigates ; while Gene- ' Spaniards, though then at peace with the United States,
ral Campbell, the British governor, could oppose

such a

had aided the Seminole Indians in their hostilities.
formidable armament with few more than 1000 men, By a treaty published in May 1819, this town with
consisting of some regulars and seamen, with the inhabi- the whole of East and West Florida was ceded to the
tants. The entrance of the harbour, which was the United States, but the treaty has not yet been ratified
principal object of defence, was guarded by two small by the king of Spain. (June 1819.) W. Long. 87. 12.
armed vessels, but they were insuflicient to second the N. Lat. 30. 28.
batteries that had been erected for its protection ; and PENSANCE, a town of Cornwall, in England, at
these, without the assistance of some ships of force, were the bottom of Mountsbay, about ten miles from the
incapable of resisting a vigorous attack. Notwithstand- Land's End. It was burnt in 1595 by the Spaniards,
ing this prodigious odds, however, the Spaniards met who, with four galleys, surprised this part of the coast,
with the most determined opposition. Every inch of and set fire to several villages and farms: but it was soon
ground was disputed with the greatest resolution. The after rebuilt, made one of the coinage towns, and has
harbour was not forced without the greatest difficulty, now a considerable trade. It lies in tbe parish of Ma-
nor could the vessels be taken that defended it; the dern, noted for its restorative spring, very effectual in
companies belonging to them, after setting them on fire, the cure of lameness as well as the cholic, &c. It is
retired on shore.

well built, and has many ships belonging to it. The
The Spaniards, now in possession of the harbour, in population in 1801 exceeded 3000 souls. The shore
vested the place in forın, and made their approaches in abounds with lead, tin, and copper ore; the veins appear
a cautious and regular manner; while, on the other on the utmost extent of land at low-water mark.
band, the besieged were no less active and vigilant in PENSILES HORTI, Hanging Gardens, in antiqui-
their own defence. Sallies were made occasionally with ty. See BABYLON, N° 5.
great success, at the same time that an uninterrupted fire PENSILVANIA, one of the United States of
was kept up in such a manner as not only greatly to an- North America, bad its name from the famous Quaker
noy, but even to strike the besiegers with astonishment. William Penn, son of Sir William, conin ander of the
This incensed the Spanish general the more, as he knew English feet in Oliver Cromwell's time, and in the be-
that the garrison could expect no relief, and therefore ginning of Charles II.'s reign, who obtained a grant of
that all their efforts could only prolong the date of their it in the year 1679. It is bounded on the east by De-
surrender. The resistance was the more mortifying, as laware bay and river; on the north by the state of
he was perfectly conscious of the bravery of his troops ; New York; on the south by Maryland and Virginia;
and he had artillery fit, as his officers expressed them- and on the west by Ohio. Its extent from north to
selves, “to be employed against Gibraltar.” With all south is about 153 miles ; its breadth is about 273 ;
these advantages, however, so resolute was the defence its area is 24,500 square miles.
of the garrison, that after the siege had continued for New York, the Jerseys, and Pensilvania, were disco-
two months, very little hope could be entertained of its vered, with the rest of the continent of North America,
speedy termination. As they despaired therefore of in the reign of Henry VII. by Sebastian Cabot, for the
making any effectual impression by means of their can- crown of England; but Sir Walter Raleigh was the first
non, they erected a battery of mortars, with which they adventurer that attempted to plant colonies on these
boinbarded a redoubt that commanded the main avenue shores, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; and, in ho-
to the place ; and in this they were favoured by an un- nour of that princess, gave all the eastern coast of North
expected accident. On the 8th of May a shell burst America the name of Virginia. Mr Hudson, an Eng-
open the door of the powder magazine under the re- lishman, sailing to that part of the coast which lies be-
doubt, by which it was blown up, with the loss of near tween Virginia and New England, in the beginning of
100 men killed and wounded. Fortunately for the gar- the reign of James I. and being about to make a seitle-
rison, however, two flank-works still remained entire, ment at the mouth of Hudson's river, the Dutch gave
from both which so beavy a tire was kept up, that him a sum of money to dispose of his interest in this
though an assault was immediately given, the assailants country to them. In the year 1608 they began to plant
were repulsed with great slaughter. This afforded lei- it; and, by virtue of this purchase, laid claim to all
sure to the garrison to carry off the wounded men, with those countries which are now denominated New York,
some of the artillery, and to spike up the rest. As the New Jersey, and Pensilvania; but there remaining some
enemy, however, soon recovered themselves, and prepa- part of this coast which was not planted by the Holland-
red for a general storm, it was thought proper to aban- ers, the Swedes sent a fleet of sbips thither, and took
don the flank-works, and retire into the body of the possession of it for that crown ; but the Dutch having
place. The possession of these outworks, however, gave a superior force in the neighbourhood, compelled the
the eneny such advantages, that the place was no long- Swedes to submit to their dominion, allowing them,
er tenable. Their situation, on a rising ground, enabled however, to enjoy the plantations they had settled. The
them to command the battery opposite to their chief ap- English not admitting that either the Dutch or Swedes
proach with small arms, and to single out the men at had any right to countries first discovered and planted

A capitulation therefore became absolutely hy a subject of England, and part of ihem at that time
Neces ary

prin ito m?s obtained on honourable terms. possessed by the subjects of Great Britain, under charter
VOL. XVI. Part I.

Q

from

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their guns

Pensilva- from Queen Elizabeth and King James I.; King the other seasons. In the months of July, August, and Pensilta nia. Charles II. during the first Dutch war in 1664, granted September, the heats would be almost intolerable, if nir

the countries of New York, the Jerseys, and Pensilva- they were not mitigated by frequent cool breezes. The
nia, of wbich the Dutch had usurped the possession, to wind during the summer is generally south-west ; but in
his brother James duke of York; and Sir Robert Carr the winter blows for the most part from the north-west
being sent over with a squadron of men of war and land over the snowy frozen mountains and lakes of Canada,
forces, and summoning the Dutch governor of the city which occasions the excessive cold during that season.
of New Amsterdam, now New York, to surrender, he On the whole, the climate of this state differs not ma-
thought fit to obey the summons, and yield that capital terially from that of Connecticut, except that on the
to the English : the rest of the places in the possession west side of the mountains the weather is much more
of the Dutch and Swedes followed bis example ; and regular. The hot southwardly winds get chilled by
these countries were confirmed to the English by the passing over the long chain of Allegany mountains.
Dutch at the next treaty of peace between the two na- The mean annual temperature of Philadelphia, accord-
tions. The duke of York afterwards parcelled them ing to Humboldt, is 54.8, of winter 33.8, of spring 53,
out to under proprietors ; selling, in particular, to Wil. of summer 75.2, and of autumn 56.1.
lian Penn the elder, in 1683, the town of Newcastle, This is upon the whole one of the healthiest states
alias Delaware, and a district of 12 miles round the in the Union. In 1793, and 1797, Philadelphia was
same ; to whom, his heirs, and assigns, by another deed visited by the yellow fever ; but since the latter period
of the same date, he made over all that tract of land it has been entirely exempted from this disease. Among
from 12 miles south of Newcastle to the Whore-hills, the people called Quakers, who are the oldest settlers,
otherwise called Cape Henlopen, now divided into the two there are instances of longevity, occasioned by their
counties of Kent and Sussex, which, with Newcastle living in the old cultivated countries, and the temperance
district, are commonly known by the name of the Three imposed on them by their religion. There are fewer
Lower Counties upon Delaware River. All the rest of long-lived people among the Germans than among other
the under proprietors, some time after, surrendered nations, occasioned by their excess of labour and low
their charters to the crown ; whereby New York and diet. They live chiefly upon vegetables and watery
the Jerseys became royal governments; but Peon re- food, that aflords too little nourishment to repair the
tained that part of the country which had been sold to waste of their strength by hard labour. The most ge-
him by the duke of York, together with what had been neral diseases are rheumatism and pleurisy. The first
granted to him before in 1680-1, which now constitutes is very common in the interior, and often becomes
the province of Pensilvania. As soon as Peon had got chronic. The goitre is said to prevail in a slight de-
his patent, he began to plant the country. Those who gree at Pittsburg.
went over from England were generally Dissenters and As to the face of this country, towards the coast, like
Quakers, whose religion is established by law liere, but the adjacent colonies, it is flat, but rises gradually to the
with a toleration of all other Protestant sects. The A palachian mountains on the west. Nearly one-third
Dutch and Swedes, who were settled bere before Mr of this state may be called mountainous ; particularly
Penn became proprietor, choosing still to reside in this the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon, Cumberland,
country, as they did in New York and the Jerseys, ob- part of Franklin, Dauphin, and part of Bucks and
tained the same privileges as the rest of bis majesty's Northampton, through which pass, under various names,
subjects; and their descendants are now in a manner the numerous ridges and spurs, which collectively form
the same people with the English, speaking their lan- what are called the great range of Allegany mountains.
guage, and being governed by their laws and customs. There is a remarkable difference between the country
Mr Penn, however, not satisfied with the title granted on the east and west side of the range of mountains we
him by King Charles II. and his brother, bought the have just been describing. Between these mountains
lands also of the Indians for a valuable consideration, and the lower falls of the rivers which run into the
or what they esteemed such (though 20 miles were pur- Atlantic, not only in this, but in all the southern states,
chased, at first, for less than an acre about Philadelphia are several ranges of stones, sand, earths, and minerals,
would pay now), paying them in cloth, tools, and uten- which lie in the utmost confusion. Beds of stone, of
sils, to their entire satisfaction : for they had not hands vast extent, particularly of limestone, have their seve-
to cultivate the hundredth part of their lands, and if .ral layers broken in pieces, and the fragments thrown
they could have raised a product, there was nobody to confusedly in every direction. Between these lower
buy: the purchase, therefore, was all clear gain to them; falls and the ocean is a very extensive collection of
and, by the coming of the English, their paltry trade sand, clay, mud, and shells, partly thrown up by the
became so profitable, that they soon found their condi- waves of the sea, partly brought down by floods from
tion much altered for the better ; and are now as well the upper county, and partly produced by the decay of
clothed and fed as the European peasantry in many vegetable substances. The country west of the Alle-
places.

gany mountains, in these respects, is totally differevt.
The air in Pensilvania is sweet and clear. The fall, It is very irregular, broken, and variegated, but there
or autumn, begins about the 20th of October, and lasts are no mountains ; and when viewed from the most
till the middle of December, when the winter sets western ridge of the Allegany, it appears to be a vast
in, which continues till March, and is sometimes ex- extended plain. All the various strata of stone appear
tremely cold and severe; but the air is then generally to have lain undisturbed in the situation wherein they
dry and bealthy. The river Delaware, though very were first formed. The layers of clay, sand, and coal,
broad, is often frozen over. From March to June, that are nearly horizontal. Scarcely a single instance is to
is, in the spring, the weather is more inconstant than in be found to the contrary. Every appearance, in short,

tendo

2

602,549

Pensilva- tends to confirm the opinion, that the original crust, species of grashopper, which appears at an interval of Pulsivenia. in which the stone was formed, has never been broken 17 or 18 years.

nia. up on the west side of the mountains, as it evidently The population of this state at different periods was has been eastward of them.

as follows: The chief rivers are three, Delaware, Susquehanna,

Slaves Free
and Schuylkil. The Delaware, rising in the state of

1749
220,000

included. Blacks.
New York, takes its course southward; and after di-

1774

350,000 viding this province from that of New Jersey, falls into

1790 434,375 3737 6587 the Atlantic ocean between the promontories or capes

1800

1706 14,564
May and Henlopen, forming at its mouth a large bay,

1810
810,091

795 22,492
called from the river Delaware Bay. This river is na- As it is believed that the rate of increase bas not di.
vigable above 200 miles. Ships of the line can ascend minished, the number will probably be about 1,050,000
to Philadelphia. The Susquehanna rises also in the at present (1819), which gives about 42 inhabitants to
state of New York, and running south through the mid- each square mile. Pensilvania is the third state in
dle of the province, falls into the bay of Chesapeake. point of population ; Virginia being the first, and New
It is not navigable near the sea, owing to rocks. The York the second. The chief town is Philadelphia,
Schuylkil has its source within the state, and runs south, which is estimated to contain 120,000 inhabitants.
till at length, turning to the eastward, it falls into the The constitution of this state is said to have been
river Delaware 6 miles below the city of Philadelphia. drawn up by the late Sir William Jones. The legisla-
It navigable for boats 100 miles. The Allegany river tive power is vested in a general assembly, consisting
traverses the north-western parts of the state, and join- of a senate and house of representatives. The senators
ing the Monongabela at Pittsburg, forms the Ohio. are elected for four years, the representatives for one,
All these rivers admit of boat navigation.

by the free citizens of 21 years of age, who bave re-
The principal mineral productions are, iron ore, sided two years within the state and paid taxes. A
which is found in great quantities in several counties, fourth part of the senate is renewed annually. Sena.
and of various kinds; copper ore, said to be found, but tors must be 25 years of age, and must have resided
is not wrought; lead ore, yielding 20 per cent. of me- four

years

in the state; representatives must be 21 tal; black lead; slate of a good quality ; freestone and years of age, and must have resided three

years

in the limestone ; marble, black, white, and variegated; state. The number of representatives cannot be les3 coal of an excellent quality on the Susquehanna, than 60, nor more than 100. The governor is clected Allegany, Monongahela, Leheigh, and Schuylkil rivers. by the citizens for three years, and is commander-inThere are also several mineral springs, some of which chief of the army and navy, except when called into are in high estimation for their medicinal virtues. The the service of the United States. Persons holding pubsalt springs of Conemaugh produce a hundred bushels lic offices are only required to acknowledge the being of of salt per day. In Venargo county an oil spring a God, and a future state of rewards and punishments. rises from the bed of the Allegany river, which yields The judges are appointed by the governor, and may be a gallon in the course of an hour or two.

impeached or removed by bim, on the address of twoPensilvania abounds in excellent wood, oak, chesnut, thirds of both houses. Pensilvania was the first state beech, elm, black walnut, bass wood, butternut, locust that carried into execution the ideas of philosophical and magnolia. The latter is not found farther north writers on the subject of criminal law. Only the two than this state. The sugar maple is abundant, and in crimes of murder and arson are punished with death, the hilly parts near Lake Erie is found in the propor- inferior crimes with bard labour. The laws are mild, tion of six or eight trees to an acre. About one million and the grand object of making the punishment contriof pounds of sugar were made from the maple in this bute to the reformation of the individual, is steadily state in 1810.

kept in view. The prison of Philadelphia is the best The wild animals are now rare in this state, having conducted institution of the kind in the world; and its retired as cultivation advanced. Deer are still com- system of discipline has served as a model to the most mon in the uncultivated districts; and the brown bear, enlightened states in Europe. wolf, wild cat, and fox, are met with occasionally. The The militia of this state in 1812 consisted of 99,414 musk-rat is found in marshy places. The beaver and men, of whom whom 2005 were artillery and cavalry. otter are nearly extinct: the cougouar is rarely seen. There are no taxes for the general government. Those The wild turkey, with some species of pheasants, for the expences of the state government are very grouse, and pigeons, are found. The rivers and creeks small. The most entire religious freedom exists here. abound with salmon, trout, shad, carp, eels, rockfish, Indeed Pensilvania. was the first among the North &c. The caterpillar sometimes does much injury to American states to set the example of complete liberty vegetation. The grass or meadow-worm is another de. of conscience. In 1802 there were 36 congregations of structive insect which occasionally visits the country. Presbyterians, 84 of German Calvinists, 84 of GerThe musquito is sometimes troublesome in low valleye, man Lutherans, 54 of Quakers, 26 of Episcopalians, but never in elevated parts. Mr Cobbet states, as the 15 of Baptists, il of Roman Catholics, 8 of Scotch result of his own observations and experiments, that Presbyterians, 8 of Moravians; of free Quakers, Coeven low situations may be kept free of this insect, if venanters, Universalists, each 1, and the Jews had tivo care is taken to remove all filth and putrid or decayed synagogues. In 1817 the number of Baptist churches matter. The beetle, known by the name of tumble

was 60. bug, is in many parts destructive to the Indian corn. There are many charitable and benevolent institu. The other kinds of grain are liable to be injured by a tions in this state, Those in the capital are very nu

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