Imatges de pÓgina
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Fig. 2.


Pendilun such a manner as to form the evolute of the given pa- dry, well seasoned white wood, four feet long, three- Penduluin

rabola, Hence, let KH (fig. 9.) be an axis perpendi- fourths of an inch broad, and one-fourth of an inch
cular to the horizon, having a pinion at K moved by thick, when exposed in an oven to the temperature of

the last wheel in the train of the clock; and a burden- 235°, had contracted. Being again put into the oven,
ed steel point at H moving in an agate pivot, to render where it was permitted to remain for a long time till it
the motion as free as possible. Now, let it be required became a little discoloured, with a view to dissipate the
that the pendulum shall perform each revolution in a whole of the moisture, it was placed in the pyrometer,
second, then the paraboloid surface it moves in must and allowed to remain till it reached the temperature of
be such whose latus rectum is dou':le the length of the the room, or 49°, when it was found to have contract.
common half second pendulum. Let O be the focus ed 0.0205 of an inch with 136° of Fahrenheit, from
of the parabola MEC, and MC the latus rectum; and which we obtain by proportion 0.0049 of an inch for
make AE=MO=MC = the length of a

the expansion of one foot with 180° difference of tem-
half second pendulum. At the point A of the verge,

perature. Thus,
let a thin plate AB be fixed at one end, and at the
other end B let it be fastened to a bar or arm BD

0.0205 X 180 0.0198

=0.0049. pendicular to DH, and to which it is fixed at the point

186 D. The figure of the plate AB is that of the evolute

But for a general description of this pendulum, and of the given parabola MEC.

a full account of the manner in which it is constructed, The equation of this evolute, being also that of the we must refer our readers to the inventor's own paper,


Nichol. Jour. vol. xx. p. 214.


Besides the use of the pendulum in measuring time,

it has also been suggested as a proper standard for meaPx=y), and in the focus P=2 y. In this case 2a-=

sures of length. See MEASURE. yP{Px=P/

PENEA, a genus of plants belonging to the tetrar

dria class, and in the natural method ranking with those distance of the focus from the vertex A.-By assuming

of which the order is doubtful. See BOTANY Index. the value of x, the ordinates of the curve may be found;

PENELOPE, in fabulous history, the daughter of and hence it may be easily drawn.

Icarus, married Ulysses, by whom she had Telemachus.
The string of the pendulum must be of such a length During the absence of Ulysses, who was gone to the siege
that when one end is fixed at B, it may lie over the of Troy, and who staid 20 years from his dominions, se-
plate AB, and then hang perpendicular from it, so that veral princes charmed with Penelope's beauty, told her
the centre of the bob may be at E when at rest. Now, that Ulysses was dead, offered to marry her, and pressed
the verge KH being put into motion, the ball of the her to declare in their favour. She promised compli.
pendulum will begin to gyrate, and thereby conceive a ance on condition they would give her time to finish a
centrifugal force which will carry it out from the axis piece of tapestry she was weaving; but at the same time
to some point F, where it will circulate seconds or half she undid in the night what she had done in the day,
seconds, according as the line AE is 9.8 inches, or 2 and by this artifice eluded their importunity till Ulys.
inches, and AB answerable to it.

ses's return.
One advantage possessed by a clock having a pendu- PENELOPE, a genus of birds of the order of gallinæ,
lum of this construction is, that the second hand moves See ORNITHOLOGY Index.
in a regular and uniform manner, without being subject PENESTICA, (Antonine), a town of the Helve-
to those jerks or starts as in common clocks; and the tii, situated between the Lacus Lausonius and Salodu-
pendulum is entirely silent.

rum ; called Petenisca by Peutinger. Thought now to
Theory has pointed out several other pendulums, be Biel (Cluverias); the capital of a small territory in
known by the names of Elliptical, Horizontal, Rotulary, Swisserland.
&c. pendulums. These, bowever, have not as yet at- PENEUS, (Strabo); a river running through the
tained that degree of perfection as to supplant the com- middle of Thessaly, from west to east, into the Sinus
mon pendulum.

Thermraicus, between Olympus and Ossa, near Tempe
Observing that both the gridiron and mercurial pen- of Thessaly, rising in Mount Pindus, (Ovid, Val. Flac-
dulums are subject to many inconveniences and errors, cus).
Mr Kater has attempted to construct one possessing such PENETRALE, a sacred room or chapel in private
properties in respect of cheapness and accuracy as be houses, which was set apart for the worship of the house-
thinks might justly give it the preference to any other. hold gods among the ancient Romans. In temples also
As wood possesses a less degree of expansibility by there were penetralia, or apartments of distinguished
means of heat than any other substance; on this oc- sanctity, where the images of the gods were kept, and
count, if it could be rendered quite impervious to certain solemn ceremonies performed.
moisture, it would be the best of all substances for the PENGUIN, or PINGUIN. See PENGUIN, ORNI- .
rod of a pendulum ; and as it also appears that zinc, TĦOLOGY Index.
above all other metals, possesses the greatest degree of PENICILLUS, among surgeons, is used for a tent
expansibility by means of heat, he considered it the best to be put into wounds or ulcers.
substance which could be employed for a compensation. PENIEL, or PENUEL, a city beyond Jordan, near
His next object was to institute a set of delicate experi- the ford or brook Jabbok. This was the occasion of
ments, in order to ascertain the precise degree of the its name. Jacob, upon his return from Mesopotamia,
expansibility of wood hy the application of heat, and he (Gen. xxxii. 24, &c.) made a stop at the brook Jabbok:
discovered by the use of a pyrometer, that a rod of very and very eatly the mext morning, after he had sent all

P 2




Peniel the people before, he remained alone, and behold an Till the beginning of the last century, none but peni- Penite

angel came, and wrestled with him till the day began tents were admitted; but since its reformation by Mary !1 Penitence, to appear. Then the angel said to Jacob, Let me go, Alvequin, in 1616, none have been admitted but maids,

Penit for the morning begins to appear. Jacob answered, I who, however, still retain the ancient name penitents. shall not let you go from me till you have given me your PENITENTS, an appellation given to certain frablessing. The angel blessed him then in the same place, ternities of penitents distinguished by the different shape which Jacob thence called Peniel, saying, I have seen and colour of their habits. These are secular societies, God face to face, yet continue alive.

who have their rule3, statutes, and churches, and make In following ages the Israelites built a city in this public processions under their particular crosses or banplace, which was given to the tribe of Gad. Gideon, ners. Of these there are more than a hundred, the most returning from the pursuit of the Midianites, overthrew considerable of which are as follow: the white penitents, the tower of Peniel, (Judges viii. 17.), and put all the of which there are several different sorts at Rome, the inhabitants of the city to death, for having refused sus- most ancient of which was constituted in 1264 ; the tenance to him and his people, and having answered him brethren of this fraternity every year give portions to in a very insulting manner. Jeroboam the son of Nebat

a certain number of young girls, in order to their being rebuilt the city of Peniel, (1 Kings xii. 25.). Josephus married: their habit is a kind of wbite sackcloth, and says, that this prince there built himself a pałace. on the shoulder is a circle, in the middle of which is a

PENINNAH, the second wife of Elkanab, the fa- red and white cross. Black penitents, the most consi-
ther of Samuel. Peninpah bad several children, (1 Sam. derable of which are the brethren of mercy, instituted
i. 2, 3, &c.), but Hannalı, who afterwards was mother in 1488 by some Florentines, in order to assist criminals
of Samuel, was for a great while barren: Peninnah, in- during their imprisonment, and at the time of their
stead of giving the glory to God, the author of fruitful- death : on the day of execution they walk in procession
ness, was elevated with pride, and insulted her rival before them, singing the seven penitential psalms and
Hannah. But the Lord having visited Hannah, Penin- the litanies; and after they are dead, they take them
nah was thereupon humbled : and some interpreters down from the gibbet and bury them; their habit is
think, that God took away her children from her, or black sackcloth. There are others whose business it is
at least that she had no more after this time, according to bury such persons as are found dead in the streets :
to the words of the song of Hannah, (1 Sam. ii. 5.), these wear a death's head on one side of their habit.
66 The barren hath born seven, and she that hath many There are also blue, gray, red, green, and violet peni-
children is waxed feeble."

tents; all of whom are remarkable for little else besides
PENINSULA, in Geography, a portion or extent the different colours of their habits.
of land joining to the continent by a narrow neck or Mabillon tells us, that at Turin there are a set of pe-
isthmus, the rest being encompassed with water. uitents kept in pay to walk through the streets in pro-

PENIS, in Anatomy. See ANATOMY Index. cession, and cut their shoulders with whips, &c.

PENITENCE, is sometimes used for a state of re- Penitents, or Converts of the name of Jesus, a con-
pentance, and sometimes for the act of repenting. Seegregation of religious at Seville in Spain, consisting of
REPENTANCE. It is also used for a discipline, or punish- women who had led a licentious life, founded in 1550.
ment atending repentance; more usually called penance. This monastery is divided into three quarters: one for
It also gives title to several religious orders, consisting professed religious; another for novices; a third for those
either of converted debauchees, and reformed prosti- who are under correction. When these last give signs
tutes, or of persons who devote themselves to the office of a real repentance, they are removed into the quarter
of reclaiming them. Of this latter kind is the of the novices, where, if they do not bebave themselves

Order of Penitence of St Magdalen, established well, they are remanded to their correction. They ob-
about the year 1272 by one Bernard, a citizen of Mar- serve the rule of St Augustine.
seilles, who devoted himself to the work of converting PENITENTS of Orvieto, are an order of nuns, institut-
the courtezans of that city. Bernard was seconded by ed by Antony Simoncelli, a gentleman of Orvieto in
several others; who, forming a kind of society, were at Italy. The monastery he built was at first designed for
length erected into a religious order by Pope Nicholas the reception of poor girls, abandoned by their parents,
III. under the rule of St Augustine. F. Gesnay says, and in danger of losing their virtue. In 1662 it was
that they also made a religious order of the penitents, erected into a monastery, for the reception of such as,
or women they converted, giving them the same rules baving abandoned themselves to impurity, were willing
and observanoes which they themselves kept.

to take up, and consecrate themselves to God by so-
Congregation of PeniteNCE of St Magdalen at Pa- lemn vows. Their rule is that of the Carmelites.
ris, owed its rise to the preaching of F. Tisseran a Fran- These religious have this in peculiar, that they un-
ciscan, who converted a vast number of courtezans about dergo no noviciate. All required is, that they con-
the year 1492

Louis duke of Orleans gave them his tinue a few months in the monastery in a secular habit;
house for a monastery; or rather, as appears by their after which they are admitted to the vows.
constitutions, Charles VIII. gave them the hotel called PENITENTIAL, an ecclesiastical book, retained
Bochaigne, whence they were removed to St George's among the Romanists; in which is prescribed what re-
chapel, in 1572. By virtue of a brief of Pope Alexan- lates to the imposition of penance and the reconcilia-
der, Simon bishop of Paris, in 1497, drew up for them tion of penitents. See PENANCE.
a body of statutes, and gave them the rule of St Augus- There are various penitentials, as the Roman peni-
tine. It was necessary, before a woman could be ad- tential, that of the venerable Bede, that of Pope Gre-
mitted, that she had first committed the sin of the flesh.
None were admitted who were above 35 years of age. PENITENTIARY, in the ancient Christian church,

gory III. &c.


Peniten. a name given to certain presbyters or priests, appointed months imprisonment, he went to Ireland, where he also
tiary in every church to receive the private confessions of the preached amongst the Quakers. Returning to England,

H1 people, in order to facilitate public discipline, by ac- he was in 1670 committed to Newgate, for preaching

quainting them what sins were to be expiated by public in Gracechurch-street meeting-house, London ; but be-
penance, and to appoint private penance for such private ing tried at the sessions-bouse of the old Bailey, he was
crimes as were not proper to be publicly censured. acquitted. In September the same year, his father died;

PENITENTIARY, at the court of Rome, is an office in and being perfectly reconciled to bim, left him both his
which are examined and delivered out the secret bulls, paternal blessing and a good estate. But his

persecugraces, or dispensations relating to cases of conscience, tions were not yet at an end; for in 1671 he was comconfessions, &c.

mitted to Newgate for preaching at a meeting in WheelPENITENTIARY, is also an officer, in some cathedrals, er-street, London; and during his imprisonment, which vested with power from the bishop to absolve, in cases continued six months, he also wrote several treatises. referred to him. The pope has at present his grand After his discharge, he went into Holland and Gerpenitentiary, who is a cardinal and the chief of the many; and in the beginning of the year 1672, married, other penitentiary priests established in the church of and settled with his family at Rickmansworth in HertRome, who consult him in all difficult cases. He pre- fordshire. The same year he published several pieces ; sides in the penitentiary, dispatches dispensations, abso- and particularly one against Reeve and Muggleton. In lutions, &c. and has under bim a regent and proctor. 1677, he again travelled into Holland and Germany in

PENITENTIARY, a prison or place of confinement for order to propagate his opinions; and had frequent concriminals, in which the prisoners are made to labour, versations with the princess Elizabeth, daughter to the and a system of discipline is employed for effecting their queen of Bohemia, and sister to the princess Sophia, moreformation. The building is so constructed that the ther to King George I. In 1681, King Charles II. in overseer from a central station can observe the conduct consideration of the services of Mr Penn's father, and of every individual. There is an establishment of this several debts due to him from the crown at the time of kind at Milbank, near London, but the building is not yet his decease, granted Mr Penn and his heirs the province finished. It is intended for the reception of such crimi- lying on the west side of the river Delaware in North nals as have hitherto been transported to New South America, which from thence obtained the name of PenWales, fer a less period than during life.

sylvania. Upon this Mr Penn published a brief account PENMAN-Mawr, a mountain in Caernarvonshire, of that province, with the king's patent; and proposing 1400 feet high. It hangs perpendicularly over the sea, an easy purchase of lands, and good terms of settlement at so vast a height, that few spectators are able to look for such as were inclined to remove thither, many went down the dreadful steep. On the side which is next the over. These having made and improved their plantasea, there is a road cut out of the side of the rock, about tions to good advantage, the governor, in order to sesix or seven feet wide, which winds up a steep ascent. cure the planters from the native Indians, appointed

PENN, WILLIAM, an eminent writer among the commissioners to purchase the land he had received Quakers, and the planter and legislator of Pensylvania, from the king of the native Indians, and concluded a was the son of Sir William Penn, and was born at Lon- peace with them. The city of Philadelphia was plandon in 1644. In 1660, he was entered a gentleman ned and built; and he himself drew up the fundamental of Christ Church, in Oxford; but having before receive constitutions of Pensylvania in 24 articles. In 1681, ed an impression from the preaching of one Thomas he was elected a member of the Royal Society; and the Loe a Quaker, withdrew with some other students from

he embarked for Pensylvania, where he contithe national worship, and held private meetings, where nued about two years, and returned to England in Authey preached and prayed amongst themselves. This gust 1684. Upon the accession of King James to the giving great offence to the heads of the college, Mr throne, he was taken into a great degree of favour with Penn, though but 16 years of age, was fined for non- his majesty, which exposed bim to the imputation of conformity; and continuing his religious exercises, was being a Papist ; but from which he fully vindicated at length expelled the college. Upon his return liome, himself. However, upon the Revolution, he was exhe was on the same account, treated with great severity amined before the council in 1688, and obliged to give by his father, who at last turned him out of doors ; but security for his appearance on the first day of next term, his resentment afterwards abating, he sent him to France which was afterwards continued. He was several times in company with some persons of quality; where he con- discharged and examined; and at length warrants being tinued a considerable time, and returned not only well issued out against him, he was obliged to conceal himskilled in the French language, but a polite and ac- self for two or three years. Being at last permitted to complished gentleman. About the year 1666, his fa- appear before the king and council, he represented his ther committed to his care a considerable estate in Ire- innocence so effectually that he was acquitted. In Auland. Being found in one of the Quakers meetings in gust 1699, he, with his wife and family, embarked for Cork, he, with many others, was thrown into prison; Pensylvania; whence he returned in 1701, in order to but on his writing to the earl of Orrery, was soon dis- vindicate his proprietary right, which had been attackcharged. However, his father being informed he stilled during his absence. Upon Queen Anne's accession adhered to his opinions, sent for him to England, and to the crown, he was in great favour with her, and was finding him inflexible to all his arguments, turned him often at court. But, in 1707, he was involved in a lawout of doors a second time. About the year 1668, he suit with the executors of a person who had been forbecame a public preacher among the Quakers; and that merly his steward; and, though many thought him agyear was committed close prisoner to the Tower, where grieved, the court of chancery did not think proper to he wrote several treatises. Being discharged after seven relieve him; upon which account he was obliged to live


next year

Penn, within the rules of the Fleet for several months, till the produced. When he returned home he married and bad renna
Pennant. matter in dispute was accommodated. He died in 1718. two children ; but he was 37 years of age before he

At one period of his life, Penn lodged in a house in gained possession of the fanuly rztaie, after which be
Norfolk-street in the Strand. In the entrance to it he took


his residence at Downing.
had a peeping-hole, through which he could see any On the death of his wife he set out again for the con-
person tbat came to him. A creditor one day sent in his tinent, wkere he became acquainted with Voltaire, Buf-
name, and having been made to wait more than a sea- fon, Pallas, and otber eminent characters. Being an
sonable time, he knocked for the servant, whom he ask- author as early as the year 1750 (then only 24 years of
ed, “ Will not thy master see me ?” “ Friend (answer- age), he had acquired a considerable degree of re puta-
ed the servant) he has seen thee, but he does not like tion in that capacity, by the time he became acquainted

with the forementioned philosophers. His reputation as
Mr Penu's friendly and pacific manner of treating a naturalist was established by his British Zoology in
the Indians produced in them an extraordinary love for four vols. 4to. and still farther increased by his episto-
him and his people ; so tbat they have maintained a per- lary correspondence with so great a man as Linnæus. He
fect amity with the English in Pensylvania ever since. undertook a tour to Cornwall at an early period of life,
He was the greatest bulwark of the Quakers ; in whose and also felt an irresistible propensity to survey the works
defence he wrote numberless pieces. Besides the above of nature in the northern parts of the kingdom. For
works, he wrote a great number of others; the most this purpose be set out for Scotland in 1771, and pub-
esteemed of which are, 1. His Primitive Christianity re- lished an amusing account of his tour in three vols. 4to,
vived. 2. His defence of a paper, intitled Gospel Truths, which was destined to receive such a share of public fa-
against the Erceptions of the Bishop of Cork. 3. His vour as to pass through several editions. His Welch
Persuasive to Moderation. 4. His Good Advice to the tour was published in 1778, and his journey from Ches-
Church of England, Roman Catholic, and Protestant ter to London in 1782, in one volume 4to. About
Dissenter. 5. The Sandy Foundation shaken. 6. No 1784 came out his Arctic Zoology, a work which was
Cross, no Crown. 7. The great case of Liberty of very much esteemed, both in his own, and in many
Conscience debated. 8. The Christian Quaker and his other countries. He also gave the world a natural his-
Testimony stated and vindicated. 9. A Discourse of the tory of the parishes of Holywell and Downing, within
general Rule of Faith and Practice, and Judge of Con- the latter of which he had resided for more than 50
troversy. 10. England's Present Interest considered. years. Not long before his death appeared his View of.
11. An Address to Protestants, 12. His Reflections Hindostan, in two vols. 4to, to undertake which it seems
and Maxims. 13. His Advice to his Children. 14. His he had solicitations from private friends, as well as the
Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers. 15. A wishes of persons entirely unknown to bim, wbich were
Treatise on Oaths. Most of these have passed several expressed in the public prints. This was unquestionably
· editions, some of them many. The letters between Wil- a very bold attempt in a man who was turned of 90, a
liam Penn and Dr Tillotson, and William Penn and period at which the faculties of the mind must certainly
William Popple, Esq. together with Penn's letters to be impaired, especially when exerted with vigour for
the princess Elizabeth of the Rhine, and the countess of such a number of years before. Notwithstanding his
Hornes, as also one to his wife on his going to Pensyl- great age, bowever, the work is executed in an able
vania, are inserted in his works, which were first col- manner, bearing a strong resemblance to the introduc-
lected and published in 2 vols folio ; and the parts since tion of his Arctic Zoology.
selected and abridged into i vol. folio, are very much He also published a letter on the earthquake which
and deservedly admired for the good sense they contain. was felt at Downing in Flintsbire, in the year 1753 ;

PENNANT, THOMAS, Esq. a celebrated naturalist, another which was inserted in the Pbilosophical Trans-
was born in Flintshire, about the year 1726. His actions in 1756 ; his Synopsis of Quadrupeds in 1771 ;
family had their residence in that country for several a pamphlet on the militia ; a paper on the turkey, and

years ; and be informs us himself, that he ac- a miscellaneous volume.
quired the rudiments of his education at Wrexham, Almost every species of literary honour was conferred
from whence he was sent to Fullam. Not long after upon him; for he was complimented with the degree
this he went to the university of Oxford, where his pro- of LL. D. by the university in which he was educated;
gress in classical knowledge was very considerable; after he was also fellow of the Royal Society, and a member
which he turned his attention to the study of jurispru- of the Society of Antiquaries; a fellow of the Royal
dence; but it is no where said that he ever followed the Society of Upsal in Sweden ; a member of the American
law as a profession

Philosophieal Society; an honorary member of the An-
We are informed that his taste for'natural history, for glo-Linnean Society, &c. &c.
his knowledge of which he afterwards became so conspi- He was enabled to exhibit the greatest hospitality at
cuous, was first excited by the perusal of Willoughby's his table, in consequence of the ample fortune which was
Ornithology, a copy of which had been sent him in a left him at his father's decease, and he gave the profits
present. He began his travels at home, which was cer- arising from the sale of several publications to charitable
tainly the most proper step, to acquire a knowledge of endowments. By his generous patronage a number of
the manners, curiosities, and productions of bis native engravers met with great encouragement, and he con-
country, before he attempted to delineate those of any tributed not a little to the promotion of the fine arts.
other nation. He then visited the continent, wbere he About the age of 50 he married for the second time, a
acquired additional knowledge respecting his most fa- Miss Mostyn, sister of his neighbour, the late Sir Roger
-vourite studies, and became acquainted with some of the Mostyn of Flintshire. The concluding part of his life
most celebrated literary characters which that period was cheerful, and it may be affirmed that he scarcely

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