Imatges de pÓgina

generally fixed at ten ; but proof is polemical Journal in the Greek lanHere adduced, that they amounted to guage, entitled Calliope, the object of twenty-one. This work was crowned which was to deprecate the taste for last year with the particular sanction Literature and the Arts beginning to of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions revive in Greece. The ostensible ediand Belles Lettres, at the competition tor is M. Athanasius of Stagyra, but for prizes ; and it has been justly re- the real editor is a soi-disant Athenian, commended in various French periodi. whose name is odious to all Greeks cal publications, as one of the most that are lovers of liberty. The sevenimportant that have appeared on an- teenthnumber contained a libellous and cient history for many years,

offensive diatribe, levelled at the meIt contains, in fact, the history of thods of Pestalozzi, which, by an inEgypt under the Ptolemies, from excusable ignorance, were confounded Alexander to Augustus ; and, as those with the philosophy of Kant. Inveckings had a share in almost all the tives the most outrageous and abusive great events that occurred either in were lavished upon the venerable Coray, Europe or Asia for about three cen- the most illustrious of modern Greeks, turies, a chronological synopsis of their who, by all the intelligent men of that history serves also to illustrate that of unhappy nation, is hailed as the rethe princes or states that were their former, the father, and the benefactor contemporaries. A number of chrono- of his country. logical tables are annexed, with two A Geographical Society was estacuts, or plates, of medals. The author blished at Vienna, the object of which is M. Figeac.

was to facilitate the execution of difGERMANY.—The Emperor Francis ferent labours projected in the inte. published an edict, ordaining that rior of the Austrian monarchy, and the work entitled, Jus Criminale to concentrate various means of inforHungaricum, or the Criminal Laws mation relating to geography and staof Hungary, published by M. Vuche- tistics. M. the Baron de Schwitzen, tich, Professor of the Roman Civil counsellor of state, was occupied in Law, &c. in the University of Pesth, the formation of this Board, which is be considered as the standard and guide placed under the immediate direction by which all the lectures on law in the of the Council of State. Universities of Hungary shall be mo- There was recently discovered in delled. His Majesty has ordered the the Ambrosian Library at Milan, sum of 3000 florins to the author. a manuscript copy of the Iliad of

The number of students in the Uni- Homer of the fourth century, with versity of Leipsic increased to upwards sixty pictures, equally ancient. The of a thousand. Many that were at the characters are square capitals, accord. University of Jena, and which they ing to the usage of the best ages, were obliged to quit, repaired to Leip- without distinction of words, without sic, where their conduct was unblame- accents or the aspirates ; that is to able. At Jena, there were thirteen say, without any sign of the modern Greeks, seven of whom are now at Greek orthography. The pictures are Leipsic, where others of their coun- upon vellum, and represent the princitrymen had previously been prosecu. pal circumstances mentioned in the ting their studies. A number of Cour. Iliad. M. Angelo Maio, professor landers and other Russians were also at the Ambrosian College, caused in that University.

the manuscript to be printed in one There was published at Vienna, a volume, with the engravings from the

pictures, and the numerous scholia at- tion; the first and second books, contached to the manuscript. These new taining epistles to M. Aurelius, were scholia fill' more than thirty-six pages published from the Milan MS. ; that in large folio ; they are all of a very now found in the Vatican contains the ancient period, and the greater part of third, fourth, and fifth books, as well them are by authors anterior to the as the supplement to the second, and Christian era and to the school of some other works by Fronto, Latin Alexandria. The authors quoted are and Greek. 2. The fine commentary one hundred and forty in number, of the ancient inedited scholiast on whose writings have been lost, or are Cicero, begun to be published by me entirely unknown. The manuscript, at Milan, and now to be increased by however, does not contain the Iliad five other orations, with the suppleentire, but only the fragments which ments to those already printed at Mi. relate to the pictures.

lan. 3. A fragment of an oration, by A letter, dated December 23, 1819, Q. Aurelius Symmachus, with the from A. Mai, the principal librarian supplement of two by the same auof the Vatican to the Pope, giving an thor, already published by me. 4. account of Cicero's Treatise de Re. The supplements to the homily, or publica, excited great expectation. Gothico-Ulphilan commentary, a por

" I have the honour and satisfac- tion of which was also found at Milan, tion,” says M. Mai, in his letter to together with an essay of Ulphilas. the Pope, “to inform your beatitude, These valuable works, mixed into two that in two re-written Codices of the volumes, which were taken for writing Vatican I have lately found some lost parchment in the middle ages, were works of the first Larin classics. In sent partly to Rome, and partly to the first of these MSS. I have disco. Milan, from the Convent of St Columvered the lost books De Republica of banus at Robbio. They will now be Cicero, written in excellent letters of again united in a Roman edition of the best time, in three hundred pages, them, which I shall lose no time in each in two columns, and all fortu. publishing. nately legible. The titles of the above (Signed) " ANGELO MAL." noble subject, and of the books, ap. The public have been already appear in the margin ; and the name of prised of the publication, in the ArCicero, as the author of the work, is menian language, of the Chronicle of distinctly legible. The other re-writ. Eusebius ; to which may be added, ten codex presents various and almost that Doctor Zobrab, who brought equally precious works. It is singular the manuscripts to Constantinople, that this MS. contains some of the has been an assistant to M. Majo in same works which I discovered and the Latin translation, and in the pubpublished at Milan, and I have here lication, by augmenting it with a cofound what was there wanting. I per- pious preface, with notes, and with ceived this at first sight, not only from the Chronicle of Dr Samuel, an Ar. comparing the subject, but also from menian writer, who lived in the thir. the hand-writing, which is precisely teenth century. the same as that of the Milan MS. Baron de Niebuhr, Prussian Am

• The contents are-1. The corre- bassador to the Holy See, discover. spondence between Fronto and Marcused and published several MS. works Aurelius before and after he was Em- hitherto unknown. They are chiefly peror. This is an instructive, affec- fragments of Cicero's Orations Prov. tionate, and very interesting collec- Fonteio and Pro C. Rabirio; a fragment of the 91st book of Livy; and It comprises, 1. " The Gazette of two works of Seneca.

Madrid.” 2.“ The Ancient Journal The Abbé Amadeus Peyran, pro- of Madrid.” 3. “ La Miscellanea,” fessor of Oriental Languages in the published every fortnight: it opposes University of Turin, discovered some religious intolerance and political prefragments of Cicero in a manuscript judices. 4. “ Le Constitutionnel,'' in from the monastery of St Colom- the same spirit. 5. “ The Law,” in ban de Rabbio, a town on the Tre. support of legal authority. 6. " The bia, in the dominions of the King of Publicist,” supports the constitution Sardinia. This MS. presents impor- and opposes despotism. 7. “ The tant new readings of orations already Courier, political and literary :" its known, and confirms the identity of contents are more miscellaneous than several texts that have been tortured those of the other journals; which, by indiscreet critics. It contains also however, do not wholly lose sight of fragments of the orations Pro Scauro, literature. 8. “ The Bee hive, or Pro M. Tullio, In Clodium, orations Colmena," exerts itself in favour of unfortunately lost.

the unhappy and oppressed, in firm It appears from a report made on and determined language. 9. “ The the 1st of June, by M. Scovazzo, di- Spanish Minerva.” 10. “ The Narector, that a school, on the plan of tional Minerva.” 11. “ The Pallamutual instruction, was established, dium, or Patriotic Journal of the Sowith every prospect of success, at cieties of St Sebastian, and of the Inn Palermo, in Sicily. It was opened for of Malta.” This paper takes its tone 250 children ; the progress was ra. from the Societies it represents : it is pid, and the jury of monitors proved now less furiously patriotic than it was very useful. Such was the ardour for formerly. 12. “ The Zealous Citithis mode of instruction, that holi- zen.” 13. “ The Aurora :” this jourdays were suppressed, and there were nal records the proceedings of patrio. no interruptions but the Sunday and tic societies; it has been extremely certain grand festival days. A general personal, but is now less violent. 14. enthusiasm prevails for the new me- The Conservator,” constitutional thod. There had also been a similar and loyal. 15.“ The Vigilant.” 16. school for about three months at Mes. “ The Sun” records accurately desina. Others were to be opened at Tra. crees and edicts. 17. “ The Chronicle pani, Mazara, Agrigento, Syracuse, of the Arts." 18. “ The Universal 'Termini, &c. and no obstacles what. Observer” is distinguished by imparever occur to the dissemination of this tiality and moderation. 19. “ The method throughout Sicily. Even the Messenger.” 20. “ The Economic Jesuits have adopted it in their col- Library," or Annals of Arts, Agrilege of Alcamo, and before the ex- culture, and Commerce. Publications piration of two years, there would not of this description have been for some be a village without a school of mu- time past popular in Spain : the pretual instruction.

sent has been well received.

21. SPAIN.- Before the late Revolu- Correspondence between two Friends tion in Spain, there was at Madrid of Liberty:" this paper discusses subbut one Gazette, with another Jour. jects too elevated for the popular mind. nal or two, occupied in annunciations 22. “ Letters by a poor little Preof ecclesiastical holidays, processions, tender," was a work intended to tell &c. or the price current. At present, truth ironically: the attempt supposes the list is little short of formidable. the author to possess much taste,

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much knowledge of life, and of popu- printed before the year 1530. In 1789, lar errors and vulgar prejudices. The the Danish government bought up the author has lately directed his atten- library of Luxdorf, rich in classical tion to the support of other works. works and in MSS., and it was annes23. “ The Pretender's Companion.” ed to the royal library. It afterwards 24. “ The Periodico-Mania' under- received valuable acquisitions at the takes to castigate the other journals, sale of the libraries of Oeder, Holmand wonders at the liberty of the skiold, Rottboll, Ancher, and others, press, which tolerates them all. 25. in 1789, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 98. “ The Contra Periodico-Mania" vin. In 1796, an accession was made of the dicates the journals, and their number. immense library of Suhm, the histo

Independently of all these periodi- rian. He had collected, in the course cal publications, the press teems with of 50 years, 100,000 volumes, which answers, apologies, and explanations, he left to the disposition of the pubrelative to attacks, allusions, personali. lic. A little before his death, be preties, or errors, contained in the jour- sented them to the royal library; it nals; and in competition with all these, was not large, but was a better secrowds of sermons, discourses, and lection and of higher value than that commentaries on the Constitution,

the Constitution, of Thot. In 1787, previous to these press on the notice of the public. numerous acquisitions, the royal libra. There is, indeed, a Censor of the ry contained a very great number of Press appointed; but, at present, the books and MSS. office is extremely indulgent. The Greece.— The public schools estaprincipal country towns also have blished at Smyrna and Chios had hitheir journals,- Barcelona, Valentia, therto been attended with the happiest Saragossa, Cadiz, and Corunna. success. The great College of Chios

SWEDEN. - The Universities of was particularly distinguished, and stuSweden are in a very flourishing state.

dents flocked to it from all parts of In the first quarter of last


the Greece. Its three most celebrated number of students at Upsal amount- Professors were Bardalochos, Seleri, ed to 1197, and those of Lund to 600. and Bambas. Bardalochos has publishThe whole of the establishments of ed a Compendium of Experimental the kingdom professing to communi- Philosophy, and an Essay on Greek cate classical education, contained 3485 Pronunciation, in which the modern scholars. These establishments cost Greek etacism is treated with more the state annually about 60,0001. than usual leniency. Professor Seleri

DENMARK.— The royal library of had nearly ready for the press a MaCopenhagen contains between 3 and nual of Mathematics, selected from his 400,000 volumes of printed works, Lectures. Bambas, who for a long and a prodigious number of interest- period studied mathematics, philosoing MSS. At the sale of the fine phy, and natural history, in Paris, was library of Count Otto Thot, amount- now about to publish, in the modern ing to 116,395 volumes, exclusive of Greek language, an elementary book pamphlets, manuscripts, and incuna- on chemistry from Thenard. His Combula, the royal library obtained an ac. pendium of Rhetoric has already had cession of 50,000 volumes ; and the an extensive circulation. Some time Count, by his will, had bequeathed to ago, a new printing-office was estait 4154 MSS., with his valuable col- blished at Chios, the whole apparatus lection of 6159 works that had been for which was brought from Paris.

A German, named Byrhoffer, is at the Vienna Congress in 1815, proposes head of this establishment.

sending four young Greeks to Italy Chios then enjoyed perfect tranquil- and Germany to complete their edulity ; for, in consequence of an agree. cation: the society consists of 300 ment entered into with the Turks, it was members, most of whom are foreigngoverned entirely by Greek Magis- ers. According to letters from Mr trates. In the meanwhile large sums Robert Pinkerton, that active agent were devoted to the maintenance of pub. of the British Bible Society, it appears lic institutions - a library was forming that a Society for the Promulgation under the superintendence of the cele- of the Gospel has been established at brated Greek scholar, Coray of Paris ; Athens. The Archbishop residing at through the liberality of private indi. Constantinople has been chosen Presividuals, about 30,000 volumes were al. dent, and the British Consul, Logoready collected. The College of Chios theti, together with Mr Tirnaviti, are at present contains about 700 students, Vice-Presidents. and their numbers are constantly aug- The modern Greeks speak a lan. menting. Professor Raumus was at the guage resembling that of the ancients head of the College of Smyrna; he in almost every respect. But time, had published a System of Philosophy, conquest, slavery, the barbarism of in four volumes, modelled after the ages, have introduced some new terms, system of Professor Krug of Leipsic. and altered the rules of syntax in cerThe work is dedicated to Coray. tain points. The Greek inhabitants,

These improvements among the mo- however, understand pretty exactly all dern Greeks must naturally tend to the ancient Greek, when it is spoken render their language popular through in the pronunciation now in use, which out Europe. Weigel, the bookseller seems to have been that of the time of Leipsic, published an excellent Dic- of Constantine. As the two languages tionary and a Modern Greek Gram- accord in so many points of contact, mar by Professor Schneider ; and in the modern Greek may be considered England there has lately appeared a as a mere idiom confined to the lower very useful little Grammar of the Mo- classes of society, and which it would dern Greek language by Dr Robert- be well to remove, as far as it may be son, who is a member of the Philomu- practicable, by recalling the ancient. sæ Society of Athens, and of the It is curious to observe the gradual Ionian Academy. The stereotyped disuse of Greek among the Greeks, editions of the Greek authors publish- produced by the change of their resied by Tauchnitz of Leipsic, are ex- dence. In Greece the Turks speak tensively circulated throughout Greece only Greek; in Constantinople the on account of their cheapness. Weigel Greeks speak both Greek and Turk. is also engaged in preparing a correct- ish, but only the former to each other ; ed edition of the principal Greek prose in Asia Minor, along the coast, they writers and poets, which is to be pub. can speak Greek when addressed in lished under the general title of the it, but talk Turkish to each other. “ Bibliotheca Græca ;" it will no And in the interior parts of Asia doubt be eagerly sought after in Minor, they know no other language Greece. Even the observations on than Turkish. Greek geography are gradually ac- A college on a large scale was about quiring fresh accuracy.

to be founded at Zagori, in the proThe Athenian Society of the Phi- vince of Epirus. The voluntary donalomusz, which was instituted by the tions for this establishment amounted

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