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tees, has taken place, to a great ex- pear any ground for so supposing, in tent, in the burgh of Aberdeen ; to a either of the other two burghs, whose emaller extent in the burgh of Dundee, cases have been examined by the Comas detailed in the said Report : That mittee in the last and present year. in the burgh of Edinburgh, where From the secrecy, however, with there are also considerable charitable which the pecuniary transactions of funds under the management of the the councils are generally conducted, magistrates, either as sole or joint trus. it cannot be known whether such tees, there does not appear, from the funds are well or ill administered. evidence before the Committee last Such abuses may exist without detecyear, any ground for supposing that tion; but when the abuse is discoverthose funds have not been properly ed, a remedy is afforded by law as in administered ; neither does there ap- other cases of breach of trust.
REPORTS AND NOTICES,
AGRICULTURAL REPORT. AGAIN we have to report genial month. From this period to the end weather, an abundant crop, falling of the year, with the exception of a prices, and distress among our farmers. few days in December, the temperaThe first three weeks of the year, like ture was unusually high, with little the last month of the preceding, were rain, and no frost or snow. remarkable for keen frosts, and great paration for another wheat crop, and falls of snow, with an average tempe. the other labours of this period, ivere rature, lower than for several years. carried on at the proper season, writhBut spring may be said to have com- out any other interruption than what menced with the last week of January, was occasioned by the want of rnoisand it continued without any material ture,-a circumstance which indi cates check till near the end of April. Du- a state of the atmosphere in October ring this period all the spring-sown and November very rare in this p: Irt of grains were put into the ground, fine. the island. ly moulded as it had been by the frosts The following abstract from : 1 Reof winter, in the very best condition; gister kept near Perth, exhibitsa in a and the young plants rose out of the concise and useful form the weather soil so close and vigorous as to afford of 1820. The temperature will not, a fair promise of a plentiful harvest. we believe, be found to differ ma terialThe summer months, and the early ly from the average temperati are of part of August, were more variable, Scotland. sometimes drought, and at other times moisture, being rather in excess; and while the crops were on some soils laid by the rains, on others the straw was short, and the crop apparently deficient. Much of the wheat was in January
21 10 1.321 30.4
5 the former situation, and not a little February
1.198 39.1 March
0.332! 40.6 of the spring corns in the latter ; but
0.690 46.7 the changes had not occurred at such
10 21 5.4477 49.4 a stage of their progress as to pro- June
12 1.74.5 54.6 duce any serious injury in either case. July
1.63.5 57.6 During the latter half of August and August
2.22 8 56.0 all September, the weather, though not September
0.97.3 52.6 perfectly steady, was upon the whole October .
11 2.29 5 44.5 exceedingly favourable to the reaping
December . 20 and gathering of the crops, which ac
2.1615 38.7 cordingly were all saved in the best
1232 134 21.637 45.98 order before the end of the latter
6 Rainy Days.
18 22 12 16 20 20
9 19 14
The corn market of this year opened and closed at the following prices, which are the averages of England and Wales :
For the week ending sth January, 1820,
164 141 0 34 624 6 46 218 725 81 For the week ending 30th December, 1820, ·
54 1134 725 819 235 610 11/22 1 And the average of the whole
165 7 10 1033 10 24 443 644 11 25
Very little fluctuation of prices oc- The growth of Ireland has been steadi. curred till March, when wheat, bar- ly increasing for these twenty years, ley', and oats, began to experience some and very rapidly within the last three. ad vance, which was supported, though In the present year, all the foreign wiiih little increase, through April, corn imported was carried to the wareMay, June, July, and August. In house or re-exported, excepting oats, September a fall commenced, which for which the ports opened in August, wasi much greater and more rapid than the very blameable manœuvre of some the rise had been ; wheat having de interested individuals having raised the clin ed in that month 78. the quarter, average one penny beyond the import and 6s. more in October. By the end rate of 27s. the quarter, which admit. of 1 November it had sunk to 56s., and ted into our consumption 726,823 continued still falling in December. quarters. The price of this grain, The: highest weekly average price of however, fell immediately after, and it whe at for England and Wales was 73. was excluded again from all parts by for 1 :he week ending 5th August, and the averages taken in November. the lowest 54s. for the week ending During the whole of this year, live30th December. The quartern loaf stock and butcher-meat maintained a in London varied from 12d. to 10d., higher price in proportion than corn, and : in Edinburgh from 12d. to 9d. ; though before the end of it they had but the highest prices were only for a experienced a reduction of about 20 few weeks, the general prices being per cent, as compared with the prices 10d. and 11d.
of 1819. In 1818 and 1819 it seemed Thuis state of the market, we think, evident, that owing to the two unfaclearl y establishes the fact, that our vourable years preceding, the usual own growth, including that of Ireland, number of cattle and sheep had been is fully equal, in favourable years, to somewhat diminished ; and this defiour consumption. The imports from ciency appeared still to be felt in Ireland were indeed considerable, a. 1820. The demand for wool, of which mounting in all to 1,425,058 quarters, the price was not materially lower than of wh: ich 409,283 were wheat, 88,343 in 1819, also contributed to maintain barley , and 918,362 oats ; whereas the the value of sheep; and to this we may whole exports from Britain to Ireland add the abundance of grass during the were only 12,806 quarters ; but there greater part of the summerand autumn, is no reason to doubt that this sur which kept up the price of grazingplus will be maintained, and even in- stock, and afterwards the large procreased by the extension and improve- duce of the corn crops in straw, as well ment of cultivation in that country. as of the hay crop, which occasioned a
brisk demand for lean cattle to go to of Commons, by a majority of 49 (the the straw-yards. On the other hand, numbers being 150 to 101,) to refer cattle for fatting were somewhat de- these petitions to a Select Committee. pressed about the beginning of winter, On this occasion, ministers were in the from an expected deficiency of the minority, and they seem to have sudturnip crop. The state of the wea- denly adopted the resolution of ren. ther in May and June, when the land dering this unexpected vote almost nu. was under preparation for turnip, had gatory; for a much fuller House habeen very unfavourable ; and this crop, ving been procured the day following, therefore, was likely to form perhaps to which the debate on the appointthe only exception to the general abun. ment of the Committee was adjourned, dance.
it was moved by Mr Robinson, that Petitions from the occupiers of land, the inquiries of the Committee should complaining of distress, and praying be limited to the mode of taking the for relief, which began to be present- averages which regulate the importaed early last year, poured into Parlia- tion of foreign corn ; and this was carment during the session of the present, ried by a majority of 143. The Comfrom all parts of the country. It was mittee, in their Report, which was preimpossible to deny, that, owing to the sented to the House on the 8th July, fall of prices, the situation of many of point out in a very striking manner the the petitioners had become exceeding- errors and defects of the present sysly distressing. They had entered into tem on this head; and the means by contracts for time, under an impres- which the ports were opened to oats sion that the average prices of the a few weeks after, afforded a practical twenty years preceding would be sup- illustration of the statements of the ported, whereas prices were now one- Report. But the session being too far third lower, and still sinking. With advanced to found any enactment upon out any fault of their own, they found the recommendations of the Committheir hard-earned, and in general very tee, Mr Robinson expressed his intenmoderate capitals, fast melting away, tion of proposing some new regulaand saw nothing before them but utter tions on the subject in the following ruin at no distant period. At last, on year. 30th May, it was carried in the House
The present year formed a very ployed were either dismissed, or forced distressful epoch, in regard to all the to work for wages which with difficulty branches of manufacturing and com- afforded a bare subsistence. It was al. mercial industry. A general failure of most an aggravation of this straitened demand was felt both at home and and distressed state of those engaged in abroad, in all the branches of national active employments, that money was industry. A large diminution, by a seen overflowing in the coffers of the canecessary consequence, took place in pitalist, who sought in vain a vent by their produce ; and the labourers em- which it could be disposed of to adVOL. XIII. PART II.
vantage. Instead of the eager compe- want of that employment which had tition for the use of money, and high been afforded to it by the greater acrate offered for it, there were now more tivity that formerly pervaded all the lenders than borrowers, and tolerable branches of industry. bills were readily discounted at four The following was published as ex. per cent. This superfluity of capital, hibiting a comparative view of the though it certainly proved the exista state of the woollen manufacture in the ence of sound stamina in the country, years 1819–20 :evidently arose immediately from the
The deficiency in the great staple of 791,9781. Total value of India and the cotton manufacture was, we be- China Imports, in 1818, 12,291,455.; lieve, still more extensive.
in 1819, 12,089,9161. ; and exports, The aggregate value of goods (the in 1818, 4,852,5121. ; in 1819
, produce of the East Indies and Chi- 4,392,411l. The total value of exna) imported from the East Indies, ports from Great Britain to the East was in 1818, 8,693,0631. ; in 1819, Indies and China, in 1818,6,289,5271; 7,832,965l.; and exported, in 1818, in 1819, 2,953,8161. 3,990,1001. ; in 1819, 3,600,433l. The following regulations were pubThe aggregate value of goods im- lished at Batavia ; where all the preported from China, was, in 1818, existing laws and ordinances relative 3,598,3917.; in 1819, 4,256,951l.; and to the subject were abrogated. exported, in 1818, 862,4021. ; in 1819, 1. All vessels coming from Europe,