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sion, under the Great Seal, bearing Except for the purpose of compledate the 20th day of August, in the ting the examination of those three 58th year of his Majesty's reign, is- counties, we have latterly confined our sued in pursuance of an Act of Par- inquiries chiefly to the institutions in liament, made and passed in the said the metropolis and its neighbourhood, 58th year of bis Majesty's reign, en- deeming it advisable not to commence titled, “ An Act for appointing Com- any investigation in a distant district missioners to Inquire concerning Chari- during the pendency of a measure by ties in England for the Education of which it is proposed to extend the obthe Poor,”
jects of the commission, and which, if Do further report, as follows : carried into effect, might make it ne
In the prosecution of the duties in- cessary to visit the same places a setrusted to us, we have now completed cond time. our investigation of all the charities for In preparing our separate reports of education which have come to each charity, we have pursued the plan knowledge in the counties of Berks, formerly adopted, except that in a Kent, and Sussex ; with the exception greater proportion of cases we have only of two in Berkshire, and five in endeavoured to embody the evidence Sussex, concerning which we still wish so completely in the reports, as to renfor some further information, and der its insertion in the appendix unnehave, therefore, for the present, de- cessary. ferred reporting upon them. We have The Act of Parliament requires that also made considerable progress in the we should report our proceedings once examination of those in London and in each half year ; but it will be obWestminster, and in the county of served, that little more than four Middlesex.
months have elapsed since our former In the present Report are contained Report was presented. We have, how. 170 cases ; of which, 19 are in the ever, been anxious to produce a second cities of London and Westminster, 2 Report before the termination of the in the county of Berks, 39 in the present session, in order that the recounty of Kent, 59 in the county of sult of our investigations might be Middlesex, 4 in the county of Surrey, brought before the notice of Parliaand 47 in the county of Sussex ; be- ment with as little delay as possible, sides 1 in the latter county, falling and before the provisions of a new Act within the exception of the 12th sec- may have prescribed some new course tion of the said Act of Parliament re- of proceeding. lating to special visitors.
The total number of charities which In the Appendix to this Report, the have fallen within our inquiry, in the following important facts are to be three counties of which we may con- found:sider the examination as completed, is Population in 1811, of the forty as follows: in Berkshire 91, in Kent counties included in the table, (being 135, in Sussex 75, exclusive of 2 in exclusive of Wales,) 9,543,610. Berkshire, 4 in Kent, and 1 in Sus- Number of poor in 1815 in those sex, which, having special visitors, are counties, 353,249. not within the scope of our commission.
N. B. By New Schools are meant, to which this table applies, must, from those upon the plans of Lancaster or the ratio of increase exhibited in the Bell. In constructing the table, the enumerations of 1801 and 1811 be now incomplete returns were filled up by about 10,740,000, and upon this basis means of averages deduced from those the following calculations are formed. which were complete.
The proportion of children requiThe population of the 40 counties ring education, Mr Brougham informs us, is one-ninth of the whole popula- schools is 452,817. Mr Brougham tion, according to the Breslaw tables, reckons it 100,000, for what reason but according to the returns and di. we know not, unless it be that the gests from the English counties, it is Sunday scholars receive only one-fifth nearer one-tenth. If all the children of the proper quantum of education, between the ages of six and twelve or that part attend week-day schools (both inclusive) are comprehended, we also, which, added to the others, makes imagine the proportion should be more a total of 1,097,099. Now, the entire nearly de. (See Milne’: Annuities, p. number requiring education in Eng534.) But one-ninth may be assumed land is, on Mr Brougham's principle, as sufficiently correct in practice. only 1,074,000, or on that stated above,
The endowed week-day Schools of 1,193,000; so that on any hypothesis England, supposing them to be equal. 1 of all who require it receive a cerly distributed, amount to 1 for every tain proportion of education. 2580 individuals, or 1 for every 280 In France, according to Mr Broughchildren requiring education. And the am, 1,070,000 children were at school total annual revenue of these schools in 1819. The number requiring eduis L. 300,525.
cation, taking the population at The parochial schools of Scotland 29,500,000, must be 3,278,000, or (allowing one for each parish) should three times the number actually rebe 893, which, taking the population ceiving it. France is, therefore, in a at 2,000,000, gives one for 2230 per. much worse situation as to the means sons, or one for 248 children requi- of elementary instruction than Engring education. The whole expense land. of supporting these schools (exclusive of scholars' contributions) most probably does not exceed 35,0001. per
REPORT annum. Apart from the parish schools, there are not many endowed schools in From the Select Committee of the Scotland ; the sums sunk (or mortifi- House of Commons, appointed to ed) for the encouragement of educa- consider of so much of the Criminal tion being chiefly attached to the pa- Laws as relales io Capital Punishrochial schools.
ment. Of week-day schools, endowed and unendowed, England has 18,449, The Committee, in execution of the which amounts to one for 582 indivi- trust delegated to them by the House, dụals, or one for 65 children at the have abstained from all consideration school age. To supply Scotland with of those capital felonies which may be schools in equal proportion to her po- said to be of a political nature, being pulation, 2527 must be added to the directed against the authority of goparochial schools. In reality, how- vernment and the general peace of 80ever, if the children at school in this ciety. To the nature and efficacy of country amount to one-ninth or one. the secondary, punishments, of transtenth of the population, as stated by portation and imprisonment, they have Mr Brougham, the number of pupils directed no part of their inquiries, bemust be about 200,000; and allowing cause another Committee had been ap50 for each school, which is probably pointed to investigate them, and be. too high, the whole number of schools cause no part of the facts or arguments must be at least 4000.
to be stated in this Report, will be The number educated at Sunday found to depend, either on the present state of these secondary punishments, remarkable proportion of three, if not or on the degree of improvement of four, to one. which they may be found capable. In the thirty years from 1755 to The object of the Committee has been 1784, the whole convictions for mur. to ascertain, as far as the nature of the der in London and Middlesex were case admitted by evidence, whether, in 71 ; and in the thirty years from 1784 the present state of the sentiments of to 1814, they were 66. In the years the people of England, capital punish- 1815, 1816, and 1817, the whole conment in most cases of offences unat victions for murder in London were 9, tended with violence, be a necessary, while in the three preceding years they or even the most effectual security were 14. Most of the other returns reagainst the prevalence of crimes. late to too short a period, or too par.
The deputy clerk of assize for the row a district, to afford materials for home circuit, has laid before the Come safe conclusion with respect to the mittee, a return of commitments, con- comparative frequency of crimes at victions, and executions on that circuit, different periods. which comprehends the counties of In general, however, it appears that Herts, Essex, Kent, Sussex, and Sur: murders, and other crimes of violence rey, from 1689 to 1718, from 1755 to and cruelty, have either diminished, or 1784, and from 1784 to 1814. The not increased ; and that the deplorable returns of the intermediate period, increase of criminals is not of such a from 1718 to 1755, he will doubtless nature as to indicate any diminution furnish very soon. From this import in the humanity of the people. The ant return it appears, that, for the practice of immediately publishing the first thirty years which followed the circumstances of every atrocious crime, revolution, the average proportion of and of circulating in various forms an convictions to executions was 38 to account of every stage of the proceed20; that from 1755 to 1784, it was ings which relate to it, is far more pre46 to 13 ; and that from 1784 to 1814, valent in England than in any other it was 74 to 19. It is worthy of re- country, and in our times than in any mark, that the whole number of con- former age. It is on the whole of great victions for murder, on the home cir- utility, not only as a control on courts cuit, in the first period was 123 ; that of judicature, but also as a means of the executions for the same period were rendering it extremely difficult for 87: that in the second, the convictions odious criminals to escape. for the same offence were 67, and the The statutes creating capital feloexecutions 57 ; and that in the third, nies, which the Committee have conthe convictions were 54, and the execu- sidered, are reducible to two classes ; tions 44. If the increase of the popu. the first relates to acts either so nearly lation, during a prosperous period of indifferent as to require no penalty, or a hundred and thirty years, be taken if injurious, not of such a magnitude into the account, and if we bear in as that they may not safely be left mind that within that time a consider- punishable as misdemeanors at comable city has grown up on the southern mon law. In these the Committee probank of the Thames, we shall be dis- pose the repeal ; they are as follows: posed to consider it as no exaggera
1.-1 and 2 Phil. and Mary, c. 4. tion to affirm, that in this district (not Egyptians remaining within the kingone of the most favourably situated in dom one month. this respect) murder has abated in the 2.-18 Charles II, c. 3. Notori
ous thieves in Cumberland and Nor- 6.-5 Geo. II, c. 30. Bankrupts thumberland.
not surrendering, &c. 3.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Being armed 7-5 Geo. II, c. 80. Concealing and disguised in any forest, park, &c. or embezzling.
4.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Being armed 8.-6 Geo. II, c. 37. Cutting down in any warren.
the bank of any river. 5.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Being armed 9.—8 Geo. II, c. 20. Destroying in any high road, open heath, com- any fence, lock, sluice, &c. mon, or down.
10.—26 Geo. II, c. 23. Making a 6.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Unlawfully false entry in a marriage register, &c. hunting, killing, or stealing deer. five felonies. 7.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Robbing war. 11.-27 Geo. II, c. 15. Sending
threatening letters. 8.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Stealing or 12.-27 Geo. II, c. 19. Destroytaking any fish out of any river or ing bank, &c. Bedford level. pond, &c.
13.-3 Geo. III, c. 16. Persona. 9.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Hunting in ting out-pensioners of Greenwich hoshis Majesty's forests or chases. pital.
10.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Breaking 14.-22 Geo. III, c. 40. Malidown the head or mound of a fish ciously cutting serges. pond.
15.-24 Geo. III, c. 47. Harbour. 11.-9 Geo. I, c. 28. Being dis- ing offenders against that (revenue) guised within the Mint.
act, when returned from transporta 12.-12 Geo. II, c. 29. Injuring tion. of Westminster-bridge, and other It does not seem necessary to make bridges by other aets.
any observations in this place on the The second class consists of those punishments of transportation and imoffences, which, though in the opinion prisonment, which the Committee have of the Committee never fit to be pu- proposed to substitute for that of death nished with death, are yet so malig- in the second of the two classes above nant and dangerous as to require the mentioned. In their present imperfect highest punishments except death, state they are sufficient for such ofwhich are known to our laws. These fences ; and in the more improved conthe Committee would make punish- dition in which the Committee trust able, either by transportation, or im- that all the prisons of the kingdom prisonment with hard labour, allowing will soon be placed, imprisonment may considerable scope to the discretion of be hoped to be of such a nature as to the judges respecting the term for
answer every purpose of terror and rewhich either punishment is to enduré. formation.
1.-31 Eliz. c. 9. Taking away. On the three capital felonies of, priany maid, widow, or wife, &c.
vately stealing in a shop to the amount 2.-21 Jac. I, c. 26. Acknow- of five shillings-of, privately stealing ledging or procuring any fine, reco- in a dwelling-house to the amount of
forty shillings—and of, privately steal3.-4. Geo. I, c. 2, s. 4. Helping to ing from vessels in a navigable river to the recovery of stolen goods.
the amount of forty shillings--the 4.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Maliciously House of Commons have pronounced killing or wounding cattle.
their opinion, by passing Bills for re5.-9 Geo. I, c. 22. Cutting down ducing the punishment to transportaor destroying trees growing, &c. tion or imprisonment.