Imatges de pàgina


Great complaints weremadethrough. alarm of the moment magnified into out the country, of the stagnation of a popular insurrection. It broke out those manufactures, for which the among a regiment of the guards, to Flemings had long been famous. The which the emperor was much attachadministration seem to have thought ed, and one distinguished, both for of no remedy beside the vulgar and its valour and high discipline. It inefficient one of excluding foreign originated entirely in the conduct of products, and calling upon all func- Schwartz, its colonel, who, by a long tionaries and patriotic persons to wear train of unnecessary rigour, and seonly the manufactures of their coun- vere punishments for trifling offences, try. A more really useful measure had generated violent discontents. consisted in an exhibition of the pro- These came to a crisis, when be orducts of national industry, which took dered them out for a grand parade on place at Ghent, and was continued a Sunday morning. Upon this manthrough the whole month of August. date, which at once shocked their re

Denmark this year shewed symp- ligious feelings, and took away all toms of being roused by the innova- hope of repose, the soldiers met, and ting spirit of the age out of that tran- sent a deputation to the colonel, dequil apathy, with which she slumber- claring their resolution not to obey. ed in the arms of a mild despotism. Not finding him at home, they broke The lead, as everywhere on the con- his windows. The whole regiment was tinent, was taken by the students, at now in open insurrection, and the the head of whom was a young pro- consequences might have been setestant minister, called Dampe. Ha- rious, but for the courage and preving been excluded from the pulpit sence of mind of General Miloradoby the Bishop of Zealand, on account vitch, governor of Petersburgh. He of some doctrines deemed heretical, presented himself to the troops, and he applied himself to operate a poli- asked if they would obey him. They tical and religious reform. He gave replied that they would, but not their lectures, attended by crowds of stu colonel. He then ordered them to dents and artizans, in which he com- ground their arms, and proceed to the mented on the events taking place in fortress. They obeyed, were declared Europe, and the political aspect of prisoners, and part of them marched its different states. The government, into Finland. The Emperor, then abalarmed by the boldness of his ideas, sent at Troppau, on being acquainted and the vast multitudes by which he with the circumstance, ordered the was attended, caused him to be are regiment to be broken up, the troops rested, with several of his most zeal. distributed through other corps, and ous adherents. Among his papers the ringleaders to be punished, at the were found plans for operating a re- same time directing Schwartz to be volution similar to that which had tried for the conduct which had led taken place in Spain, and forcing the to the mutiny: King to sign a constitution. He and An imperial ukase was published one of his followers, a smith by trade, this year, by which all jesuits, were were condemned to death ; but the expelled from the empire. The prinpunishment was commuted to impri- cipal charge on which this measure sonment for life in the fortress of was founded, was the extraordinary Christiansoe.

zeal shown by them in making conRussia also presented a singular verts from the established religion, phenomenon-a mutiny, which the especially of the young persons placed

under their care. They were also Polish army was clothed. The main charged with making an ill use of the object of the session, however, was to funds entrusted to them. Every in- receive the project of the criminal dulgence was shewn, consistent with code, by which the kingdom was the strict execution of the decree, and henceforth to be governed. The apthe government even provided for the pearance of this code confirmed all expense of their removal. The num- the prepossessions which had already ber which left the empire was about been cherished against it. We have 750. Government had certainly a full not been able to obtain so precise a right to withdraw its countenance and statement of its tenor as we could favour from the body; but the banish- have wished; but it appears to have ment of a mass of men, upon a'mere rejected the principle of trial by jury, general opinion, without any charges and made no sufficient provision brought home against individuals, against arbitrary imprisonment, while seems scarcely compatible with the the absence of any penal laws against spirit of modern legislation.

the abuses of the press, only remindThe Russian government comple- ed the assembly of the strict censorted this year the salutary measure of ship, which rendered it impossible the enfranchisement of the Livonian that any such should be committed. serfs.

The voice of the Diet, on the whole, The most remarkable event in the was strongly against the project. The Russian empire was the sitting of the committee to which it was referred, Polish Diet, which was opened on the reported their opinion, that it ought 13th September by Alexander in per- to be rejected; the debates were son. He had been received by the warm, and sometimes even tumultupeople of Warsaw with enthusiastic ous. On one occasion, the clamour rejoicings; but his opening address rose to such a height, that the mar, evidently shewed that he apprehend- shal, lowering his baton, abruptly ed in the Diet a somewhat different dissolved the meeting. After a week temper. He reprobated, in the stronge of this stormy discussion, the propoest terms, the spirit of innovation sed law was rejected by the almost which had gone abroad, and particu- unanimous vote of 120 against 3. larly the mode of forming new con- This remarkable vote may be constitutions, which had been adopted by sidered honourable both to the Diet the states in the south of Europe. He and to Alexander. On one side, it represented the benefits which Po- shewed no small degree of courage, land derived from her union with Rus- to hold so independent a course in sia, and declared that he could admit the face of the most powerful and no compromise with his principles, absolute monarch in Europe. On by which it evidently appeared was Alexander's part, it also proved that meant his determination to retain Po- the freedom which he had bestowed land as a part of his dominions. The was not illusory; that no control minister of the interior gave a flatter- had been exercised over the elections; ing picture of the state of the king- and that no vindictive measures were dom, the population of which now apprehended from the displeasure amounted to near three millions and which he could not but feel at so una half. There had been a visible im. ceremonious a rejection of his favourprovement in its agriculture and other ite proposal. If, however, the decibranches of industry; and it now pro- sion conduced to the honour of the duced cloths, with which the whole Emperor, it does not appear to have

contributed to his satisfaction. In treachery, cruelty, and assassination, his closing address, displeasure was to extend his sway over the neighintimated in no equivocal or very bouring Pachalics. He thus became gentle terms. “Ask your conscience," master, not only of the whole of Albasaid he," and it will tell you, if, in nia, but of Suli, the ancient Epirus, your discussions, you have rendered and of Livadia or Thessaly. His doto Poland all the services which she minion reached from the Adriatic to expected from your wisdom ; or if, the frontier of Macedonia, and comled away by seductions too common prised a population of nearly two in our days, and sacrificing hopes millions of souls. Considerable, howwhich would have been realized by ever, as this was, it could ill enable judicious confidence, you have not him to contend with the whole force retarded in its progress the work of of the Turkish empire, now united your country's restoration.” He far- against him. Esseid. Ali, newly raither reminded them,-“ You have sed to the rank of Vizier, sought to received good for evil; and Poland distinguish the opening of his admihas resumed its place among states.” nistration by this successful expediHe added, however," I shall per- tion. The first step was to bestow severe in my designs with regard to the Pachalics of Tricala, Durazzo, your country, whatever my opinion and Lepanto, on officers independent may be of the manner in which you of, and hostile to, Ali, one of them have exercised your prerogatives." being son to the Captain Pacha, who

The affairs of the Ottoman empire had been assassinated by his orders. were not, during this year, devoid of It was very clearly foreseen, that Ali interest. That power, by a long un- would not tamely suffer himself to be wonted good fortune, found itself, at thus hemmed in by his mortal enethe commencement of the era, freed mies; and the new Pachas took their at once from foreign war and domes appointments on the full understandtic rebellion. This opportunity it ing that they were to make them was determined to employ against good by force of arms. An army of one who had long been considered 20,000 men was placed under the rather as an enemy than a subject. command of Pehlivan Pacha, appointAli Pacha, a native of Albania, borned to Thessaly; while the Captain in a humble or rather miserable con. Pacha was sent round with a strong dition, had, by a rude vigour of cha- squadron to attack the ports on the racter, suited to the natives of that Ionian sea. wild and ill-subdued province, ob- Notwithstanding the magnitude of tained such an ascendancy over them the force now moving against him, as induced the Porte, in a moment of Ali, possessed of a strong country, weakness, to invest him with the Pa- and of the only good infantry in the chalic of Yanina. From that mo- empire, might have made a most viment, his conduct varied little from gorous defence, had he been master that of an independent sovereign, of the hearts of his subjects. But to paying, indeed, a small tribute to the Greeks he had rendered himself the Porte, and assisting her with his utterly odious by atrocity and opbrave infantry in her wars on the pression; and though there were Danube, but admitting no interfe- some rude ties between him and the rence in the interior of his govern- predatory hordes of Albania, they ment. Not content with this, he em- were the last men to be trusted in ployed every means of open war, the hour of adversity. On the for. mer, Ali lavished promises and cour- leagues from the town, he tried the tesy; but these, wrung from him in fortune of battle ; but being defeatsuch desperate need, could not out- ed, he was obliged to abandon the weigh the contrary experience of his town, and take refuge in the castle, whole life. His invitations to a ge- with his treasures, his cannon, and neral rising in support of Grecian in about eight hundred followers, who dependence, though they were not still adhered to him in this last exlong of germinating, produced no tremity. immediate effect. Thus Ali, when Nothing, it appeared, could now the sun of his fortune began to set, be more desperate than the situation looked round in vain for any quarter of the late ruler of Albania. The in which he could find friendship or daring energy of his character alone support.

supported him. He strengthened Pehlivan Pacha, in marching himself diligently in this last hold. through Rumelia and Thessaly, gain- By large gifts and promises, he kept ed continually fresh accessions to his his remaining troops together; and force. The defiles of Larissa were the Turks, who expected to have maintained for some time by Omeo, been masters of the citadel in eight the lieutenant of Ali; but at length days, found the siege dragging on to these were forced, and Pehlivan an indefinite period. In the course marched first upon Tricala, and then of it, Pehlivan Pacha died, of poison upon Lepanto, both which surren- it was suspected, administered by a dered without resistance. He then rival ; and though he was succeeded directed his march towards Suli and by Chourschid Pacha, who afterwards Yanina. Meantime, the Captain proved himself to be an able general, Pacha, with the naval expedition, the circumstance spread a general had invested Prevesa, which was de- discouragement through the army. fended by Veli, one of the sons of A Turkish force, composed chiefly of Ali

. Veli, terrified by a mutiny of tumultuary militia, soon melts away, the garrison, threw himself and his when it is not fed by success and treasures into the hands of the Otto- plunder. In the beginning of Deman captain; and being conveyed to cember, Chourschid found his army Constantinople, was merely senten- so reduced by desertion, and so desced to banishment into Asia-Minor. titute of supplies and provisions, that A nephew of Ali, who commanded he was obliged to retreat to Arta. at Suli

, surrendered after two days' Ali again came forth; and having resistance ; while Mouktar, his el drawn to his standard 6000 or 7000 dest son, who held Berat, attacked Albanians, ever ready to join the prosby the inhabitants as well as the ene- perous party, he could again cherish my, took refuge, with a small force, the hope of retrieving his fortunes. in the citadel. Thus Ali's dominion How far this was realized, must apwas reduced to Yanina and its vici. pear in the course of our succeeding nity, upon which the Turkish ge- yolume. neral was rapidly advancing. Six



Effects of the Spanish RevolutionWarfare in Venezuela-Armistice with Mo. rillo-Chili-Lord Cochrane and San Martin's Expedition against Lima - Revolution at Guayaquil_Buenos Ayres-Its various Revolutions--The United StatesUnion of the Missouri State-Finances-St DomingoDeath of Christophe.

The contest in South America was states subjected to their sway. The now fast drawing to that close which Americans conceived that the equalimight have been from the first anti- ty held out by the Cortes of Cadiz cipated, by those who considered the had been in a great degree vain and circumstances underwhich it was car- illusory, and had presented nothing ried on. Regions of such vast ex- to make them relinquish that more tent, and so difficult to traverse, could perfect freedom, which they already never be held under the dominion of held in their grasp. a power so distant as Spain, when Bolivar, master of New Granada, that dominion had once been thorough and having seen the organization of ly shaken. The state of distraction the Columbian republic, conceived and debility in which Spain had been that he had only to reduce the cities so long involved, rendered her hap- on the coast, Caraccas, St Martha, pily unable to send large armaments, and Carthagena, to complete its liwhich might have covered America beration. He determined to begin with blood, though they could not with the first city. Having concenhave accomplished her subjugation. trated all his forces, he set out from The establishment of a free govern- St Fernando, on the Apure, and had

nent in Spain, which she was ready reached Calabozo, when intelligence in a certain shape to communicate to arrived which obliged him to suspend the colonies, was expected to open a this enterprize. The royalist genewide door of conciliation. But mat- rals, Calzada and La Torre, finding ters had now gone too far; enmities New Granada left bare of troops, had had become too rooted; the desire a great part of the country, of thorough independence was too and even retaken Santa Fé. On the deeply seated, and too openly decla. western side, Colonel Arana was overred. Besides, reluctant experience running Cumana He had taken St compels us to own that free govern. Barbara, putting to the sword the ments are of all others the most garrison, which consisted in a great domineering and tyrannical towards measure of English troops ; and he

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