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1819. The King's Household,
34,000,000 Judicial Establishments,
17,460,000 Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
7,850,000 the Interior,
45,200,000 Finance, registration, pensions, &c. 116,889,000
1820. 34,000,000 18,000,000
8,000,000 104,340,000 181,850,000
Expenses of public debt,
The increase of 3,900,000 livres was not its attention been engrossed by represented as very small, when it was subjects of stronger interest. The comconsidered that there were eleven mil- mittee, however, to whom the budget lions of expenses not comprised in the was referred, examined its details with service of 1819. Besides, in conse- great rigour, and finally recommended quence of upwards of five millions of a reduction of 6,187,700 livres, of arrears still to be drawn, the service of which upwards of two millions was in 1820 would not cost more than that of the war department. The different the preceding year. The minister re- items of expenditure were warmly disgretted that he was unable to an- cussed in a series of debates, and the nounce, for this year, any diminution reductions proposed by the commitof the public burdens, but entertained tee were partly adopted, and partly resanguine hopes that this might take jected. The final diminution upon the place in future years.
proposal of the minister amounted onThe increase in the expenditure, Iy to 2,300,550 livres. however small, caused a painful feel. The following estimate was made ing in the Assembly, which would to the Chamber, of the amount of the have shewn itself more strongly, had receipts of the preceding year :
Registration and domains,
Net produce. 147,000,000 14,000,000 86,000,000 140,000,000 12,097,000
9,000,000 14,241,970 311,773,780
Expense of Collection.
3,047,400 23,013,000 48,316,300 11,693,710 5,000,000
The session was dissolved, some- ginated with one Nantil, a captain in what unexpectedly, on the 22d July. the legion de la Meurthe, a person in
Soon after the rising of the Cham- embarrassed circumstances, and disconbers, France was alarmed by a some. tented at not having obtained the cross what serious military conspiracy, of the Legion of Honour. Several of formed at Paris. It seems to have ori. his brother officers being gained over by him, the plot soon spread through ers. They were taken without resistthe legion, and was communicated to ance in their barracks or lodgings; the the inferior officers of other military affair was not known in Paris till next bodies. Nantil seems to have gained morning, and was exhibited to the eye over accomplices by the most false re- only by the imposing military force presentations, describing the conspiracy assembled for the protection of the as supported by several general offi- Tuilleries. Nantil made his escape. Of cers, and as possessed of most extensive seventy-five who were arrested, very pecuniary funds. · One individual was few were found of high rank in the asserted to have contributed not less army, and the conspiracy, on the whole, than 25,0001. It was said to be form- did not appear to be nearly so formied into three committees, one called dable as had been at first inferred from the Imperial Committee, and intended the exaggerated statements given by to proclaim Napoleon II. with Prince the ringleaders to those whom they Eugene as regent. The other was wished to seduce. Of the seventy-five named the Republican Committee, and apprehended, no evidence was found had under it the Committee of Gre. against forty-one ; the trial of the rest noble, acting upon the same views. took place in the following year by the After a good deal of discussion, these Chamber of Peers. three committees at length agreed to A ramification of this conspiracy unite, and to proclaim Napoleon II. as was formed at Cambray, where seve. the name which would be most attrac- ral officers, belonging to the regiment tive to the military. Apprehensive of of the Seine, there quartered, had discovery, they determined, even in an formed the design of leading it to Paimperfect state of preparation, to at- ris, to co-operate with the insurrection tempt a rising in Paris on the evening in that capital. On learning the disof the 19th of August. Government, covery which had taken place at Paris, however, already knew the design, by they left their quarters, and fled into the information of several non-commis- Belgium. The King of the Nethersioned officers of the Royal Guard ; lands, however, having agreed to de and on the morning of the 19th the liver them up, some were arrested at Duke of Ragusa was informed of that Mons. being the night fixed. A council of This alarm was followed soon after members was immediately called, and by a joyful occurrence, the birth of a it was at first proposed to allow the son to the Duchess of Berri. This conspiracy to put itself into action, event furnished the royal house with and only to be ready to meet and crush the heir which it had long wanted, and it. This course, however, was judged was considered as giving an additional too critical ; and at five the Duke re- stability to the throne of the Bour. ceived authority to arrest the ringlead. bons.
National Discontent-State of the Army at Cadiz-Its Revolt-Occupies the
Isle of Leon—Expedition of Riego-Rising in Galicia-Defection of Abisbal-King forced to accept the Constitution— Massacre at Cadiz-Ånti-Revolutionary Movements— Meeting of the Cortes-Reports of the Ministers, Finances Suppression of Entails Of Convents— Commercial MeasuresDissolution of the Army of Cadiz-Disgrace of Riego--Agitated State of the Kingdom-Prevalence of the Liberal Party.
For several years the discontent the executive power of the state. Althroughout Spain had been general and though, however, such a government hourly increasing. Its degradation was may make head for a certain time deeply felt by the nation, and sympa. against the strongest public opinion, thized with by the surrounding na- it possesses a radical unsoundness, tions. It appeared the most cruel in which will, sooner or later, manifest dignity to a brave nation, which had itself. The crazy vessel may be guimade so noble a stand, and had so ded in safety over a tranquil sea ; but powerfully aided in restoring indepen. whenever the storm arises, it goes radence to the rest of Europe, to be re. pidly to pieces. Such a constitution duced to a thraldom more severe than resembles a national body, of which that which it had so heroically shaken the juices are corrupted, in which no off. Loud, however, as was the call disease yet manifests itself, but to for that constitution which Ferdinand which the first wound or local injury, stood vainly pledged to bestow, all the the effects of which to another would attempts hitherto made to attain it had have been but temporary, proves mor: proved miserably abortive. There is a tal. It is seldom that in the political tendency in human society, and one world a very long period occurs with on the whole safe and salutary, to re- out some shock or collision, which main fixed in any position which it has puts to the proof the materials of once assumed. To a great body of the which it is composed, and causes those people it appears more expedient to which are unsound to crumble into bear the ills they have, if at all toler. dust. able, than to rush on others that are The local malady which exposed to unknown and untried. It is difficult, peril the existing system of Spanish and in fact should be so, for secret government, resided in the expeditionand individual operations to combine a ary army at Cadiz. This body of force, which can make head against troops, prepared by Spain in the vain hope of regaining her transatlantic em- ano, a citizen of Cadiz, and one of the pire, saw before them a prospect the most eloquent men in Spain ; while most dreary and discouraging. Whether money was supplied by Beltran de Lis they considered the theatre on which of Valencia, a Zealous patriot, who had the war was to be waged, or the ene- seen a son die on the scaffold in the my with whom they had to contend, cause of liberty. there appeared equally little ground After many consultations, which for animation or hope. The prospect happily escaped the jealous observaof bidding adieu to their native coun- tions of the ruling powers, the 1st of try, to perish in the vast plains and January, 1820, was fixed on as the deswamps of the Oronooko, inspired a cisive day. Riego, stationed at Las patriotic zeal, to which they might Cabezas, was to march upon Arcos, otherwise have remained strangers. the head-quarters of Calderon, comThe deliverance of their country ap- mander-in-chief of the expedition, and peared an object still more desirable, was to be joined there by the battalion when it was to be combined with their of Seville from Villa Martin. At the own deliverance from such a destiny. same time Quiroga, with two batta
The force collected at one point gave lions, was to move from Alcala de los a full impression of their own strength; Gazules, upon the Isle of Leon, and while the vicinity of Cadiz, a city upon Cadiz. which had long been the focus of li. At nine in the morning of the day beral sentiments, was likely to inocu- appointed, Riego put himself in molate them with some portion of its spi. tion. He called together his battalion, rit.
explained to them his design, and findIn consequence of these causes, a ing them disposed enthusiastically to deep discontent had long fermented in concur in it, led them direct to the the minds of the expeditionary army. square of Las Cabezas, where he proIt had even, as observed in the former claimed the constitution. In the evenyear, been organised into a formidable ing he marched with the utmost posconspiracy, which failed only through sible rapidity upon Arcos, in the vicithe vacillation or treachery of the nity of which place he arrived about Conde de Abisbal. The yellow fever, two in the morning. The battalion of which soon after began to rage at Ca- Seville having lost its way in the diz, and among the troops, aided the storm, was not yet come up. Riego views of the malcontents, by causing a waited its arrival in vain for four hours ; general disorganization, and relaxing then seeing day begin to dawn, and those strict precautions which the jea- apprehensive of discovery, he deterlousy of the government would other- mined upon at once proceeding to acwise have prompted. Don Antonio tion. Though the battalion stationed Quiroga, a lieutenant-colonel, who had in Arcos was stronger than his own, been deeply implicated in the last con. he completely succeeded. The officers spiracy, was only loosely guarded at were taken by surprise in their barthe convent of Alcala de los Gazules. racks, Calderon and all his staff made He had, therefore, the opportunity of prisoners, and the Corregidor of the communicating with Don Raphael Rie. town shared the same fate. The batgo, commander of the second battalion talion joined the insurgents, and every of the Asturias, and with other offi- thing was completed before that of cers who were disposed to engage in Seville arrived. Riego was somewhat the enterprize. The military chiefs disappointed to find only 12,000 duwere seconded by the talents of Gali- cats in the Treasury.
The success of Quiroga was not formed into two divisions, one of which quite so complete. He made his es.
was intrusted to Riego, while Quirocape, and placed himself at the head ga was made commander-in-chief.of his battalion at Alcala. To reach Don Arco Aguerro was placed at the his destination, however, it was neces
head of the staff, and San Miguel apsary to cross the Majeceite, which was pointed his principal assistant Quirendered impassable by the rains. He roga now addressed to his army a prowas thus unable to set out till the af- clamation, in which he told them, ternoon of the 2d. At Medina, he “ Spain approached to destruction ; found another battalion; and the troops and your ruin would have carried pushing forward rapidly through roads along with it that of your country : that were knee deep, reached at nine you were destined to death, rather to in the morning the bridge of Suazo, deliver the government from the fear which connects the Isle of Leon with which your courage inspired, than to the Continent. This important post conquer the colonies, which is become was surprised and carried in a few mi- impossible. Meantime, your countrynutes. The insurgents, thus introdu- men remained in the most shameful ced into the Isla, were equally success- slavery, under an arbitrary and tyranful in surprising San Fernando, its prin. nical government, which disposes at cipal fortress, where they took Cisne- will of the property, the existence, ros, Minister of Marine. They now and the liberty of the unhappy Spapushed forward upon Cadiz, the main niards. This government must have object of the expedition; and which be- destroyed the nation, and finally itself ; ing defended only by one battalion and it can no longer be endured. At once a few marines, was thought unlikely violent and weak, it can inspire only to make serious resistance. At four indignation or contempt; but a counin the afternoon, however, the gover- try cannot be happy unless governnor of Cadiz received notice of the en- ment inspires confidence, love, and reterprize, and hastened with 500 men to spect.” He finally assured them, that occupy the Trocadero, a fortification the enterprize was at once easy and glocommanding the narrow neck of land, rious ; that union and discipline only by which alone Cadiz can be approach- were necessary; that not a Spanish ed from the Isla. Being reinforced soldier would oppose them ; and that from the ships, he succeeded in com- they would find brethren even in the pletely repulsing the attack of the in- ranks of those who were assembled for surgents. The district in their
pos- that purpose. session was thus reduced to the Isle of At the same time Quiroga, in the Leon.
name of the army, presented the folRiego in the meantime hastened to lowing address to the King :join his comrades, and on his way, proclaimed the constitution at Xeres and “ Senor- The Spanish army, whose Santa Maria. The people, however, blood and unheard-of sacrifices restothough they shewed an interest in his red your Majesty to the throne of your success, did not make any serious move. ancestors—the Spanish army, under ment in his favour. On his arrival at whose protection the nation, through the Isla the troops were mustered, and the medium of her representatives, sancfound not to amount to more than tioned the codeoflawsintended to fix for 6000 men. They were immediately ever her happy destiny, felt its honour organized, however, under the title of and ardent patriotism wounded, when the “ Constitutional army;" they were your Majesty, breaking the bonds of