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suggested several important improve- covering a British registry under any ments. In consequence of which, some other circumstances but those of capwell-founded grounds of complaint to ture and regular condemnation as a the merchant, in respect to the deli- prize to Great Britain. very and re-weighing of goods, and Your Committee having stated the charges for waste, from natural causes, course of their proceeding, and the &c. have been already removed in the progress they have made in the inport of London ; and it is hoped it quiry committed to them, cannot help may be found consistent with the se. expressing their regret, that the latter cure collection of the revenue, that si- has not been more extensive ; and that milar relief should be extended to the the approaching recess precludes them out.ports of the kingdom.
from at present pursuing their invesIt has been suggested to your Com- tigation into the other important mittee, that an alteration in the law, branches of the subject, to which their favourable to the British ship-builder attention must hereafter be directed. and ship-owners, might be usefully in- At an early period of the ensuing sestroduced. A British ship becoming the sion of Parliament, they hope to be property of a foreigner, under the pre- able to propose to the House the measent provisions of the law, forfeits the sures in their opinion best calculated British character it possesses, without to carry into execution the recommenbecoming capable of acquiring in re- dation of this Report ; and to resume spect to the trade with this country, and pursue their inquiries into those that of a ship of the foreign state to branches of their investigation which which it is sold. This appears to be a they have now left unexamined, on the restriction on the sale and building of same principles which have thus far ships in the united kingdom, wholly governed them in the performance of unsupported by any object of public the duty assigned to them. To the juutility; and your Committee are aware dicious and prudent application of of no reason to prevent their recom- these principles, your Committee look mending to the adoption of the House, (under the pleasure of the House) for the suggestion received by them, that the safe removal of all such restrictions British-built ships, or ships condemn. on the freedom of our commerce and ed as prize to Great Britain, should, our intercourse with foreign nations, if deprived of their British character as the peculiar circumstances of our and registry, by sale to a foreigner, be situation, the protection due to great permitted to acquire the character of interests embarked under the public ships of any country, of the subjects faith, and the compacts into which the of which they may afterwards become country may have entered, either with the property: but as it appears to its own subjects, or with other states, your Committee, that a resumption of do not render it indispensable to prethe character of a British ship, after serve. If in their recommendations any having been in the possession of fo- thing should be found more favourable reigners, and undergone repairs in fo- to foreign interests, than may seem reign ports, may open a door to fraud, consistent with the severe principles and be injurious to the British ship- of our existing commercial system, builder ; they are of opinion, that the (which may to some be an objection to permission above-stated should be the suggestions humbly offered in the guarded by a prohibition against a present Report,) your Committee beg ship once sold to a foreign state, re- to observe, that without now questioning the wisdom of a restrictive or and beneficially recommended, no less protective policy, as necessary to the with a view to the interests of this state of our trade at an earlier period country, than to the situation of surof our history, as applicable to the cir- rounding nations. Upon them the pocumstances of the present day, it ap- licy of Great Britain has rarely been pears very doubtful. The time when without its influence. The principles monopolies could be successfully sup- recognized and acted upon by her may ported, or would be patiently endured, powerfully operate in aiding the gene. either in respect to subjects against ral progress towards the establishment subjects, or particular countries against of a liberal and enlightened system of the rest of the world, seems to have national intercourse throughout the passed away. Commerce, to continue world, as they have too long done in undisturbed and secure, must be, as it supporting one of a contrary characwas intended to be, a source of reci- ter, by furnishing the example and jusprocal amity between nations, and an tification of various measures of cominterchange of productions, to pro- mercial exclusion and restriction. To mote the industry, the wealth, and the measures of this nature her pre-emihappiness of mankind. If it be true nence and prosperity have been usthat different degrees of advantage justly ascribed. will be reaped from it, according to It is not to prohibitions and protecthe natural and political circumstances,
tions we are indebted for our commer. the skill and the industry of different cial greatness and maritime power; countries; it is true also, that what- these, like every public blessing we ever be the advantages 80 acquired, enjoy, are the effects of the free printhough they may excite emulation and ciples of the happy constitution under enterprize, they can rouse none of those which we live, which, by protecting sentiments of animosity, or that spirit individual liberty, and the security of of angry retaliation, naturally excited property, by holding out the most by them when attributed to prohibi- splendid rewards to successful industions and restrictions, jealously enact- try and merit, has, in every path of ed and severely maintained.
human exertion, excited the efforts, Your Committee are, however, sen- encouraged the genius, and called into sible, that at once to abandon the pro. action all the powers of an aspiring, hibitory system, would be of all things enlightened, and enterprizing people. the most visionary and dangerous. It 18th July, 1820. has long subsisted: it is the law not only of this kingdom, but of the rest of the European world; and any sudden departure from it is forbidden by every consideration of prudence, safe.
SECOND REPORT ty, and justice. No such sudden change is in the contemplation of your Com- of the Commissioners on the Education mittee, nor indeed the adoption of any
of the Poor. change, without the utmost circumspection and caution. But they still feel, that a principle of gradual and prospective approximation to a sounder system, as the standard of all future We, the Commissioners named and commercial regulations, may be wisely appointed by his Majesty's Commis
TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE
LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL,
sion, under the Great Seal, bearing Except for the purpose of compledate the 20th day of August, in the ting the examination of those three 58th
year of his Majesty's reign, is. counties, we have latterly confined our sued in pursuance of an Act of Par. inquiries chiefly to the institutions in liament, made and passed in the said the metropolis and its neighbourhood, 58th year of bis Majesty's reign, en- deeming it advisable not to commence titled, “ An Act for appointing Com- any investigation in a distant district missioners to Inquire concerning Chari- during the pendency of a measure by ties in England for the Education of which it is proposed to extend the obthe Poor,"
jects of the commission, and which, if Do further report, as follows :- carried into effect, might make it ne
In the prosecution of the duties in- cessary to visit the same places a setrusted to us, we have now completed cond time. our investigation of all the charities for In preparing our separate reports of education which have come to our each charity, we have pursued the plan knowledge in the counties of Berks, formerly adopted, except that in a Kent, and Sussex ; with the exception greater proportion of cases we have only of two in Berkshire, and five in endeavoured to embody the evidence Sussex, concerning which we still wish 80 completely in the reports, as to renfor some further information, and der its insertion in the appendix unnehave, therefore, for the present, de- cessary. ferred reporting upon them. We have The Act of Parliament requires that also made considerable progress in the we should report our proceedings once examination of those in London and in each half year ; but it will be obWestminster, and in the county of served, that little more than four Middlesex.
months have elapsed since our former In the present Report are contained Report was presented. We have, how. 170 cases ; of which, 19 are in the ever, been anxious to produce a second cities of London and Westminster, 2 Report before the termination of the in the county of Berks, 39 in the present session, in order that the recounty of Kent, 59 in the county of sult of our investigations might be Middlesex, 4 in the county of Surrey, brought before the notice of Parliaand 47 in the county of Sussex; be- ment with as little delay as possible, sides 1 in the latter county, falling and before the provisions of a new Act within the exception of the 12th sec- may have prescribed some new course tion of the said Act of Parliament re- of proceeding. lating to special visitors.
The total number of charities which In the Appendix to this Report, the have fallen within our inquiry, in the following important facts are to be three counties of which we may con- found :sider the examination as completed, is Population in 1811, of the forty as follows: in Berkshire 91, in Kent counties included in the table, (being 135, in Sussex 75, exclusive of 2 in exclusive of Wales,) 9,543,610. Berkshire, 4 in Kent, and 1 in Sus- Number of poor in 1815 in those sex, which, having special visitors, are counties, 353,249. not within the scope of our commis. sion.
Number educated gratis at Schools of both kinds, 322,518
N. B. By New Schools are meant, to which this table applies, must, from those upon the plans of Lancaster or the ratio of increase exhibited in the Bell. In constructing the table, the enumerations of 1801 and 1811 be now incomplete returns were filled up by about 10,740,000, and upon this basis
averages deduced from those the following calculations are formed. which were complete.
The proportion of children requiThe population of the 40 counties ring education, Mr Brougham informs
us, is one-ninth of the whole popula- schools is 452,817. Mr Brougham tion, according to the Breslaw tables, reckons it 100,000, for what reason but according to the returns and di- we know not, unless it be that the gests from the English counties, it is Sunday scholars receive only one-fifth nearer one-tenth. If all the children of the proper quantum of education, between the ages of six and twelve or that part attend week-day schools (both inclusive) are comprehended, we also, which, added to the others, makes imagine the proportion should be more a total of 1,097,099. Now, the entire nearly pl. (See Milne's Annuities, p. number requiring education in Eng534.) But one-ninth may be assumed land is, on Mr Brougham's principle, as sufficiently correct in practice. only 1,074,000,oron that stated above,
The endowed week-day Schools of 1,193,000; so that on any hypothesis England, supposing them to be equal. U of all who require it receive a cerly distributed, amount to 1 for every tain proportion of education. 2580 individuals, or 1 for every 280 In France, according to Mr Broughchildren requiring education. And the am, 1,070,000 children were at school total annual revenue of these schools in 1819. The number requiring eduis L. 300,525.
cation, taking the population at The parochial schools of Scotland 29,500,000, must be 3,278,000, or (allowing one for each parish) should three times the number actually rebe 893, which, taking the population ceiving it. France is, therefore, in a at 2,000,000, gives one for 2230 per- much worse situation as to the means sons, or one for 248 children requi- of elementary instruction than Engring education. The whole expense land. of supporting these schools (exclusive of scholars' contributions) most probably does not exceed 35,0001. per
REPORT annum. Apart from the parish schools, there are not many endowed schools in From the Select Committee of the Scotland ; the sums sunk (or mortifi. House of Commons, appointed to ed) for the encouragement of educa- consider of so much of the Criminal tion being chiefly attached to the pa- Laws as relates to Capital Punishrochial schools.
Of week-day schools, endowed and unendowed, England has 18,449, The Committee, in execution of the which amounts to one for 582 indivi. trust delegated to them by the House, duals, or one for 65 children at the have abstained from all consideration school
age. To supply Scotland with of those capital felonies which may be schools in equal proportion to her po- said to be of a political nature, being pulation, 2527 must be added to the directed against the authority of goparochial schools. In reality, how- vernment and the general peace of 60ever, if the children at school in this ciety. To the nature and efficacy of country amount to one-ninth or one. the secondary punishments, of trangtenth of the population, as stated by portation and imprisonment, they have Mr Brougham, the number of pupils directed no part of their inquiries, bemust be about 200,000; and allowing cause another Committee had been ap50 for each school, which is probably pointed to investigate them, and be. too high, the whole number of schools cause no part of the facts or arguments must be at least 4000.
to be stated in this Report, will be The number educated at Sunday found to depend, either on the present