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partment was useful; but the junior not easily obtained. It was also difdepartment was quite useless ; for ficult to procure men for them, on acyoung men who left the college early count of the mechanical skill which it and entered the regular army, soon was necessary they should possess. forgot what they learned there. The These men were always most usefully committee of finance had commented employed, and therefore he conceived on the cruelty of educating young that their reduction would be a semen for pursuits in which they could rious inconvenience. The honourable not be employed. The commission of gentleman wondered why there should military inquiry had recommended the be more staff officers in Ireland than abolition of the lieutenant-governor in England or Scotland. The reason and paymaster as unnecessary. Yet was, that in Ireland the force was they were retained to this hour. The more dispersed than in this country, establishment was not only that of a and on that account all those details regiment; it was that of an army. in which staff officers were employed The honourable gentleman complain. were more numerous. The same thing ed of abuses in the granting of super- applied to the staff in the Leeward annuation; and as to barracks, he and Windward Islands. The honourthought the best plan was to pull them able gentleman would next do away all down immediately.

with the commissariat department. Lord Palmerston said he would be He believed, however, that no other as brief as possible in replying to the arrangement could be made which various topics touched upon in the would so effectually combine econohonourable gentleman's speech. The my with regularity of supply. It cerquestion was not whether a reduction tainly appeared to him that, when was possible, but whether the evils supply was provided by contract, it attending it would not be greater than was likely to be cheaper, better, and the benefit. The cavalry were neces- more regular, than if each regiment sary for the preservation of public were to provide its own supply. The peace, and other important services. honourable gentleman had next touchTheir services on the coast were ne- ed on the military college, and had cessary to check the contraband trade admitted that great reductions had which was attempted to be carried been made, but contended that still on; for, when the smuggler had once greater ought to be made. The House landed his goods on the coast, it was would see that arrangements had been only by the assistance of cavalry made for consolidating the senior and troops that seizures could be made. the junior departments of that estabThe proposed change in their organ- lishment from the 24th of June next, so ization was a mere matter of specula- that next year the whole would merge tion and opinion, upon which the into one department, and the total House could not act. If it were not expense of the college would be refor the waggon-train, it would be ne- duced to a sum between 18,0001. and cessary on all occasions to employ 19,0001. He was sure that the House farmers' horses, which would be in would not think that the number of the highest degree inconvenient to the cadets which it was proposed to adservice, and perhaps not much less mit every year, say seven, was too expensive. As to the engineer corps, great for the other parts of our miliwhich the honourable gentleman wish- tary establishment. He believed that ed to be reduced, he might observe the highest authority in the military that proper officers for these corps were profession thought this establishment essentially necessary to the army. held fit for duty were again examined, That officers ought to be previously and 3348 of them were discharged, instructed in military science, was a leaving in the whole 8957 for the ser self-evident proposition ; because, if vice for which they were intended. they were not instructed, the army It was fit to observe, that the charge must of necessity be bad. The only made for them included 18,5001. as good that could result from the abo- the expense of clothing them; but lishing of this establishment, would as they had been furnished from the be to drive young men to foreign stores of the war left on hand, credit countries for their military education had been elsewhere given to that -to send them to the schools of amount. The House might wish to France or of Germany at that period know the expense arising from this of life at which principles are to be measure: including the clothing, it acquired, and the character of the fu- was 360,0001, increased by the charge ture man is to be fixed. For his own for organization. Against this was to part, he wished to see the British sol- be set-the pensions of the men, dier with a Britishi character, with 85,000l.; the saving of pay of retired British habits, with a British educa. officers, 35,0001.; and credit for halftion, and with as little as possible of pay to the amount of 12,0001. The any thing foreign.

sum saved was therefore in the whole Although the motion was support- 132,0001. ; and the charge upon the ed by Mr Calcraft, Sir H. Parnell, country, including clothing, 360,0001. and Mr Ellice, it was negatived by a deducting the one from the other, majority of 125 to 45.

together with 18,500l. for clothing, On the 21 June, the House having left an additional charge upon the resolved itself into a committee of public for the Veteran Battalions, of supply, Lord Palmerston rose to move 210,0001. Lord Palmerston did not the army estimates. The principal feel himself called upon at present to feature, as compared with last year, defend that augmentation of force, consisted in the addition of force of which this increased expense had which had been judged necessary in been the necessary consequence; it consequence of the agitated state of had been fully discussed on former the country. Hence there was this occasions. To counterbalance it, he year an increase of force, amounting, mentioned a number of savings: there including officers, to 11,745 men, had been 13,7012. in the staff, 48001. making an increase of 220,0001.- in the barrack department, 3531l. in

There was also an increase of regimen- the war department, and 37021. in tal charges, amounting to 363,6471., the royal military college, where still and on the miscellaneous service of further reductions were in contem64,0001. This increase arose chiefly plation. There had indeed been an from the calling of the Veteran Bat- advance of 53191. in the recruiting, talions into active service. The House and of 9791. upon garrisons, both might wish to know what had been the arising from temporary causes. In result of the examination of the pen- the volunteer corps there had been an sioners for these battalions. The whole increase of 47,8311.; the British part number that presented themselves was of that increase arose from the esta15,026 ; of these 12,305 were found blishment of new corps. The total fit for duty: 18,624 did not attend, amount of volunteer corps in Great but the greater number made suffi. Britain was 25,000 cavalry, and 4950 cient excuses.

Such as were at first infantry. In Ireland they were en

tirely infantry, and a reduction had sors to instruct 290 young men Combeen made there of 6995 rank and missions had been granted only to 76 file, and a saving in charge of 20001. cadets in the course of three yearseffected. The present amount of Irish the whole expense of the establishyeomanry might be stated at about ment for which period was 78,0001., 20,000 men.

being a charge of 10401. for the eduThis statement called forth ani- cation of each individual thus called madversion from several quarters, to an employment in the public serparticularly from Mr Hume, who de- vice. If this education was as adprecated the maintenance of so large vantageous and useful as it was reà military establishment in time of presented to be, he did not see why peace. By a statement in one of the every officer should not receive it. reports of the finance committee, the There was one other point which he whole military expenditure of the last conceived to be of very great imporyear, including the ordnance service, tance-he meant the half-pay; and was represented to be 9,991,000l. If he would briefly state to the House this were added to the sum of 224,000l. the view he took of that subject. By for additional charges in the present a return laid before the House last year, the total amouvt would exceed year, it appeared that there were no 10,000,0001. He was satisfied that less than 1665 captains, 3663 lieu. so large an establishment was out of tenants, and 12,000 cornets and enall proportion to the exigencies of signs, on the half-pay list, since which the country, that it was bad policy to time near 600 had been added to that attempt keeping down a population number. It was a matter of impore by an overwhelming military force, tant consideration, whether means and that whilst corps of yeomanry should not be adopted to take those were in a state of efficiency, a very individuals from the half-pay list, and great diminution might be made in to place them on full pay, by provithe regular reginents. The charge ding them with situations in the army, for those regiments stationed at home Ha trusted that every thing that could was 1,502,000!., and of those on fo- be done would be practised, to lessen reign service 1,067,0001. Mr Hume the expenditure in general, and that observed that the office of commander- next year the estimates would appear in-chief, of judge-advocate, and some before them reduced to the amount others, were continued at the increa- of some hundreds of thousands. sed rate allowed during the war, not- Mr Bennet animadverted on the withstanding the great diminution in charge of 20001. for the Ophthalmic the magnitude and importance of their establishment, which, by the report of duties. The whole charge, both mi- a board of medical men, among whom litary and civil, of the Ionian islands, were Drs Macgregor and Franklin, was defrayed by this government, appeared to be of no real use. There contrary to the express stipulations seemed even serious ground for cenof the treaty of Paris. With regard suring the conduct of Sir William to the military college at Sandhurst, Adams, who was placed at its head. he did not wish to see it pulled down; Mr Barham, however, insisted, that but he conceived its efficiency might be the honourable gentleman had been supported at a very moderate charge. misled by party statements, and Mr. Why should there be a governor with C. Hutchison strongly vindicated the 1500l. a-year, and a deputy-governor conduct and character of Sir William with 1000l. There were 26 profes- Adams.

After a short reply from Lord Pal- of peace with those prior to the French merston, the estimates were passed. war. In the year 1792, the total sum

On the same evening Mr Ward voted for the ordinary and extramoved the ordnance estimates. In ordinary expenses of the ordnance these he had to state an increase for service was only 377,8981., and the this year of 733,0001. The amount journals of the House would shew of the military and naval force having that the average sum voted for the been sanctioned by Parliament, it fol- whole expense of the ordnance establowed of course that a proportionate lishment during the six years precedordnance establishment must be kept ing 1793, did not exceed 310,0001. up. The increase arose from various But if they took the average expense incidental and inevitable circumstan- of the last six years of peace, they ces. There was 10,0001. for military would find that there had been an buildings and batteries; 41,000l.onsu- average increase of 800,0001. At the perannuations and allowances ; 60001. same time, he thought it would be unfor the trigonometrical survey of Ge- fair not to state, that a considerable neral Mudge; 7 or 8000.. for freight proportion of this increase arose from and landing of ordnance stores ; half-pay and retired allowances, which 11,0001, for removal of cannon, and amounted respectively during the other similar charges. Various mic years 1819 and 1820, to 293,0001. nor items amounted altogether to a

and 333,0001. He insisted, however, considerable sum. On the other hand, that these superannuations bad been some considerablereductions had been given often in an irregular manner, effected. Eight establishments in the and without regard to the limitation West Indies had been completely put prescribed by Acts of Parliament. down, in consequence of which, to- MrWard was ready to shew whence gether with some smaller reductions, the difference arose between the prethere was a saving of 50001. to the sent ordnance expenditure, and that ordnance of this year. Altogether, previous to the late war. Thé superthe savings which had been effected annuations, retired allowances, &c. amounted to 16,0001., which, when amounted in all to nearly 400,0001. set off against the increased expense Then there was a vast number of under the several heads, left a total services in the present ordnance deincrease of 133,0001. on the whole partment which did not exist in the ordnance estimates of this year. year 1788 ; and in making this com

Mr Hume very strongly inveighed parison between the two periods, it against the enormous and increased was not proper for him to throw them amount of expenditure in this departs out of the calculation. For example, ment. It appeared that the net ex- in 1788, there was no horse artillery, pense of the whole ordnance estab- therefore that could be no article of lishment for Great Britain and Ireland, such comparison. Then there were which had been last year 1,191,9051. the expenses for Ireland in the prewas this year 1,319,854., making a

sent estimate-these amounted to difference of 127,9491. ; and this in- 111,986l. ; and these were not to be crease of expense had been imposed charged before the union. The charge on the country since last year, not for the horse artillery was 34,8001. withstanding the anxiety which mi- At the time alluded to, (1788,) this nisters professed for economy and re- service was so imperfectly performtrenchment. He dwelt particularly ed, that it was found necessary to on the comparison of the present years press into it any common carters that

could be found. The forge and sup- ladies, and gentlemen, should have ply of draught horses were charged at the kindness to takethose funds which 12,9461., and contingencies at 70001. were destined to go to a very different But, in short, without entering into as appropriation. Some conversation enmore minute recapitulation of the dea sued between the Chancellor of the tails, all these various services amount- Exchequer, Mr Bennett, and Lord ed together to 645,0001., which, de- Castlereagh, during which the disducted from the total expenses of the cussion assumed a desultory turn, and present period, namely 1,380,0001., consisted chiefly of vague attack and left those actual expenses for the year recrimination. All the ordnance es1820, as compared with those of 1788, timates were finally voted. of 735,0001. The pay of the artil The estimates for the year having lery had been much augmenteil; the been passed, the Chancellor of the Exexpenses of barracks, (then almost chequer proceeded, on the 14th of a new establishment,) and of re- June, in a Committee of the House, pairing and maintaining forts and to the grand process of opening the garrisons both at home and in the Budget. colonies, was much greater than be- The first point to which he wished fore. The inference to be drawn to call the attention of the committee, from taking these various differences was the amount of the supply which into account was, that the ordnance had been granted for the service of department, so far from being to the year, under its several departblame for an increase of its estimated ments; and he should then proceed expenses of upwards of 330,000l. since to shew the funds from which the ex1788, was rather entitled to credit for penditure was intended to be defrayconfining the excess to such a sum. ed, adding such explanations at the

Mr Creevey took here occasion to close of his statement as appeared to introduce afresh the revenues of Gib- be necessary to elucidate the several raltar, and the 4į per cent on the pro- points to which he had referred. duce of the Leeward Islands, which, The first great head of expenditure he insisted, ought to be applied to the to which he should call their atten. repair of forts at these places. But tion, was that of the army. For milithose honourable gentlemen would tary services there had been granted not vote for their being appropriated in the present year, including some to these purposes—why so? Because items which still remained to be vothey had disposed of those funds in ted, the sum of 9,422,000l. In the another way. Instead of repairing preceding year, the grant had amountforts and batteries, they had given to ed to 8,782,0001., but the actual exan honourable member of that House, pense had exceeded that sum in con(Sir Charles Long,) whom he men- sequence of the augmentation of force tioned without any feeling of disre, which had taken place towards the spect, however, 1500l. a-year, for do- close of that year, and which had been ing---nothing. Sir Home Popham, partly included in the votes of the also, out of these funds had received present session. Much as he might 5001. a-year. Mr Huskisson had ano. regret the causes which led to this ther allowance out of them, as well augmentation of force, he should not as Sir Fulk Greville, Lady Mansfield, then think it necessary to trouble the and some others. He could not help committee by entering upon them, hazarding these remarks; but it did being satisfied that the conviction was seem a little hard that these lords, and general in the country, as well as be.

VOL. XIII. PART 1.

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