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Majesty had left this country; she had its tempestuous fury upon her hapless moved in a foreign society, and one in and devoted head. Her daughter still some respects inferior to that to which lived, and was her friend ; her eneher rank entitled her. This, however, mies were afraid to strike, for they, was the fault of their lordships them- in the wisdom of the world, worshipselves, who, however at one time they ped the rising Sun. But when she lost had courted her society, had desert- that amiable and beloved daughter, ed her as soon as the sun of royal fa- she had no protector ; her enemies vour was withdrawn. Mr Brougham had nothing to dread ; innocent or then pointed out the cruel treatment guilty, there was no hope, and she his illustrious client had on so many yielded to the entreaty of those who occasions experienced. She had never advised her residence out of this counheard, first, of the marriage, and then try. Who, indeed, could love perseof the death of her daughter, unless cution so stedfastly, as to stay and by mere accident. How wretched brave its renewal and continuance, was the lot of this lady, as displayed and harass the feelings of the only one in all the events of her chequered life! she loved dearly, by combating such It was always her sad fate to lose her repeated attacks, which were still rebest stay, her strongest and surest iterated after the record of the fullest protector, when danger threatened acquittal ? It was, however, reserved her; and, by a coincidence most mi- for the Milan commission to concenraculous in her eventful history, not trate and condense all the threatening one of her intrepid defenders was ever clouds which were prepared to burst withdrawn from her, without that loss upon her ill-fated head; and, as if it being the immediate signal for the re- were utterly impossible that the Queen newal of momentous attacks

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her could lose a single protector without honour and her life. Mr Pitt, who had the loss being instantaneously folbeen her constant friend and protect- lowed by the commencement of some or, died in 1806. A few weeks after important step against her, the same that event took place, the first attack day which saw the remains of her vewas levelled at her. Mr Pitt left her nerable Sovereign entombed-of that as a legacy to Mr Perceval, who be- beloved Sovereign who was from the came her best, her most undaunted outset her constant father and friend and firmest protector. But no sooner —that same sun which shone upon had the hand of an assassin laid pro- the Monarch's tomb, ushered into the strate that Minister, than her Royal Palace of his illustrious son and sucHighness felt the force of the blow, cessor one of the perjured witnesses by the commencement of a renewed who was brought over to depose attack, though she had but just been against her Majesty's life. borne through the last by Mr Perce- Mr Brougham then proceeded to val's skilful and powerful defence of comment on the different parts of the her character. Mr Whitbread then evidence. He pointed out many parts undertook her protection, but soon which had been stated by the Attorthat melancholy catastrophe happen. ney-General in opening the case, but ed which all good men of every poli.

which he had been unable to substantical party in the state, he believed, tiate. He fully believed that his learnsincerely and universally lamented; ed friend believed the truth of what then came with Mr Whitbread's dread he had asserted. He knew full well that ful loss the murmuring of that storm there was no other way for these which was so soon to burst with all statements to have got into his learned friend's brief but out of the mouths second point was, that every one witof the witnesses, who at first had ness that had been called was injured not hesitated to garnish their stories, in credit. How but by these two tests though they were not found after could plots be discovered? Plots were wards hardy enough to adhere to their often discovered by the second, when falsehoods when brought to their lord- the first failed. When persons in reships' bar. When they came to the spectable stations in life, previously point, they were scared from their of unimpeached characters, were got first statements. Mr Brougham ob- to give evidence in support of fraud served, that the witnesses were all fo- and falsehood, the innocent must dereigners, and almost all from Italy, a spair ; escape became impossible, uncountry which had never been famous less the plot appeared through the for the soundness of its testimony: evidence-unless the testimony of the There was only one nymph for the witnesses broke down under themwhole Helvetic Confederation-only unless some points, entirely neglected, one from Germany, a common cham- or incautiously secured, exposed the ber-maid at an inn; although her Ma- whole fabrication to ruin and destrucjesty had lived much in both of these tion. Their lordships would recollect countries. The two principal witnesses an illustration of this, which was to be were proved to have made averments found in a great passage in the sacred directly contrary to those which they volume. He called it a great passage, lately swore to; so that, at all events, because it was full of instruction, betheir reputation for truth could not cause it was just, because it was elostand very high. Demont had been quent. The two judges were prepapraised for her candour ; but as this red with evidence fitted to their obcandour had merely consisted in frank-ject, and well arranged. They har. ly confessing herself a liar, it could dened their hearts, that the look of not tend very much to raise her cre- their innocent victim towards heaven dit. Could it be supposed that she could not divert them from doing the would have been so anxious to intro- purposes of unjust judgment, or from duce her two younger sisters into the giving a clear consistent story. But Queen's household, bad she known it their falsehood was detected, and their to be such as she represented it? victim was saved, by the little cir. Many of the facts were in themselves cumstance of a mastick-tree. This utterly incredible, both from shew, was a case applicable to all conspiraing a degree of grossness which could cies and plots. This little circumnot be supposed in a person of the stance was of the unessential, but deQueen's rank and habits, and from the cisive kind, which the providence of total absence of the most common pre. Heaven made use of to detect percautions.

jury. Such were Demont's letters; Such, Mr Brougham concluded, was such Majochi's banker's clerk. Those the case before their lordships. He circumstances were not important to begged again to call their attention, the body of the case, but they were at the risk of fatiguing by repetition, important to the body of credit beto the two grand points of defence longing to it. “ Such, my lords, (Mr which he hoped their lordships would Brougham continued), is the case now never dismiss from their minds-first, before you, and such is the evidence that the case was not confirmed by by which it is attempted to be upwitnesses, for neglecting to call whom held. It is evidence-inadequate to there was no pretence whatever--the prove any proposition; impotent, to

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deprive the lowest subject of any ci- riod during which they had been alvil right; ridiculous, to establish the lowed to lie dormant ; the remoteness least offence; scandalous, to support of the place in which they were alleged a charge of the highest nature; mon- to have taken place; and the shortness strous, to ruin the honour of the Queen of the time they had to collectwitnessof England. What shall I say of it, es. Her opponents, on the contrary, then, as evidence to support a judi- had been collecting their evidence for cial act of legislature, an ex post facto years, with every means of informalaw? My lords, I call upon you to tion and influence at their command. pause. You stand on the brink of a Their Lordships were bound to make precipice. If your judgment shall go full allowance for all these disadvanout against the Queen, it will be the tages under which she laboured. The only act that ever went out without Solicitor - General had called upon effecting its purpose ; it will return them to produce Bergami and his to you upon your own heads. Save brother. He saw no propriety in their the country-save yourselves. Re- production ; but might not he much scue the country; save the people, of rather ask, why the opposite party whom you are the ornaments ; but, had not brought forward Dr Holsevered from whom, you can no more land and the English ladies who lived live than the blossom that is severed with the Queen? Mr Williams went from the root and tree on which it over the evidence in the same mangrows. Save the country, therefore, ner as Mr Brougham, shewing its nuthat you may continue to adorn it- gatory and contradictory nature. The save the crown, which is threatened most novel part of his speech consistwith irreparable injury-save the aris- ed in the specification of what he was tocracy, which is surrounded with to prove on the opposite side. All danger-save the altar, which is no the particulars of the Queen's attendlonger safe when its kindred throne is ing the opera at Naples, and of the shaken. You see that when the church following night, would be completely and the throne would allow of no disproved. So far from her Majesty's church solemnity in behalf of the dress being indecent, as Demont had Queen, the heartfelt prayers of the sworn, according to the opening, it people rose to Heaven for her pro- was particularly grave and decent, tection. I pray Heaven for her ; and covering her person up to her chin, I here pour forth my fervent suppli- and covering almost the whole arm. cations at the throne of Mercy, that The character which the Queen sus. mercies may descend on the people tained was of a modest, severe, and of this country, richer than their ru- simple kind. The Genius of History lers have deserved, and that your was hearts may be turned to justice. Mr Williams, following on the same

“ Sober, steadfast, and demure;" side, expressed strongly the difficulty and naturally such in other attributes,

as Milton described another imagieffective and energetic as that of Menary personage. It was not a fanci

: Brougham. He dwelt much on the dif- ful, wild, and fantastical person that ficulties under which the Queen's de

was to be represented ; it was not the fence laboured ; the want of a specifi- laughter-loving goddess, who was ger cation of the charges, and list of wit- nerally represented

open and exposed nesses ; the distance of time at which in a considerable part of her dress

. the charges were laid, and the long pe- From the nature of her character,

therefore, and from memory, a posi- pletely met the evidence of Kress. tive contradiction would be given to The witnesses to be produced for the this part. He would now proceed to Queen upon this point, speaking to take another instance. Their lord- facts with perfect recollection, were ships would now call to their recol. sufficient ; above all, when they were lection the circumstances given in able to produce evidence respecting evidence as having occurred at Carls- Kress, which would render her not ruhe. Even as that stood at present, fit to be believed upon her oath. In it was rendered impotent, when they these circumstances, the witnesses considered the interference that had they would call would satisfy their taken place for the prosecution and lordships, that the evidence of Kress against the Queen. He alluded to the was not only not sufficient to deprive subtraction of a witness, whom the the Queen of her dignity, but utterly Queen desired to attend, and who was insufficient to deprive a sparrow of a compelled not to come at the Queen's feather of his wing. He would now desire. Yet, although this interference call attention to another fact respectwas used to deprive the Queen of evi- ing details of evidence, which it was dence, truth was not here without a lamentable to see gone forth to the witness. In page 188, their lordships people of this country. Sacchi, Sacwould find the evidence of Kress, who chimi, or whatever name he chose to fixed the time between seven and be called by, was the author of this eight. In contradiction, they were evidence. He alluded to the memoable to prove the dining of the Prin- rable journey to Senegaglia, when cess and of Bergami abroad every day this witness described his drawing of they were at Carlsruhe. On one day the curtain, and seeing the indecenonly, when Bergami was dining, he cies which he would not mention more believed, with the Grand Duke-but particularly. Three times over had

that was not material—but he retired Sacchi, according to this testimony, • from where he dined with the Queen seen those indecencies. It was thought

unwell. Some music was afterwards necessary thus to make assurance dougiven by the Grand Duchess, and the bly sure. Now, in the first place, it witness who would be called remem- would be proved, that the Queen trabered it well, from having taken part velled in a landau, and that there were in the musical performance. The no curtains to be drawn belonging to Queen was there, and remained there that carriage. In addition, it would be two hours after the departure of Ber- proved, that in that journey Sacchi gami. It would also be proved, that was not the courier, or the person when she returned, Bergami was up whose office it was to do the duty and well, having had but a slight in which he had so minutely representdisposition-a headache he believed. ed. There was indeed a spring-blind, This completely covered the time but not a curtain, and it could not be Kress spoke to ; and the dress and removed by a person in the outside. appearance

of Bergami, which would Another person, who well rememberbe proved by the witness who accom- ed that journey, had been the courier panied him home-and his dress on on the occasion, and the witness would the arrival of the Queen, the proof of state to their lordships his reasons which did not rest on one witness.on. for remembering it. Many witnesses ly, for two witnesses would speak to would speak to this part of the case, that fact-these circumstances com- and prove that the person to whom

VOL. XIII. PART 1.

he alluded was the courier. He did those gentlemen were informed, that not waste time in commenting on this if an agent were appointed by them contradiction. If Sacchiwas not there, to collect evidence, this government he saw not what he swore he had seen. would write to the Austrian governIf there were no curtains, Sacchi did ment to request that all facilities not draw them. He would farther be should be given to him, without the enabled to prove the falsehood of this necessity of any application to fotestimony by the presence of a person reign powers, or even to the British who had been in the carriage on the ambassador. The matter was put upjourney, and who would negative the on this footing, because it was prestatement of Sacchi, so far as that was sumed that some agent would be nepossible in such a case. In the answers cessary. The agent on the part of the

1 B of the mason, Ragazzoni, their lord- Crown was Colonel Brown; the agent ships would find that antediluvian nominated on the part of her Majesscene of Adam and Eve, which they ty was Mr Henry; and her legal adwould remember, no doubt. They visers were informed, that whatever (the Queen's counsel) should prove to requisitions he might make would be their Lordships that Ragazzoni could immediately acceded to. If her Manot see what he had deposed to have jesty's counsel, instead of sending two seen by the laws of optics-by the or three agents into Germany in her laws of nature rather-and conse- Majesty's behalf, had applied to his quently that the testimony he had Majesty's ministers for the removal of borne against the Queen of these this obstacle, he would pledge his horealms was false, foul, and malignant. nour that not a single moment should

After the counsel had concluded, have been lost in sending a special Lord Grey noticed, that it appeared messenger to Baden. Indeed he would from their statements, that Baron En

now promise the learned counsel, that de, chamberlain to the Grand Duke of if they were of opinion that the eviBaden, had been prevented by his dence of the individual in question sovereign from coming over as a wit- was material to their case, two hours ness ; that General Pino had been pro- should not elapse before a special hibited by the Austrian government messenger should be sent to request from appearing in his uniform, and, his attendance. being afraid that this would involve Lord Grey professed himself satisthe forfeiture of his commission, he fied with this explanation, and after a had thus been deterred from coming. good deal of explanation, it was agreed If the government was to use their that a messenger should be immediinfluence in bringing over foreign wit- ately sent to Baden, to solicit the atnesses, it should be on both sides. tendance of Baron Ende.

Lord Liverpool replied, that the The array of witnesses, brought principle laid down by the noble Earl forward on the Queen's side, present: was entirely that on which his Ma- ed a very different aspect from that jesty's government had acted. Notice which had appeared for the prosecuhad been given to the Queen's agents, tion. Instead of wretched Italian posthat any applications they might have tillions and waiting-maids, there apto make to foreign courts would be peared English noblemen, ladies of immediately forwarded. With respect quality, men of letters, and, when it to the north of Italy, (the most mate- came to the worst, young naval ofrial part, on account of the number of ficers of unimpeachable character. witnesses to be derived from thence), These individuals resided in the

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