Imatges de pÓgina

Remarks.–1. Compound words in common use have their component parts united together, and are written as single words; as, inkstand.

2. Other compound words have a hyphen between the component parts ; as, cloud-compelling.


This art is to be learned from the dictionaries and spelling-books. Assistance may be derived from the following





Monosyllables which end in f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant; as, staff, mill, pass.

Exceptions.-Of, if, as, is, has, was, yes, his, this, us, thus, gas, pus.


Correct the errors in the following words.
Mil, mis, gues, bles, spel, wal, tal, stif, puf, gros, las, til.
Iff, iss, hass, yess, thiss, gass.


Words ending in any other consonant than f, l, or s, do not double the final letter; as, war, drug. Exceptions.Add, odd, ebb, inn, err, purr, butt, buzz, egg.


Correct the errors in the following. Rapp, whenn, gunn, bragg, tarr, batt, sinn, onn, forr, tubb. Ad, eb, od, eg, buz.


Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, ending with a single consonant preceded

How are compound words in common use What are the exceptions ? written?

What is the second general rule?- What How are other compounds written ? exceptions ? What is the first general rule for spelling? | What is the third general rule?

by a single vowel, double that consonant on receiving a termination beginning with a vowel.

Thus, blot, blotting, not bloting; allot, allotting, not alloting; drop, dropped, not droped; shut, shutting, not shuting ; quit, quitting, not quiting.

Note.-In quit, t is preceded by two vowels, but the u has the consonant sound of w.

Remarks.–1. There are four conditions to be regarded in this doubling.

(1.) The word must be a monosyllable or a word accented on the last syllable.

(2.) The word must end in a single consonant.
(3.) The consonant must be preceded by a single vowel.
(4.) The termination must begin with a vowel.

Thus the word differ does not come under the rule, because it is not a monosyllable, nor accented on the last syllable; consequently we write differing, differed, etc., with one r.

The word defend is accented on the last syllable; but it does not come under the rule, because it ends with two consonants, nd; consequently we write defending, not defendding.

The word soil is a monosyllable, and the word recoil is accented on the last syllable, and each of them ends with a single consonant: but they do not come under the rule, because the consonant is preceded by a diphthong, and not by a single vowel; consequently we write boiling, recoiling, with one l.

The word allotment is spelled with one t, because the termination ment does not begin with a vowel.

2. The reason for doubling the consonant is that the short sound of the vowel may be retained in the derivative. Thus, bloting would be pronounced like bloating, with the long sound of 0. In such words as differing, defending, boiling, allotment, the proper sound is retained without doubling.

3. If the derivative removes the accent to another syllable, the consonant is not doubled. Thus, refer is accented on the last syllable, fer; but in reference the accent is removed from fer to another syllable, and the word is written with one r.

4. In many words ending in l, the 2 is generally doubled, though the accent is not on the last syllable; as in traveller, modelling, pencilled. So the derivatives of bias, worship, and kidnap, double 8 and p; as in biassing, worshipped, kidnapper. But Webster and others spell such words with the consonants single; as, traveler, biased, worshiping.

5. X is not doubled, because it is a double consonant. Thus, vexing, not vecxing.


When is it improper to double the last consonant ?


Correct the errors in the following. Spot, spoted; allot, allotted; annul, annuled ; refer, refering; permit, permited; overset, overseting; beg, begar; dig, diging; begin, beginer; run, runer.

Boil, boilling; differ, differrence; proceed, proceedding; defeat, defeatted; embroil, embroilling; bigot, bigotted; general, generallize; deep, deepper.

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Words ending in ll, to avoid trebling a letter, reject one I when less or ly is added ; as, skill, skilless ; chill, chilly.

Remarks.-1. Words ending in any other double letter, retain the letter double before these terminations; as, odd, oddly; careless, carelessly.

2. Some authorities say that one l is rejected when full or ness is added; as skill, skilfull; chill, chilness. But Mr. Webster and others retain ll, and write skillfull, chillness.


Correct the errors in the following.
Dull, dullly; hill, hillly; full, fullly; skill, skillless.
Stiff, stifly; peerless, peerlesly; harmless, harmlesly.

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RULE V. Final e is omitted before terminations beginning

е with a vowel ; as, save, saving ; force, forcible ; blame, blamable.

Exceptions.-Words ending in ce or ge retain e before able, to preserve the soft sound of c and g; as, change, changeable ; peace, peaceable.

Remarks.-1. Some writers retain e when able is added to blame, move, reprove, sale, and their compounds.

2. The word singe retains e before ing, to distinguish it from singing from sing. The word hoe also retains e before ing.


What is the fourth general rule ?
What is said abont words ending in any

other double letter?

Is one I dropped when full or ness is add

ed to words ending in 11? What is the fifth rule? What exceptions ?


Correct the errors in the following. Slave, slaveish; convince, convinceing; change, changeing ; please, pleaseing; excuse, excuseable; leave, leaveing; ride, rideing; blue, blueish.

Charge, chargable; service, servicable; change, changable; singe, singing.

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Silent e is retained before terminations beginning with a consonant; as, close, closely ; abate, abatement.

Exception.Duly, truly, awful, drop e. Argument is derived from the Latin argumentum, and not from argue.

When the e is preceded by dg, some drop and others retain e; as, abridge, abridgment, or abridgement. The e is usually dropped in judgment.


Correct the errors in the following. Sincere, sincerly; sedate, sedatness ; advance, advancment; cease, ceasless; love, lovly; waste, wastful; arrange, arrangment.

Judge, judgement; lodge, lodgement ; acknowledge, acknowledgement.


Words ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change y into i when a termination is added ; as, fly, flies ; merry, merrier, merriest, merriment.

Exception 1.—Before ing, y is retained, that i may not be doubled; as, carry, carrying.

Remark.-Words ending in ie, after dropping e before ing, change i into y for the same reason; as, die, dying.

Exception 2.-Dyeing, the present partciple of dye, retains e to distinguish it from dying, the participle of die.

What is the sixth rule? What exception ? | What exceptions to the seventh rule ? What is the seventh rule ?

Remark.–Words ending in y, preceded by a vowel, retain the y; as play, playing ; valley, valleys.


Correct the errors in the following. Happy, happyer; mercy, mercyful; spy, spyes; carry, carryed; vary, varyance; deny, denyed ; lady, ladyes.

Tarry, tarriing; deny, deniing; fancy, fanciing.

Stay, staiing; dismay, dismaied; valley, vallies; chimney, chimnies, day, daies.

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Some words ending in ll drop one l in composition; as, full, handful ; all, always.

Remark.–Some writers improperly drop one l in such words as foretell, enroll, recall.


Correct the errors in the following.
Carefull, wellcome, usefull, allways, hurtfull, allready.
Fulfil, miscal, waterfal, sandhil.

PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. Some of the words in the following exercises are to be corrected according to the preceding rules; others are intended to exercise the pupil in consulting the dictionary.

Vicees are two often called follys.
How doo you spel recieve and beleive?
Til and untill have the same meaning.
Neglect no oportunity of dooing good.
All our comforts procede from the Father of goodness.
A dutyful child will be loveed by awl.
We are frequently benefitted by what we have dreadded.
We should make a propper use of the tallents commited to us.
Picturs that resemble flowers smel onely of paint.
Irreconcileable animosity is allways blamcable.
To reason with the angry, iss like whisperring to the deaf.

An obliging and humble disposition is totally unconnected with a servil and cringeing humor.

What is said of words ending in y pre

eeded by a vowel? What is the eighth rule?

What remark about such words as fore

tell ? etc.

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