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r's Herbariume various and figuThe events of thi.R.S.
The um odoratumng in view its reds, anthox
the most fevere depredations on such animals as are its defined food.'
XI. On the Festuca spadicea, and Anthoxanthum panicu, latum, of Linnæus. By James Edward Smith, M. D.F.R.S. President of the Linnean Society.--The events of this grass's botanical history are various and figular. It first occurred in Burser's Herbarium to Linnæus, who called it anthoxanthum floribus paniculatis, and afterwards anthoxanthum panicula, tum, always keeping in view its resemblance with the arthoxanthum odoratum, and suspecting it to be the same species, The plant was supposed to exist in the Hortus Dei at Montpelier, and many pilgrimages have been made, without fuc. cess, to discover it. Botanists at last supposed the whole to be an accidental variety of the odoratum. When Dr. Smith examined the first volume of Rudbeck's Campi Elysii, which we have formerly said was in the Sherardian Collection at-Oxford, on looking on the synonym of this grass, he perceived it to be the poa gerardi of Allioni's Flora Pedemontana, which he had himself gathered on mount Cenis. Professor Gouan had dis. covered the fame plant, and sent it to Linnæus, under the name of festuca: Haller has described it as a poa, and our au. thor's specimen, sent without any remark to Gouan, was returned with the appellation of festuca fpadicea: it is the nar. dus (puria narbonenfis of C. Bauhine's Pinax 13; the nardus Gangitis fpuria narbonæ of Lobel, adversaria 48. These sy, nonyms are applied by Linnzus to his nardus Gangites; but his own Herbarium thows this to be a very different plant, and Linnæus, quoting erroneouily from Morrison, the last figure instead of the last but one, seems also to have copied inattentively the fpicâ recurva: unfortunately too, this nardus, and the nardus Thomæ, belong to the genus rottbollia. Our au, thor concludes his article with an apology, fingularly well placed and candid for pointing out these errors. We have before observed, that those who can discover the errors of Linnæus are alone capable of understanding his excellencies, and are among his warmest and most rational admirers.
XII, On the Migration of certain Birds, and on other Matters relating to the feathered Tribes. By William Markwick, Eig. Associate of the Linnean Society. - The migration of birds, a circumstance in their history little understood, and often disputed, can be only settled by careful observations. Mr. Markwick's table contains various facts respecting the first and last appearance of different birds, supposed to be migra, tory, and we trust he will continue his enquiries. We could with, however, that his tables were printed in a more distinct form, 'and accompanied with the direction of the winds, the
weather, and the height of the thermometer; in other words, with a meteorological register. The unconnected nature of these facts renders an abridgment impossible; but we shall fer lect an observation or two from the subsequent remarks.
The first appearance of the woodcock, according to my jour, nal during fixteen years, has been generally in October, never earlier than a 12th of that month; and as to its continuance with us, I never saw it later than the roth of April. We have had two or three instances, in this neighbourhood, of young woodcocks being shot in the summer-time; and I think I once saw an egg of this bird taken out of a nest in the neighbourhood: but their breeding here is very uncommon, and owing, Į suppose, to accident ; the old ones perhaps having been wounded by sportsmen in the winter, and so disabled from taking a long journey in the spring.'
• I will here beg leave to mention a few particulars respecting other birds which have engaged my notice : the white water-wagfail, che grey water-wagiail, and the yellow water. wagtail.
• How the water-wagtails dispose of themselves in the winter, is the most difficult to account for of any birds I know; for though the generality of them disappear in the autumn, yet they are often seen in the middle of winter. If there happens to be a fine day, and the sun Thines bright, these bird: are sure to make their appearance, chirping briskly, and seemingly delighted with the fine weather: whereas, perhaps, they had not been seen for three wecks or a month before. In short, they are never seen in winter but on a fine day. Where do they come from? Certainly not from a far distant country; there not being time for a very long journey in the space of a single day; and besides, they never seen to be tired or lifeless, but are very brisk and lively,'
The antipathy between the ravens and the rooks is said to be so great, that the latter have more than once been observed to leave their neits if a raven builds near them. These remarks are concluded with a description and a plate of the tringa glareola, the wood sandpiper of Latham.
XIII. The History and Description of a new Species of Fum cus. By Thomas J. Woodward, Esq. Fellow of the Linnean Society. This is a nondefcript, to which the trivial name of subfuscus is applied: it is not peculiar, however, to the eastern coasts, for it has been found on the southern.—The character is correctly drawn_ Fronde filiformi, ramofiffima, ramis ramulisque fparfis, foliis fubulatis subalternis, fructificationibus paniculatis, capsulis suboctofpermis.' It ranks next to the fucus siliquosus. XIV. Account of a singular Conformation in the Wings of
fome Species of Moths. By M. Esprit Giorna, of Turin, Foreign Member of the Linnean Society. This fiugular conformation is a tendon, in some instances inserted in a ring, to prevent any accidental intei mixing of the wings of the sphinxes and phalænæ. It is the evident design of this part ; for the females, whose flights are not extensive, and who consequently require no such precautions, have neither the tendon, which fupplies the place of a staff for the flag or wing, nor the ring, which confines the flag, but, in their room, have a bundle of little fibres. The sphynx of the poplar tree, which does nat fly to any distance, has not the tendon. Our author thinks tliis part may be of use in arranging the species of this consufed genus, and in distinguishing the sex; but the fact itself is mentioned, as the editors properly observe, in a note, by our countryman, Mr. Harris, in his" Essay preceding a Supplement to the Aurelian.
XV. Observations on the Language of Botany. By the Rev. Thomas Martyn, B. D. F.R.S. Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of the Linnean Society. In a Letter addressed to the President.--Professor Martyn proposed to retain the Linnæan name, where custom has not already established a synonymous English ore, where the anglicised term is not harsh nor ambiguous. His remarks, which we find it very difficult to abridge, should certainly be attended to by the English authors of botany.
XVI. Obfervations on the Genus of Begonia. “By Jonas Dryander, M. A. Libr. R. S. and Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, Fellow of the Linnean Society. -Mr. Dryander has collected from various Herbaria much information concerning this extensive and ill-understood gerus. He gives a good history of the observations refpecting the begonia, and describes 21 distinct species, of which he has feen 15; to these he has added some account of 16 obscure species. Mr. Dryander seems to think that since the parts of fructification are so different as to make it difficult to form a proper generic character, it may be expedient to break this natural genus into different artificial ones.
XVII. On the Genus of Symplocos, comprehending Hopea, Alstonia, and Ciponima.' By Mr. Charles Louis L'Heretier, of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, Forcign Member of the Linnean Society.--Unfortunately for the fuiure fame of the Edinburgh botanical professors, M. Heritier has united the three genera, mentioned in the title, under the name of fymplocos. The species are the symplocos martiniensis, ciponima, arechea, tinctoria (hopea tinctoria L. Sup.) and allipnia,
Gad By of Parini conum Tourneio Pallaf
XVIII. On the Genus of Calligonum, comprehending Pterococcus and Pallasia. By Mr. Charles Louis L'Heritier, of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, Foreign Member of the Linnean Society. - The genus calligonum was formed from the polygonoides orientale, ephedræ facie of Tournefort. The pterococcus of Pallas, called by the younger Linnæus, Pallasia, is a species of this genus. Another species, the calligonum comosum, described by Desfontaines, from Barbary, is also added:
XIX. Observations on Polypodium Oreopteris, accompanied with a Specimen from Scotland. By Mr. J. Dickson, Fellow of the Linnean Society. - The plant, which our author calls polypodium oreoptoris, is by all the different botanists styled polypodium thelypteris; and, in this article, Mr. Dickson points out the circumitances which distinguish the two species. ' '
XX. Account of a spinning Limax, or Slug. By Mr, Thomas Hoy, of Gordon Castle, Affociate of the Linnean Society.--A curious instance in which the flug, like the spider, seems to have the power of suspending itself by a thread spun from its own bowels : the power is, however, less in degree, and the thread is more slowly spun The snail seems to be a distinct species. Dr. Shaw saw a similar phænomenon in 3776.
XXI. Descriptions of three new Animals found in the Pacific Ocean.' By Mr. Archibald Menzies, Fellow of the Linnean Society. These animals arc a species of echeneis, styled lineata ; of the fasciola, viz. clavata, and of the hirudos branchiata.
XXII. Remarks on the Genus Veronica. By James Ed. ward Smith, M. D. F. R. S. President of the Linnean Society.--This article contains remarks on the 3d, roth, 12th, 15th, 28th, 30th, 32d, 33d, 37th, 38th, and 39th species of the veronica, in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium; on the Veronica Biloba of the Mantifla, the Veronica Gentianoides and Filiformis of Tournefort. It is impossible to give any adequate idea of our author's labour, without transcribing the remarks entire, which would be too long, and not generally interesting
XXIII. Descriptions of two new Species of Phalenæ. By M. Louis Bosc, of Paris, Foreign Member of the Linnean Society. - These are the phalena pyralis tuberculana, and phulena tinea Sparrmancllo.
XXIV. The Botanical History of the Genus Dillenia, with an Addition of several nondescript Species. By Charles Peter Thunberg, Knight of the Order of Wafa, Professor of Botiny and Medicine in the University of Upsal, Foreign Menber of
the Linnean Society. Our author describes fix species of the . Dillenia, and rejects the synonym added by Linnæus to the Dillenia speciosa (the Dillenia Indica Lin.)viz.songius rumphii.
XXV. The Botanical History of Trifolium alpestre, medium, & pratense. By Adam Afzelius, M. A. Demonstrator of Botany in the Unversity of Upsal, Foreign Member of the Linnean Society.-M. Afzelius is preparing a new edition of the Flora Suecica; but on his arrival in this country, he found many of the most common plants of Sweden, known by the English botanists under different names, an error partly arising from the precipitancy of our countrymen, and some times owing to the obfcure conciseness of the Swedish naturalist. This confufion the author of this article endeavours to remove, and with a minute accuracy, trul: astonishing, and an extent of botanical erudition molt carefully employed, shows how these three species of trifolium have been mistaken for each other, as well as the method which he has followed in correcting the errors: he next quotes the synonyms, which must cer tainly relate to these plants, and adds a proper scientific defcription of each. This very excellent paper, as will be obvious, can only be read with advantage in the work itself: it is full of the most minute and accurate botanical criticism, in a language fomewhat foreign and idiomatical, but sufficiently clear and correct.
XXVI. An Account of several Plants presented to the Lino nean Society, at different Times, by Mr. John Fairbairn and Mr. Thomas Hoy, Fellows of the Linnean Society. By the President. These are the costus speciosus (Arabicus of Jacquin, which flowered in Sion Gardens last year); the statica latifolia from Russian Tartary, which flowered in Sion Gardens in 1788; the fempervivum stellatum, frequent in Chel. sea Gardens; astragalus leucophæus, from the same place; mimosa myrtifolia, from New South Wales, which flowered in Sion Gardens in 1790; and the mimosa (waveolens, from the same country,
The volume concludes with an extract from the minute, book, containing a description of an incomplete buprestis from India, which had eat through a vast bale of muslins; and an account of a singular pigeon, of which we shall transcribe the most interesting part.
· The peculiarity of this subject consists in its not having a single complete feather on any part of its body, although entitled from its age to have been fully fledged ; instead of which, every feather is still inclosed in a case the whole of its length, which in some of the greater quills amounts to fix inches. Indeed a kind of fringe apo pears at the ends of most of the feathers; and, on diffecting a feather, the shaft is found by no means deftitute of web, but the lat