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and with low much less difficulty foreign architects may construct theatres in their manner than in that of Italy, which prefents boxes of different plans, divided, and close, not open like 2 gallery. But the Italian ladies not being willing to abandon these small boxes, very commodious to them, though prejudicial to the harmony and elegance of the structure; and failion overcoming every other consideration, the architect can only moderate the fyftem.
The first part concerns the proper species of curve to be used in describing that part of the theatre allotted to the spectators, so as to facilitate their view of the stage. The second points out improvements in the auditory province, calculated to promote the circulation of sound from the stage and the orchestra. The third delincates the complete plan of a theatre, with our author's improvements. But as the plates and minute descrip tions become neceffary to understand the several improvements, we shall only further observe that eminent skill is displayed in the work, which may be particularly recommended to the attentive perusal of those concerned in the construction of the. atres.
From the Florentine press has issued a singular work, by Alexander de Sanctis, intituled Delle Paffioni e Vizi dell' Intelleto, &c. or, a Treatise on the Passions and the Vices of the Intellect, 12mo. Who would expect to find in this work an apology for the Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil ? The treatise on the patrons and the vices of the intellects occupies 106 pages; and forms a kind of introduction to the other, including institutes of eiementary logic, or of the art of criticism.
The titles of the chapters, by our author denominated tables, are a little uncommon; for example, Of deceit ariling from the intellect not being divided. Of an increasing judge. Of a diminishing judge. Of a weary judge. Of a Atupid judge, &c. The examples of the pallions and of the characters of intellects are derived from the council of devils in the Malmantile. But the defence of Virgil against twentythree cenfures, is ingeniously conducted. Another volume, apologising for the Aneid, is expected.
At Naples has appeared, in lix octavo volumes, the Storia Critica de Teatri antici e moderni, &c. or, a Critical History of Theatres ancient and modern, by Pietro Napoli Signoreli. It is an enlargement of a work originally forming only one 8vo. volume, and printed in 1977. The author points out many improvements in the intellectual influence of the theatre. His firit volume creats of the ancient theatres, particularly the Grecian: the second explains the changes in the Roman, til the incurfion of the barbarians; the third displays the revival of the drama, and its progress till the fifteenth century. In
the fourth the history is extended to the more civilised foreign kingdoms; in the fifth the history of the French stage in the last and the present century is given, with fome account of the theatres of more northern countries; the sixth concerns the state of the Spanish and Italian Itage in the present century.
Dr. Pignotti's Favole e Novelle, or Fables and Novels, have been so favourably received that seven editions have appeared. Parity of language, and an easy versification, recommend this little book to those who wish to study Italian.
The fixth volume of Tiraboschi’s valuable Storia della Letteratura Italiana, History of Italian Literature, a new edition revised, corrected, and enlarged by the author, has appeared at Modena in 4to. Father Riccardi's Curiosita
Filosofiche e Teologiche, &c. Philofophical and Theological Curiosities concerning Man, printed at Vicenza in 8vo. have excited the ridicule of the Italian journalists. Questions relating to the formation of Eve, and the birth of Antichrift, the dress of Enoch and Elias when they shall fight Antichrist, &c. &c. are little adapted to the taste of the eighteenth century.
Signior Zatta has begun to publifh his Portraits of the illus. trious Men of Italy, accompanied with the eulogies of the abbe Rubbi. This work is deserving of a favourable reception.
The abbe Seftini has added to numismatic science by his Differtatione sopra Alcune Monete, &c. or, Dissertation on some Armenian coins of the race of Rupen, in the collection of sir Robert Ainsley, printed at Leghorn in 4to. This author was already celebrated for his researches on the Greek coins of the islands in the Archipelago, and of many towns in Asia; and has now turned his attention to the Armenian coins of the last monarchs of that nation, being the fourth dynasty, denominated Rupenic. The uncertainty concerning the history of Armenia our learned abbe has endeavoured to remove, chiefly on the authority of two recent works published at Venice; the one being an abridgment of Armenian history in Italian, the other an Armenian history in the language of the country. About the year 800 before Christ, the Armenian monarchy
egan in the perfon of Baruyr, and ended in the year of the Incarnation 1375. The first dynasty, named Haycana, lasted above 400 years; the second, called Armeno-partha, or Arsacidica, began after an interval of 200 years, and lasted to the year of Christ 428: the third, called Bocaradic, began in the year 859, and closed in 1080; the fourth, or Rupenic, commenced in 1080 and ended in 1375. Nine coins are engraven of Leo II. Otho I. Leo IV. Otho II. Thoros III. Simbato, and Constantine II. and are illustrated by a chronological account of this dynasty
The pseudonomous tract intituled Theotimi Eupistimi de Doctis Catholicis viris, &c. or, an Account of those learned Catholics who, since the year 1980, have retracted Writings of theirs, printed at Rome 1791, is not ill-written. Fenelon, Montesquieu, and Helvetius, are among the examples.
P () R T U G A L. Our defect of information concerning Spanish and Portuguese literature we regret; and should be happy if any learned correspondent would enable us to supply it. Endeavours on our part have not been wanting; and though it is believed that a literary Journal, called the Memoria Literaria, is ftill published at Madrid, we have not been able to procure recent Numbers.
At Lisbon two works of consequence have been lately pubJimned. The one is entitled Memorias, &c. Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Lisbon, established to promote the progress of agriculture, arts, and industry in the kingdom of Portugal, and in its settlements, vol. i. This production is a favourable omen of the revival of solid science in that country. The other work bears the title of Colleçaos, &c. a Collection of Memoirs for the History of Portugal, drawn from manuscripts hitherto unknown, printed at the press of the academy, two voluines, folio. Thele volumes throw new light upon many events.
Mr. George Forster has published a German tranlation of the Indian drama called Sacontala *, from the English, with che rious notes on Indian mythology and manners.
Lortbach's Archiv für die Morgenlandische Litteratur, &c. Archives for Eastern Literature, Marburg, 1791, 8vo. vol. i. contains several curious articles, particularly an extract from the Syriac chronicle of Barheber.
Alzingen's Biomberix ein ritter-gedicht; or Biomberix, a poem of chivalry, in twelve cantos, Leiptic, 8vo. is regarded as a production of eminent merit, distinguished by a bold vein, and rich imagination. The ninth canto is particularly admired. But the author is blamed for subjecting himself to the yoke of rhyme, in a language already delivered from that bondage.
A small but interesting tract, by Dr. Reimarus, has been printed at Hamburg, entituled Die Freyheit, &c. the Free
Sec Crit. Rev. Vol. I. New As. p. 18. Apr. VOL. IV. NEW ARR.
'dom of Commerce in Grain, eftimated by nature and history. The author produces the remarks of the late beneficent emperor Leopold II. tending to show, from experience, that the corntrade ought in all countries to be absolutely free, and unfettered by any regulations whatever. The infallible consequences are plenty, and the rapid advance of agriculture and national prosperity.
Pezzi's Skizze von Wien, or Picture of Vienna, in fix parts, 8vo. is an imitation of Mercier's Tableau de Paris. The au. thor's style is not fo picturesque as that of his model; but he gives marry curious details; and a translation might be acceptable.
Of Beekman's Bietræge, &c. Memoirs for a History of Difcoveries, the third part of the third volume has appeared at Leipsig. This work has been favourably received.
Hacquet's Reife, &c. Journey to the Noric Alps, Nurenburg, 8vo. is, like his other productions, full of curious and interesting matter. Topography, chemistry, botany, rural ceconomy, and the history of man, furnith their proportion of information.
The Nachtrag, &c. or Supplement to the fourth edition of an Account
of the German Literati, printed at Lemgo, 8vo. has its value. The number of living German literati is now calculated at 7000, while twenty years ago it was only estimated at 3000. Yet some of the provinces are still under the level of this enlightened century.
HOLL AN D. De Zedelyke Toestand, &c. or the Moral State of the Belgic · People, towards the End of the eighteenth Century, by Ysband van Hamesveld, Amsterdam, 8vo. is a useful work.' It is divided into twelve sections: 1. Preliminary discourse; 2. What is worthy of praise or of blame in the Low Countries; 3. Manners of the inhabitants in general; 4. Education; 5 Youth; 6. Marriage; 7. Oeconomy; 8. Social virtues; 9. Sciences, and national taste; 10. Pablic worship; 11. Particularities; 12. General review, perfpective of the future, fabutary advices.
A continuation of Wagenaer's History of the United Provinces, forming the fifth part of the work, Amsterdam, 8vo, contains a hiitory of Holland, from the commencement of the American war to the peace.
Engel's de Kunst, &c. Art of Imitation by Gestures, part i. Harlem, 8vo. explains the gesticulation of eloquence, and that of pantomine.
The work of Niel Morville, intituled Geometriske och Economiske, &c. the Geometrical and Economical Division of Lands, Copenhagen, 1791, 4to. with plates, has a considerable claim to utility. To unite geometry with agriculture, and to fhew that geometry, and even algebra, may be of great advantage to rural oeconomy, is an object worthy of aitention. The author of this production, having been employed by the Danish government in many labours of this kind, writes with great skill: and his book Thews, that in Denmark that useful science, which nourishes and preserves ftates, begins to attract deserved attention.
In the Auszug der Schriften, &c. Extracts from the Acts of a Commission of Agriculture, instituted to re-estabiish the rights of the peasants, Copenhagen, 1791, 2 vols. 8vo. we find a laudable instance of the attentions of the prince of Denmark to the grand interests of the kingdom. There was occasion for the power of this celebrated prince to effect the grand design of overturning feudal barbarism, and of restoring the peatantry to the rank of freemen: the glorious exertion will secure him a fame far superior to the sanguinary triumphs of war.
Under the auspices of count Bernstorf, and of the royal Norwegian Society of Sciences, Dr. Thorkelin is about to publish the ancient laws of Norway and Iceland. A large body of Icelandic annals, from the birth of Christ to the middle of the thirteenth century, and the fourth volume of the new edition of Snorro, will probably appear about the month of September next. The chevalier Bulow, marshal to the prince, has at his own expence sent a gentleman, well versed in natural history and in drawing, into the interior parts of Africa : and the accounts already received are interesting. The Danish press re. mains completely free.
SWEDEN. Few books of consequence have been recently published in this country. The late monarch imposed heavy fetters upon the prefs; and even forbad the importation of all pamphlets and periodical works, in which the French revolution was mentioned. Swedish literature has for some years chiefly consisted in operas, comedies, and poetry in general. In such toys the late despot occupied his people: remembering the remark of Tacitus, that tyranny is best established by enticing the subjects to the allurements of luxury. It is, indeed, risible to see Pp 2