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overseer (maître-valet) surveys the whole, encourages the men, and explains the conditions on which they are hired. Prayers then follow; the anchor is weighed, and the arms of the rowers move with the utmost harmony and precision, Numerous little boats follow the raft, to carry anchors, cordage, and other necessaries. Our author describes the different necessaries, and the cabins of the overseers : they are neat and well arranged; seemingly resembling the cabins in a ship: the provisions are plentiful, and well managed. The rowers lie on straw. The remaining part of the journey must be pursued in another article.
Memoir sur la Comparison des Moyens & des Procedes que les
Romains employorint dans la Construction de leurs Edifices, avec ceux des Peuples modernes. Par Antoine Mongez, de
l'Academie des Inscriptions & Belles Lettres. THI *HIS Memoir is in many respects curious; and, as it
will occur in a collection which we have scarcely ever been able to notice particularly, though we have occasionally selected the more important essays, we shall take the present opportunity of offering a short account of it. The stupendous buildings of the Romans, particularly their temples, the aqueducts, their roads, and even their sewers, seem to be attempts beyond the reach of the most powerful modern kingdoms, and the means by which they are executed are as excellent as the whole must have been surprising. Sunt fata Deum, funt fata locorum ;' but the temples have survived the divinities, and the religion of the pagan world was on a much more frail foundation than the buildings destined to adorn it. The first ob ject of our author's enquiry is the source from whence the ancients could have drawn such immense riches as were requifite to raise these vast monuments of architectural ingenuity. In this part we shall first follow him.
Our wonder is greatly excited by these circumstances, because we consider the subject with modern rather than ancient manners before our eyes. We know nothing of slaves and fiscal servants; even the galley-slaves of other countries, though destined for public works, are too few to allow us to judge what might be their utility. The Damnati in opus publicum' at Rome, were, on the contrary, numerous; and we still know their destinations from the ancient code: some were condemned to the mines, others to the separation of the ore, others to the reparation of the roads, clearing the sewers, to the limekilns, the sulphur works (sulphuria), the baths, and the quar
The last circumstance, which we derive from Plautus, suggests to our author some curious comparisons.
• Inde ibis porro in latomias lapidarias;
Plaut. Captiv. III. 5.65. The quarriers at Paris, M. Mongez tells us, extract usually ten cubic feet of stone each day, and the Roman foot is smaller by near an inch than the French foot. The octoni lapides, therefore, conftitute a small day's work, and the day and half's work is not more than equal to the ten cubic feet of the Paris workmen, nearly equivalent to twelve Roman feet. This reasoning, however, rests on a doubtful foundation. There is no evidence that octoni lapides mean eight cubic feet of stone, and the difference of the texture may make a great variety in the degree of labour required. We learn from Vitruvius, that the Roman stone was in general of a soft texture, and even their marble, when first raised, not hard; and an English quarrier, even in the granite countries, would think eight cubic feet, each day, as no very great exertion. Nor can our author's interpretation of these words be reconciled by his including those, who raised the sand, puozzolane, &c. among the quarriers, though his principal object is, at least, clear, that, from the time of Tarquin, a numerous body of slaves was conftantly employed in these labours. Nero, in digging his canal from Miiemis to the lake Avernus, and from thence to Oftia, cmployed criminals condemned to the public works, and even pardoned the most atrocious malefactors to add to their number. When Claudius wished to celebrate, by combats of gladiators, the opening of the lake Fucinus, he found in the prisons nineteen thousand men condemned to death : they were embarked in 100 vessels, to exhibit a naval combat. During the persecutions of the Christians, they were also condemned to labour in all the variety of the public works.
M. Mongez next proceeds to compare the expence of employing the flaves to that of the moderns in paying the worke
We shall prcierve the French calculation, which our readers will obferve, is much below the price of labour in Eng, land. The masons, and those who hew the stone employed in the church of St. Generieve, received, one with the other, thirty or thirty-two sous per day, about sixteen pence sterling; and nearly 450 livres per annum (according to the usual calculation of 24. livres to a pound sterling) about 181. 155. He next proceeds to the expence of a fiave, and takes his foundation ..from a paflage in Seneca's Epistles (Ep. 80), where he defcribes the atfected airs of a Have who, by command of his malter, played the part of Atreys - Ille qui in scena laxius incedit, & hic relupinus dicit.
Superbus Argi regna mi liquit Pelops
Urgetur isthmos Servus est, quinque modios accipit & quinque denarios. Taking the mean value of wheat, and the contents of the modius, as estimated by Pandton, in his Metrology, the utmost extent of the expence amounts only to 134 livres, not one-third of the salary of the modern workman. These are, however, the expences of an ordinary slave; the malefactors, we know, were fed with the commoneft food, and cloathed with the coarsest dress, so that the expence may be reduced one half, and confequently fix workmen coit the Roman architect not so much as one modern workman.
This calculation must, however, admit of many deductions. All the workmen were not malefactors, and the overseers must have increased the expence. But the overseers were not numerous: every Nave was marked with a letter in the face; and, when he had ran away, with two letters. It is to this that Plautus himself alludes, with an unfeeling levity, fi hic literatus me finat. The mark was generally indelible, as the wounds of the iron were stained with a black liquor. Caligula thus branded and condemned many respectable citizens; and, among the early Christians, many carried this disgraceful stigma. Conftantine forbad it, but Theophilus revived the disgrace in the persecution excited against the defenders of the sanctity of images. On the faces of the martyrs Theodorus and Theophanes, he had the cruelty to imprint twelve verses, the weakness of whose wit excited as much pity for the author as the attempt did indignation at his conduct. Sometimes the emperors ordered an eye to be destroyed, or a leg to be broken, when the malefactor was condemned to the public works, and some of those bishops, who had been delivered by Conftantine, carried to the council of Nice such indelible marks of their former sufferings.
That all the ancient workmen were not saves is proved by numerous inscriptions, which show that different works were erected by the legionary soldiers; but this will not greatly add to the expences, if we even allow that their pay was doubled, a circumftance not proved, and certainly not always the cafe.
On the other hand, a great number of the materials, employed in the public works, were furnished by certain provinces as tributes or impofts. A law of the Theodofian Code informs us, that Umbria, Picenum, and Campania, fent annually 3000 chariots of lime to Rome. The inhabitants of Ete ruria furnished 900. Fifteen hundred of these loads were employed about the aqueducts, and the rest destined to other
public works, under the orders of the prefect. Those who worked the quarries of marble of Numidia and Lybia, as well as proprietors of other mines, paid a particular impoit to the emperors. From the example of the proprietors of the limekilns, it is probable, that the quarriers paid also a tribute for the public works.
These contributions made the expence easy; but even the expences were not from the public purse." The emperors, who poflefled a patrimony of their own, often adorned the city with magnificent buildings, to conciliate the minds of the people. Numerous instances of this kind are recorded : Auguftus repaired the Flaminian Way; Nero adorned the houses in many different parts of the city with porticos; Caracalla paved a very long ftreet; Trajan rendered the port at Ancona more fase and accessible. Private citizens were induced by the emperors to add to the magnificence of the city, and the inscriptions, recorded by Smetius, by Gruter, and Muraton, preserve the name of individuals, who repaired or founded public edifices, temples, bridges, colleges, &c. consuls robbed the provinces with impunity, and brought the riches to Rome: though sometimes compelled to icstore a part, they more often purchased their peace by the magnificence of their public ornaments While I fpeak, adds the author, of this sort of wealth, which facilitated the construction of these vast monuments, I have no desire of seeing similar ones erected for my fellow-citizens. Simple, inodeft, buildings, which occasion no regret, and draw not from an allied, or tributary province, a painful recollection, appear greatly preferable to these immense baths, the cloud-capt aqueducts, of which every part is the fruit of the ravages of the two years proconfulship in a vast province. But it was necessary to reveal the impure source of the Roman riches, because they contributed to the public magnificence.'
The spirit of conquest, which always animated the descendants of Romulus, justified their conduct in one respect, and added to the grandeur of Rome. Of the spoils of the vanquished the public treasury had at first a larger share than the generals; and, during the republic, this was employed in public decorations. But Augustus, willing to attach the chiefs to his cause, increased their proportion, on condition that they should raise some public monument. Suetonius, Dion, and Tacitus, confirm this arrangement, and the public buildings, raised in consequence of it, appear to have been numerous. These united causes fufficiently explain the source of the magnificence of ancient Rome. The second part of this very ingenious and learned Memoir
is is on the means employed by the ancient architects to raise fuch ftupendous buildings. Accustomed to see edifices raised with hewn stone, and the remains of vast blocks, the moderns have thought that the ancients always followed this method. They have besides supposed that puozzolane was always an ingredient in their cements, and attributed the firmness of the buildings to the regularity of the process, and the choice of materials. The study of the Roman monuments, and the writings of the Roman architects, destroy this system. Vitruvius expressly directs the employment of such materials as each country affords, and points out the peculiar management of the different kinds, particularly showing how to supply the defect of puozzolane in those countries where it is not found. Charcoal," from its indestructible nature, was used for land. marks, and for foundations. Pliny directs ashes to be combined with fand and lime, when charcoal was not to be procured, as a foundation for roads.
Another substance, which enabled the materials to relift the frost, was oil, and this they employed instead of the bitumens of Asia. The oil was used with lime, and the oily cements covered annually, at the approach of the winter, with an oily preparation. The mhabitants of the coast of Coromandel use oil as an ingredient in their stucco, called argamaffe; and M. du Fay, in modern times, by this same substance, has revived the knowledge of the means by which the Romans prepared their lime. This preparation seems to have been employed lately in France, to unite the old with the new materials, in the repair of the church of Notre Dame. The method of building in caiffons was also undoubtedly Roman. Virgil particularly describes it in speaking of the piles which supported the moles of the famous bridge of Baiz.
Qualis in Euboico Bajarum littore quondam
Constructam jaciunt ponto.' Vitruvius, who lived at the same æra with Virgil, particularly describes the construction of these piles, and adds, that these masses must not be moved, till after they have been two months united, that they may be dry. The first modern attempt of this kind seems to have been in Westminster-bridge: the most vast and important one, in the cones at Cherburg
The bricks were called indifferently lateres, and laterculi;, each implying, with the proper epithet, either burned or unburned bricks. The latter were often used by the Romans, who were taught in this respect by the Babylonians. They were forbidden in the construction of houses at Rome, becaufe
Æa. ix. 710.