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taught us the art of writing ; he regulated our hierarchy, and induced us to look on horses' fieíh with difguft.'
On quitting Mayence, my eyes were often turned back to look at this happy city. No: the glorious spectacle will never be effaced from my memory. I shall still fancy that I see the delicious country, the majestic bridge always animated by its patiengers, the dome which rises proudly in the air; and the castle of Martinsbourg, rendered still more respectable by its antiquity: nor shall I forget you, ye floating islands covered with willows and poplars, which sometimes conceal, and sometimes imperfectly discover, through your branches, the falling towers of a half-ruined castle; nor you majestic river, whose rich banks are covered, on every lide, with a rich vineyard, or adorned with a cheerful shepherd, where I saw the tranquil feat of the wealthy monk, near a happy noisy city and the ruins of a vait palace, which the cheerful peasant had converted into a simple farm, covered with new haulm, under which dwelt innocence and gaiety.
We have selected this specimen of our author's descriptive talents, but must now hasten on more rapidly. He proceeds to Wallauf, Elfeld, Niederingelheim, the favourite habitation of Charlemagne, and once ornamented with a superb palace of which not a wreck remains. After passing Elfeld, the prof. pects quickly change, and 'On a sudden, almost without perceiving it, I found myself in an uncultivated solitary district, the prospect of which inspired horror and terror. The smiling vineyards were limited to a narrow vale, and, for many leagues, a chain of mountains hid the fun. Even the river seemed inclined to sink under these formidable rocks, and here terminate its course : I saw only a slender rivulet, rolling slowly and with dificulty, between barren banks; and a sorry village, whose tottering huts covered with haulm, and which was concealed by a green moss, offered to the eye the picture of misery and poverty.'
Still following the Rhine, whose course is in this part westernly, our traveller proceeds to Rudesheim and Bingen, This is the district of the Rheingau, the country of the most celebrated Rhenish wine, of which we shall soon select a short account. The city of Rudesheim rises on an amphitheatre from the banks of the Rhine, and is a handsome, well-built town. "I did not find, says he, in any part of the Rheingau thote large strong men of which the French traveller * speaks, I only saw thin dry skeletons, covered with a copper coloured skin, but, to make amends, fenfible, lively,
* It may be necessary to observe that these volumes are in part copied from thu travels of another author, whose name is concealed,
and ed ingenious ; eager in pursuit of natural and moral phin dosophy. We certainly must not in this place look for the Germans of Tacitus: my hoit, for instance, was extravagantly polite, but had neither the German fincerity nor probity, and this it is which renders such people intolerable: his wife was Itill more so. The accent of the inhabitants of the Rheingan borders on the Jewish, and hurts an ear of any delicacy by its sharp nafal tones. The account of the wines is taken from Gerken, and contains fome particulars little known in this country: we Diall therefore subjoin an abridged account.
In warm seasons, the wines from the mountains are preferred; in cold, those from the banks of the river. The mountains, whose foil is cold and stony, produce strong rich wines, capable of being kept long: the warmer gravelly foil affords brilk spirituous wines. Those which grow on a rising ground, as at Hockheim, are the best; for the wines of the lower damper Gituation are unwholesome. Wines, of the best flavour, grow from a clayey soil, with red marle and ardoise. The wines from a newly dressed hill, are strong and delicious, but unwholesome. Our author prefers the red grape of Bure gundy. The marks of genuine found wine are an agreeable taste, transparency, a little noise heard on pouring it out, and flight bubbles in the middle of the surface which foon difappear.
Bacharach, Kaub, and Obervesel, are the next towns which attract our author's attention, and these are in the northerly course of the Rhine, which bends into that direction by an easy curve foon after palling Bingen. In this course we find nothing very remarkable, except a thort account of the faanous echo from the rock of Lurleiberg, whose name is derived from this peculiarity. St. Goar, the next town, is commanded by the castle of Rheinfels, built on the top of an abrupt precipice in the dominions of the landgrave of Hesse Caffel, the first seemingly of the German princes, who has felt the influence of the contagion of French liberty. At St. Goar is the fifth custom-house which occurs between this town and Mayence, and it leads our author to some reflections on this interior system of taxation, in which it is unneceilary to follow him. Boppard introduces the traveller to : the dominions of the electors of Treves; is the first considerable town in that prince's dominions, and suppofed, without sufficient foundation, to be one of the fifty castles built by Drusus Germanicus.
Coblentz will demand more of our attention. It is said to be greatly improved in its appearance, but commerce has not added its invigorating spirit. The present elector, who seems to be an able and enlightened sovereign, is aware of this deN14
fect. He knows that commerce is the strongest link which attaches man to man, the soul of Nature, which animates and vivifies every thing, connecting people the most opposite and countries the most diftant. Under the influence of commerce, mountains are levelled; distance is annihilated; all the nations of the world form but one vast family. The inhabitants are described as tall and agreeable; their looks animated; their shapes slender and well formed. Even the citizens of moderate rank display genius, judgment and knowledge, very different from those cold heavy beings, their northern neigh, bours. The description of the city and antiquities is interesting; but we can catch only, in this hasty copy, the principal features. The studies of those, educated at the college, appear to be well directed: they are not confined only to languages; and the German is taught grammatically. "Men are taught to know men from history; to know man in particular from the principles of morals, and this kind of morality conducts them to metaphysics of an useful kind, because it is judicious and rational :' to these are added mathematics, natural philosophy, natural history, and the civil law. The citadel is situated on a very abrupt rock, which nature seems to have formed for the purpose. Three winding almost inacceslible paths formerly led to it, at present there are two only, for the third is desiroyed. This rock is opposite to the place where the Moselle empties itself into the Rhine ; and, from its top, there is a most magnificent prospect. The astonished eye beholds a large valley, which declines a little, or rather a vast
plain furrounded with mountains, partly cultivated, and in - part woody. It is watered by the Rhine, and divided by the Morelle. On the left, the Rhine comes gently from between the mountains ; on the right, it moves stiil more flowly, as if it regretted leaving so charming a spot, and at a distance, which the eye reaches with difficulty, it seems again to conceal itself between other mountains. In front, is Coblentz, whose form is a perfect triangle, and the two islands of the Rhine, of which each has a convent, and the shape of one resembles a heart. Behind the city, at a little distance covered with gardens and orchards, the Chartreuse may be seen on a deep mountain covcred with wood and with vines, and a fer. tile plain with thirty villages of different sizes, separated like so many white cards on a green carpet. At each moment, the picture changes. An immense sea astonishes at first sight; and this astonishment is fucceeded by the most sublime ideas, but the wonder soon ceases, and languor succeeds; the variety in the present scene prevents disguít; the eye is
fatigued before it is satisfied.' The new palace is described · particularly, but such descriptions neither fuit our designs or
inclinations. For the same reasons we shall pass on, without particularly noticing the castle of Schonbornsluit, built by the elector of Schinborn. The manufacture of leather, in this neighbourhood, conducted by M. Decler, is said to be in a very flourishing state, but it is not particularly described.
Neuwied is described by our author with peculiar af. ffection: the victim of minifterial tyranny in France, he fied to this place, and was received by the prince of Weid with particular regard. We wonder not, therefore, at the warmth of his commendations; and, while we have no reason to believe that the prince is not possessed of numerous virtues, we may be pardoned, if we distrust a little the fidelity of the picture in every part. Neuwied contains about fix or seven thousand fouls, and it is the work of its present sovereign. Numerous establishments are protected by him, and they are all in a flourishing condition : we need only mention, particularly, the printing-office styled the Typographical Society, where the present, and numerous other valuable works have been printed. A society of Herenhutters, disciples of the famous count Zinzendorf, is established in this town, and our author 'glances rapidly' at their union and origin. We shall copy some of the more remarkable circumftunces, which, in this hafty sketch, he has ncticed.
The principle of union in this fingular society is a religious fraternity ; but wherever it has appeared, it has equally displayed industry, morality, a love of peace, and a simplicity of manners. Their religious principles are the fundamental ones of Christianity, without engaging in disputed dogmas: their morality consists not only in what is necessary to be done or avcided, but is founded on principles connected with their religious system. The maxim of their Apoftle, that every one ought to submit to the higher powers, renders them obedient and respectful subjects, even to the religious establishments of the sovereign or the country where they reside; without arrogating privileges or rights incompatible with the constitution. They conlider it as a duty to give some reasons for, and account of, their principles and establishment, when called on by government. In their establishments, the education of children is particularly attended to. Each sex has a different school, and different instructors. Luxury and ornaments of every kind are banished from their societies. Marriage, ' whether suggeited by their own inclinations, or the advice of their parenis, whether the necessity of the employment or other circumstances point out the propriety of the union, is treated as a subject of the first importance. It is considered very maturely, and either has the fullest right to refuse the person proposed.
and not to lubiem. Thended on
The consent of the fathers and mothers is considered as indispensible.'
Their church-yards resemble retired gardens, covered with turf. The tombs are disposed in right lines ; those of the men on the right, and of the women on the left. The infcriptions are always equally simple, and their expression for diffolution, that he is gone home,' speaks, in our author's opinion,' the purity of a soul without reproach and without fear. In the house of the brethren there are sixty or eighty artists, but a profound filence reigns: whatever they do, is executed with care and taste; and their answers, when quels tioned, are concise, but courteous and modest. The unmara ried brethren sleep in the same room : the married ones are removed to separate houses. The latter are often engaged in commerce, and remarkable for candour, as well as integrity. Our author, however, tells us, that he looked in vain for plea. fure and content in their placid countenances : yet they profefs themselves happy, and are not tied to the society by any indiffolubie link. -Te must leave Wied after transcribing one anecdote of its prince.
While the prince was one day on the terrace, he went haltily away, to the shop of a smith. "Why, says he, is there no noise in thy shop? why are thy hammers idle?! Ah! my lord, I have no iron : a misfortune which happened to me lait week prevented me from procuring some at this time.' - What, says the prince, did not you know where I live?' adding, 'how much will the iron necessary for one week cost?' $ About ten crowns.' Hearken then-I shall soon find if you have told the truth, or framed an excuse for your idleness : come to me to-morrow at eight. The enquiry turned out in favour of the poor fellow, and his hammers were again heard.
Andernach is the last city described in the first volume. It is a volcanic country, and furnishes the tusa so useful to the Dutch in forming their dykes. In this neighbourhood, the famous rafts are constructed, which carry the woods of Germany to furnish the dock-yards of Holland. The description of these rafts is in a great measure new and highly interesting. . . .
Theie immense rafts may be styled a swimming illand, one thousand feet long and ninety wite. It supports twelve or fourteen houses constructed of wood, and is directed by five hundred rowers ; che leder rafts are of the same lengtli, and come from above Mayence, but it is only a little below A11dernach that they are united into this yait body. Before this Jarge mass are several of the letter rafts, which precede it like the horses of a carriage. When it is going to depart, an