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in the old editions. In the 4to of 1630, the tree is represented as blasted, by Hern; and the tale of Hern the hunter fre
quenting that tree, to be so old as to be almost obsolete. In - the first 4to of 16:9, no tree is mentioned. The groaning tree is a curious phænomenon: the sound of groans was traced to a young vigorous elm. A gentleman called Forbes bored a hole in its trunk, to discover the cause, and the tree ceafed groaning. It was cut down, but the cause was not discovered. It seems pretty certain, that the Cadenham oak bursts into leaf about the middle or latter end of December ; but these premature shoots are foon cut off. We have now (November 8th) within our view a mountain ash in bloom, uninjured by the frost, which, with the severe cold of an easterly wind, is unexampled within our memory at this early season; and, if trees were more minutely examined, we have little doubt but irregular foliation would be more often observed. Mr. Gilpin is of the fame opinion.
The rules for planting clumps with most success, and of laying out park scenery, are given with taste and judgment. The copse wants dignity, and the rules for managing it deserve not much attention. Our author disapproves of a border being left, when the copse is cut, and perhaps with reason. If other circumstances admit, and the scene requires it, we see not why the wood should not be occasionally thinned, and never wholly cut down; the trees are seldom of that magnitude to make it inconvenient to carry them off. A copfe, however, as an object of picturesque beauty, may be very safely neglected. The glen, with few natural advantages, is always pleasing : the eye loves to rest on objects at no great distance, to grasp the whole at a glance, and the glen is very advantageous for this comprehensive view. Let us extract some excellent remarks for the conduct of the improver :
• In many places you see the glen under the hands of improvement; and when you happen to have a scene of this kind near your house, you cannot well have a more fortunate circumstance. But great care should be taken not to load it with ornament. Such scenes admit little art. Their beauty consists in their natural wildness; and the best rule is to add litile ; but to be content with removing a few deformities and obilructions. A good walk, or á path, there must be; and the great art will confilt in conducting it, in the easiest and most natural way to the spot, where the car. cade, the rock, or any other object, which the glen exhibits, may be seen to the best advantage. If a seat or two be thought necessary, let them be of the rudest materials; and their situation no way forced. I have often seen semi-circular areas, on these occasions, adapted to elegant feats, which have been fixed, either
where openings happened to be presented, or were purposely cue through the woods. All this is awkward, and disguiiing. Let no formal preparation introduce a wiew. A parading preface always injures a story. The eye receives more pleasure from the casual objects of it's own notice ; than from objeéis perhaps of more real beauty, forced upon it, with parade, and oftentation.'
The open grove, the next object, detains Mr. Gilpin but a little while: he hastens to the forest, which is his principal subject. He examines with peculiar attention, and traces the various sources of picturesque beauty in the arrangement of its woods, the formation of its vistas and paths. As we find it difficult to follow him in a regular analysis, we shall prefer a quotation. The remarks on the influence of the time of the day, and the state of the air, on forest scenery, are particularly valuable, as the latter, at least, is often overlooked: indeed, aerial perspective is by no means sufficiently studied. .The calm, overcast, soft, day, such as these climates often produce in the beginning of autumn, hazy, mild, and undisturbed, affords a beautiful medium ; spreading over the woods a sweet, grey tint, which is especially favourable to their dillant appearances. The internal parts of the forest receive little advantages from this hazy medium : but the various tuftings of difiant woods, are wonderfully sweetened by it; and many a form, and many a hue, which in the full-glare of sun-fhine would be harsh, and disa cordant, are softened, and melted together in harmony:--We of. ten see the effects of this mode of atmosphere in various species of landscape ; but it has no where a better effect, than on the woods of the forest. Nothing appears through mist more beautiful, than trees a little removed from the eye, when they are oppofa ed to trees at hand: for as the foliage of a tree consists of a great number of parts, the contrast is very pleasing between the varied furface of the tree at hand, and the dead, unvaried appearance of the removed one.
"The light-mist is only a greater degree of haziness. It's cbject is a nearer distance; as a remote one is totally obscured by it. - In this situation of the atmosphere not oply all the strong tints of nature are obscured; but all the smaller variations of form are loft. We look only for a general mass of softened harmony; and Sober colouring unmarked by any strength of effect. The vivid hues of autumn particularly, appear to great advantage through this medium.-Sometimes these mists are partial; and if they happen to coincide with the composition of the landscape, this par · tiality is attended with pccular beauty, I have remarked in other works of this kind, that when some huge promontory emerges from a spreading mist, which hangs over one part of it, it not only receives the advantage of contrast, but it also becomes an ob
Crit. Rev. N. AR. (IV.) Jon. 1792. , E ject ject of double grandeur. We often see the woods of the forest also with peculiar advantage, emerging through a mist in the same style of greatness. I have known likewise a nearer distance, strongly illumined, produce a good effect through a light drizzling fhower.
· Nearly allied to mifts is another incidental appearance, that of smoke, which is often attended with peculiar beauty in woody scenes. When we see it spreading in the forest glade, and forming a soft bluish back-ground to the trees, which intercept it; it Mews their foliage, and ramification to great advantage.
. Sometimes also a good effect arises, when the sky, under the influence of a bleak north-wind, cold and overcast, is hung with blue, or purple clouds lowering over the horizon. If under that part of the atmosphere the distant forest happens to range, it is overspread with a deep blue, or a purple tint from the reflection of the clouds, and makes a very picturesque appearance.--And yet I should be cautious in advising the painter to introduce it with that full strength, in which he may sometimes perhaps observe it. The appearance of blue, and purple trees, unless in very remote distance, offends : and though the artist may have authority from nature for his practice ; yet the spectator, who is not versed in such effects, may be displeased.'
The last advice might probably have been spared : the 'blue and purple trees' are only tinged with these hues at a remote distance; but the principle is judicious. In nature there is much harshness and many peculiar appearances, and the painter would displease, if he copied exactly: no artist could bear to Jook at the disposition of the clouds, which we have more than once observed, about sun-rising : such harshness Mr. Gilpin might have inserted among the marks which distinguish the rising from the setting fun. It is not, however, a constant criterion; for it will occasionally be observed in the evening. Our author describes the effects of the coming day' with great taste and accurate discrimination. He speaks too of its beauty; but we own that we have seldom seen it in a conciliating state of mind. The setting fun embellishes almost every landscape. The effect of the seasons is opposite : the coming (pring is almost always beautiful, and the tender green peculiarly inviting : the autumn, perhaps, from other considerations influericing our ideas of picturesque beauty, is a scene, though more varied, seldom inviting. Can variety, arising from diseale and partial death, be pleasing? And even the ripening corn, though it varies the landscape, does not vary it with pleasing hues: it approaches, in its progressive states, to the fading leaf. This may be prejudice: we mean not to say that it is otherwise ; but it is not fingular. The first volume concludes with an
interesting forest history, the various descriptions of foreits and their inhabitants, with a short account of the different forefts in England and Scotland.
The second volume, though not less intereiting, will not detain us so long: the descriptive scenery of New Foreit is a succession of pleasing views, of which no one is so striking as to demand our peculiar attention, yet the whole is very entertaining. We may perhaps adu allo, that our author has exhausted, seemingly, his descriptive powers, when treating of single trees, and of their various combinations ; so that the most interesting part of this second volume seemed, in our
opinion, the description of the animals; of the cottagers, - particularly of that dreadful scene of squalid poverty and misery within, where all without spoke contentment and peace;. of the fishermen, &c. 'The whole is introduced with a history of the New Forest from the time of the Conqueror, who probably did little more than appropriate it to his own purposes. The destruction of towns, &c. so much lamented by our early historians, had probably no foundation but in their own prejudices : neither was the soil adapted for such a numerous population ; nor was the state of society sufficiently advanced under the Danes and Saxons to render it credible. Shall we not raise a smile, when we prefer transcribing the account of the management of the hogs, in the season, when they are suffered to feed on mast, with little particular attention from the swineherd? We own that we thought it curious, and we believe it to be new.
· The first step the swine-herd takes, is to investigate some close sheltered part of the forest, where there is a conveniency of water; and plenty of oak, or-beech-mast, the former of which he prefers when he can have it in sufficient abundance. He fixes next on fome spreading tree, round the bole of which he waitles a flight, circular fence of the dimensions he wants; and covering it roughly with boughs, and sods, he fills it plentifully with straw, or fern.
• Having made this preparation, he collects his colony among the farmers, with whom he commonly agrees for a shilling a head, and will get together perhaps a herd of five or fix hundred hogs. Having driven them to their deitined habitation, he gives them a plentiful supper of acorns, or beech-mast, which he had already provided, sounding his horn, during the repast. He then turns them into the litter, where, after a long journey, and a hearty meal, they sleep deliciously.
• The next morning he lets them look a little around them thews them the pool, or Aream, where they may occasionally drink-leaves them to pick up the offals of the last night's incal; and as evening draws on, gives them another pleutiful repart un
der the neighbouring trees, which rain acorns upon them for a hour together, at the sound of his horn. He then sends them again to sleep.
• The following day he is perhaps at the pains of procuring them another meal, with music playing as usual. He then leaves them a little more to themselves, having an eye however on their evening-hours. But as their bellies are full, they seldom wander far from home, retiring commonly very orderly, and early to bed.
"After this, he throws his sty open, and leaves them to cater for themselves; and from hence forward has little more trouble with them, during the whole time of their migration. Now and then, in calm weathes, when maft falls sparingly, he calls them perhaps together by the music of his horn to a gratuitous meal; but in general, they need little attention, returning regularly home at night, though they often wander in the day two or three miles from their sty. There are experienced leaders in all herds, which have spent this roving life before ; and can instruct their juniors in the method of it. By this management the herd is carried home to their respective owners in such condition, that a little dry meat will soon fatten them.'
• The hog is commonly supposed to be an obftinate, head-strong, unmanageable brute : and he may perhaps have a degree of positiveness in his cemper. In general, however if he be properly managed, he is an orderly, docile animal. The only difficulty is, to make your meanings, when they are fair, and friendly, intelligible to him. Effect this, and you may lead him with a straw.
Nor is be without his social feelings, when he is at liberty to indulge them. In these forett-migrations, it is commonly obseryed, that of whatever number the herd consists, they generally reparate, in their daily excursions into such little knots, and societies, as have formerly had habits of intimacy together; and in these friendly groups they range the foreft; returning home at night, in different parties, fome earlier, and some later, as they have been more or less fortunate in the pursuits of the day.
• It sounds oddly to affirm the life of a hog to be enviable; and yer there is something uncommonly pleasing in the lives of these emigrants something at least more desirable, than is to be found in the life of a hog Epicuri de Grege. They seem themselves also to enjoy their mode of life. You see them perfectly happy, going about at their ease, and converfing with each other in short, pi. thy, interrupted sentences, which are no doubt, expreflive of their own enjoyments, and of their social feelings.'
The chief reason for transcribing the latter part is to rescue the character of this unpleasing animal from an imputation,