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pover to give real information, should despise the filly vanity of making new systems or arrangements; merely for the lake of being talked of. An artificial method, like that of Linnæus, may be changed a thousand different ways, and each seem beit to its in
If any one, despairing of getting immortality by any other means, should please to name Cryptogamia the first class, and Monandria the last, I shauld rank him but with Christopher Knaut, who made about as wise an attempt upon the me:hod of Ray.'
The rest of Dr. Smith's Discourse' contains a fight ikctch of the rise and progress of natural history, with remarks on some of the principal authors and their works. The occational incidental observations are only new; and, as they are not easily selected, so their importance does not render the omilfron a subject of regret. The Discourse is, on the whole, judicious and able. The dried plants of Kalm are said to be mouldering away, in the lumber garret of his wifer heir.'
II. Obfervations on some extraneous Fossils of Switzerland, by M. Tingry; foreign Member of the Linnean Society, Dea monstrator of Chemiltry and Natural History at Geneva, &c. -M. Tingry's Effay relates to the impressions of leeds and ferns found on some fossils in Switzerland, and these descriptions are introduced by remarks on cosmogony in general, and the origin of mineral oils in particular. These last are fupposed to be owing to the decomposition of animal and vegetable bodies, changed by the vapour of minerals. The great subject of debate has been, whether the former or the latter have contributed the greatest proportion of that principle, which afterwards forms mineral bituments. Thofe who argue for the animals, draw, it is said, a consequence too important from the number of shells, without reficcting on thic minuteness of the animals, and have not adverted to the few temains of the larger animals; particularly the cetacea. From the frequent decomposition of vegetables, the various changes, which produce the mineral inflammables, are, in our nuthor's opinion, chiefly owing: the oils are either combined with various minerals, in the bowels of the earth, as in clofe vessels; exhaled by subterraneous heat; or; by the fame cause, in more compact beds, they are hardened to pitch. In the different mines, which M. Tingry has examined, he has never found any of the animal bodies in the progress of the process by which they are to become bitumens. The bodies which he describes are taken from a mine of stone-coal in Savoy. The threads of the coal, he tells us, were perceived a little above Taninge, a city of the province of Faucigni in Savoy They were opened on the side of a torrent, which falls from the mountains of Abondance, and which, after passing through the city, is united with the Giffre. Their elevation is 168 toiscs above the lake of Geneva. The mountain is chiefly calcareous.
The first fossil is the trunk of a reed, four inches in diameter, whose interior hollows are imprinted on the stony kernel. It contains four articulations, and their divisions penetrate the stone, which is a mixture of hard clay, of sand, and white glimmer. The second is a portion of a large leaf, seemingly belonging to the same reed, whose fibres are strongly marked. The leaf is fix inches wide, but its length is unknown: the mineralised part is a foot long, without any apparent decrease in the diameter: the stone is the killas. There are some other leaves of reed and of ferns, with different footstalks and remains of the equisetum and a species of charas in the laminæ of a black schistus, mixed with calcareous earth: some of these leaves are mineralised by martial pyrites, in superficial laminæ, on a matrix of schiftous grit. In another specimen, some black schistous leaves are confounded with reneform leaflets, and well-marked footstalks occasionally appearing to belong to the leaflets, which come very near to those of the olmunda regalis. In one specimen they were the leaflets of the asplenium nodosum, the filex latifolia nodofa of Plumier, an American fern. Indeed all these prints are of foreign plants. The last fossil is a piece of petrified wood, found near Annecy in Savoy: The stony matter is a quartz, and it has not altered the texture of the wood. One part of it is converted into a true, black, spungy coal, which follows the fibres of the wood, and gradually becomes quartz, sensibly changing its colour and hardness. At one end of the extremities of the fossil there is a beautiful crystallization of heavy spar, in sufficiently transparent rhomboidal laminæ. This author's memoir is in French: it fhould have been translated in an Appendix. As M. Tingry promises to send specimens of these fossils, and the Society may perhaps chuse to give plates of them, we would recommend them to try how far they can be accurately represented in
III. Observations on the Phalæna Bombyx Lubricipeda of Linnæus, and some other Moths allied to it. By Tho. Marfham, Efq. Secretary to the Linnean Society. In the titlepage to this volume, it will be remarked, that Linnean is spelt with a single e, though in the president's Discourse, the Swedish naturalift is always called Linnæus. This seems a little contradiction, but it would not have deserved notice, if Mr. Marsham had not always styled him Linncus. In a society, which has its name from this respectable author, fome confiitency of ap
pellation should always be preserved, and we would advise them to avoid the contemptible affectation of some modern authors who call him Linne, as well as the error of adopting a different latinity from his own, for he always called himself Linnæus, very properly. preserving the long e by the diphthong. Linnäan, an adjective derived
from the Latin, should certainly keep the distinction of the Latin termination; but, as one volume is already printed, perhaps it may be thought improper rafhly to alter the title: if a society was established in honour of the respectable Grotius, would it be styled the Grootan Society, because his Dutch name was Groot-To return to Mr. Marsham. This essay is introduced very properly, by recommending the attention of the society to the English infects, their history, and their characters, in the different periods of their transformation. In the present instance he endeavours to show, that the species of bombyx, which he styles erminea and lubricepeda, are in reality different, though considered by Linnæus as male and female. He describes also the bombyx mendica, of which the female was not known to Linnæus; and the male, in his cabinet, appears to have been a bad fpecimen, where the black spots on the wings were obliterated. Another species of the bombyx papyratia is added, and a plate representing each accurately coloured is subjoined.
IV. Descriptions of four Species of Cypripedium, by Richi. Anthony Salisbury, Esq. F. Ř. S. Fellow of the Linnean Society.--The effential character of the cyripedia, Mr. Salisbury informs us, does not depend so much on the calceform lowerlip of the corolla, as on the peculiar structure of the organs subfervient to the increase of the species; a circumstance of the greatest importance in diftinguishing all the orchideæ. The fpecies described are, the cyrepedium calceolus (L. Sp. Pl. 1340.), the cyrepedium parviforum (helleborine calceolus dicta of Plukenet, Mant. p. 101.), cyripedium fpectabile (album of Aiton), and cyripedium humile (acaule of Aiton).
V. Descriptions of ten Species of Lichen collected in the South of Europe. By James Edward Smith, M. D. F. R.S. President of the Linnean Society. — These are chiefly nondescripts; two only are described in the third volume of Jacquin's Collectanea, and one, the lichens faturninus, by Dickson.
VI. Some Observations on the Natural History of the Curculio Lapathi and Silpha grisea. By Mr. William Curtis, Fellow of the Linnean Society. - The phalæna coffus is a very destructive enemy of the most ornamental species of the willow; but the curculio lapathi was found in the wood of a young falix viminalis, and discovered by its depredations, a quantity of the dust of the wood on the ground, in which the
larva of the filpha grisea was found feeding, On cutting into the wood, the larva of the curculio lapathi was discovered, greatly resembling the maggot of the hazel-nut, but twice as large. The eggs were probably laid in a crevice of the bark, or in an accidental wound of the tree.
VII. Description of the Stylephorus chordatus, a new Fish. By George Shaw, M.D.F.R.S. Fellow of the Linnean So. ciety:- This is a new and very singular genus, very nearly resembling the nantes, though' evidently a fith. We shail transcribe its generic character :
• Oculi pedunculati (seu cylindro crasso brevi impofiti).
brana interjecta retractile.
CORPUS longiffimum, compressum, The caudal thread-like process of the tail, which gives it the trivial name, seems more than twice as long as the fish. It is. of a silver colour, without scales, and was taken between the islands of Cuba and Martinico.
VIII. Description of the Hirudo viridis, a new English leech, by George Shaw, M.D. T.R.S. Fellow of the Linnean Society.- This beautiful little animal is denominated from its colour. It is found in waters that are clear and cold, but not cafily frozen ; and, in its general outlines, resembles the his sudo complanata. Its motions are like those of the hirudo complanata, stagnalis, & octacula, but it seems to possess a greater contractile power than either. The hirudo viridis seems to be oviparous, and to poffefs, in a degree scarcely inferior to the polypus, the powers of reproduction.
IX. The Botanical History of the Canella alba, by Olof Swartz, M. D. Foreign Member of the Linnean Society.It is well known that the canella and winterana were, for a time. supposed to be the same tree, or very nearly related. As we have in the Medical Observations, a description of the winterana, the distinction is completely ascertained by this very accurate botanical history and description of the canella, which cannot be removed from the dodecandria. All the parts of the tree are more or less aromatic, and its seeds are the favour. ite food of the columba Jamaicensis and leucocephala. It is a proof of the necessity of the stimulus of spice in hot climates, hat the bark, with the fruit of the capsicum, were common ingredients in the food and drink of the Caribbs, and are equally agreeable to the negroes,
X. Description of the Cancer stagnalis of Linnæus. By George Shaw, M.D.F.R.S. Fellow of the Linnean Soci. ety.--The cancer stagnalis is a British species, described and delineated by Scheffer. It is frequently seen in the small fhallows of rain-water, so common in spring and autumn, and with various similar instances, seems to prove that animal germs are universally diffused, combined with every particle of matter, and requiring only a suitable nidus. It resembles, at first sight, the scilla aquatica, or the larva of the dytiscus; but, when accurately examined, is more beautiful and elegant. The legs are flat and filmy, resembling waving wings of the molt delicate structure. Scheffer calls it the apus pisciformis, for he mistakes the legs for fins. Dr. Shaw defcribes it particularly in its growth, and adds an account of its very formidable apparatus for taking its prey, which is found only in the male : we shall transcribe the account.
• This apparatus consists of two very long fiat trunks, proceeding from between the long hooked parts or exterior fangs, so conspicuous in the male insect. These trunks are generally rolled. up. fide by fide, and carried in the same manner as the proboscis of a butterfly, so as not to be externally viable, except by a flight protuberance; but when extended they reach to a very considerable distance, so as to exceed that of the hooks or exterior fangs.
• It should be observed that, from the part whence thele trunks proceed, the real mouth of the creature is plac:d, which consists of two large concave scales, placed perpendicularly, and furnished with toothed edges, meeting each other. It is from each side of this mouth that the trunks proceed. The particular structure of the trunks is as follows. The body of each is a long and moderately broad Aat part, extended in a straight line when expanded, and ending in a jagged extremity, beset with very sharp teeth, like those of a fih : it is also divided, from the root to the extremity, into a very great number of transverse spaces, cach of which ier. minates in a tooth as the edge ; so that the whole trunk is edged on both sides with a continued row of teeth. Besides the tee.h, e.ch trunk is also furnished with three lateral brancnes, or appendages, situated at some distance from each other, on the outward edge of the trunk. These lateral branches are armed near the ends with several very strong and exceffively sharp teeth, not only on the edge, but on the surface itself, and on the tips. Laitly, it mutt not be omitted that the bases of the fangs themselves are furnished with a double range of extremely sharp teeth, of a much larger lize than any of the others : they are placed in such a manner that the points of the teeth of one range look exadly contrary to those of the other; and by this means mutt enable the infect to conmit