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Mrs. Phillips may, perhaps, bave jaftly enough pointed ont the root of the evil; but we much fear that her arguments will. not prove fufficient to remove it. Let us, however, applaud the goodness of her intention, and enumerate some other particulars to which the adverts.
She observes, that many of the rich consume more than a pound in the day, of the finest flour, in hair powder ; that much of this grain is likewise consumed in the manufacture of starch ; that the increased quantity of malt used for distilling spirits, muft tend to advance the price of grain ; and that the great number of dogs - kept is a farther addition to the inconvenience.
The proposals which Mrs. Phillips offers for reducing the price of provisions, arise naturally from the causes above alligned of their dearnefs; and it is therefore unnecessary to mention them. But we cannot conclude without complimenting her on the pains the has taken to investigate this interesting subjed. Her observations, as a female writer, are uncommonly extensive; and the seems to be well acquainted both with domestic and rural economy. A Plain Man's Thoughts on the present Price of Sugar, &c. Svo.
15. Debrett. 1792. The author of this pamphlet imputes the present high price of sugar to a variety of causes; some of which, however, seem not likely to operate much within the period of the late extraordinary rise in the price of this commodity. He endeavours to persuade his readers, that a monopoly and speculation in sugar muft ever be in a great measure impracticable; and he argues against a reduction of the drawback on its exportation,
We will not take upon us to decide concerning the justness of his statement, from our own knowledge of the subject; but there seems to be some reason for suspecting him of a partiality towards the interests of the West India planters and merchants. An Address to her Royal Highness the Ducbefs of York, against the Ufe of Sugar. 8vo.
6d. Darton. 1792. This author, upon the specious pretext of an abhorrence to the flave-trade, earneftly recommends to the duchess of York the total disuse of sugar in her family; not doubting that the example of her royal highness would be followed by every person of rank
in the kingdom. The petition reminds us of that which was prea sented to his majesty, soon after his acceflion, by the wig-makers; ? and it will probably meet with similar attention. The Address, : however, is neatly printed, upon good paper; and the author, we may naturally conclude, has taken care to present her royal bighnels with an elegant copy.
be Evils of Adultery and Prostitution ; with an Inquiry into she
Causes of their prijent alarming Increase, and fome Means recome mended for checking their Progress. 8vo. 25.
Vernor. 1792. This author treats his subject with great perfpicuity and good sense. The first cause which he alligns for the increase of adultery and prostitution, is the example of men of rank and fortune, which infenâbly extends its influence over the morals of others. The second cause, he thinks, is to be fought for in the luxury and opulence of the nation. A third caufe is the ready circulation, afforded by the public prints, to the instances which happen of those vices. They are told, he obferves, as articles of news, and as common occorrences, which excite neither surprise nor indignation. It may be questioned, says he, whether a well-regulated police should admit of the circulation of such debaucheries ?'
As a fourth cause of the profligacy of the present age, the author confiders that mass of novels and romances, which people of all ranks and ages now so greedily devour ; a new species of enter.' tainment, almost totally unknown in former ages. The bad ef, fects of this practice are placed in a clear point of view, and strongly supported by observation ; but we shall proceed to men.. tion the means proposed for checking the progress of adultery and profitution. These are, to discourage celibacy, and encourage marriage ; a more regular and severe police directed againit all houses of ill fame; and a total change in the system of modern female education. On the Prevention of Crimes, and on the Advantages of folitary Inprisonment. By 7. Brewster, A. M. 8vo. Is. Clarke. 1792.
This judicious and humane author's works we have formerly had occafion to commend. What he observes respecting the insti. tutions calculated to prevent crimes, we fully approve. Solitary imprisonment is a fubje& that requires a fuller discussion than he has given, and a more full examination than we have yet been able to be ftow. We have many doubts of its propriety.
Feb. 10, 1792 AS I look on the inclosed Paper to be a sort of Literary Curiosity, I take the liberty of sending it to you. And should you judge it proper to have a place in your useful work, I hope to see it in an English dress I understand it is a French translation of a definition, or rather a diftin&tion, made by the princess Daschkard, between a fimply honest man, and a virtuous man, for the use of the Rur. fian Dictionary, now publishing at Petersburg. I am, Gentleken, your humble feryant.
We are much obliged to our friendly correspondent, and we think the inclosed paper truly curious: we have consequently fubjoined a tranflation of it.
• HE deserves the name of a virtunus man, who, having subdoed his paflions, is guided by juftice. This firit principle of virtue induces him to prefer truth to every thing, and to fulfil every daty and obligation, even when opposed by his interests or personal enjoyments. The love of his country excites not only a zealoos activity, but senders him ready and able, in cases of ne. ceffity, to make the greateft facrifices : virtue gives him firmness and courage, and he becomes capable of brilliant actions. Not contented with barely doing his duty like others, he eagerly sacrifiees his personal interefts, to render his country the most distinguished fervices. In private life, he is equally attentive to his duty, and anfwers the claims of relationship and friendship with the greater exactress. · Every kindred virtue, prescribed by the Jaw of nature, by religion, or the laws of his country, are famibar to him : gratitude, facred friendship, filial and paternal duties, wich the other moral virtues, are the feelings which warm and animate his foul. Humanity and candour, in judging of human failings, anite him with peace and good humour to mankind; for can the tranquillity of his soul be troubled but by vice, for the frength of his judgment enables him to furvey every object in its proper view: the paflions have no influence on him.
• The boneft man does his duty. The virtuous man improves what honesty dictates. Executing with a zeal, more considerable, pore ardent, with greater activity and rapidity, he hurries on to voluntary fervices, and thinks these a sufficient recompence.
The bonefl man does no harm. The virtuous man, so far from doing harm, has always in his view the moft elevated and heroic actions: there are his models.
• Unshaken in his principles, founded on virtue, he follows the path of justice, onmoved by envy or human frailty: the consoling testimony of bis con cience renders him tranquil and happy, independent of authority or accidents. In a word, the virtuous man distinguishes him felf as much by an elevated soul as by an enlightened.gerijus. This last quality is so much the more ellential, as without understanding it is often difficult to discover the feeret and obscure paths of justice, which is the basis of every virtue.'
WE are forry that we cannot with propriety engage in the private correspondence requested. It will be sufficiently private to say, in this place, that the subject shall be examined with partico. las care. The reviewer is conscious of no error, He is certain that none was designed.
La Prulle Littéraire fous Frederic II. pour servir de Continuation
a l’EJ'ai sur la Vie & lè Regne de ce Roi. Par M. l'Abbe
contains a picture of the mind in one region, its various exertions in the different acquisitions, either purely intellectual, or more practical and manual. The late king of Pruffia diá not strike the spark, but he cherished the almost imperceptible fire, raised the Aame, and extended its general warmth, its animating heat. The sands of Brandenburg became the cradles in which genius fometimes began to fourish, but more often the conservatory in which the genius of other countries expanded with fresh vigour. Our present author does not confine himself to either clals, nor to any one art; merit of every kind, connected with Pruffia, and the connections are sometimes a little remote, is his subject. His articles consequently amount to near 1200, and he scruples not to assert that there are at prefent, in the protestant provinces of Germany, more writers than in the whole kingdom of France. He speaks, however, of literary men who were never authors, and of authors who have been but a short time in Pruffia; though he confines himself also to the forty-six years of Frederic's reign, yet those who at his accession were old, and others who at his death had just be. gun their literary career, are equally the subjects of his remarks, and his history consequently includes more than an age. In general, the articles are neither crowded with dates, and circumApp. VOL. IV. New ARR,
ftanees only personally important, nor with very extensive critical reflections. The number of authors has extended it to three octavos,
• Of one thing, he obferves, I have scarcely any doubt: many of the Germans will think that I have said too little of them: foreigners that my details are too extensive. But let me allure the former that, however concise my accounts may appear to them, I have said more than is known in Italy, in France, in Spain, and perhaps even in England. To the latter I would suggeft, that three or four of the 1200 authors and artists of whom I speak, would have filled all my volumes, if I had only detailed what themselves or their disciples have written of them; and one of the fix classes of authors to which my work extends, might
have filled twice as many sheets.' The Life of Busching, for instance, written at the age of fixty-five by himself, with a very concise account of his works, equals in extent two of these volumes; and the Life of Wolff by Ludwig, composed feventeen years before he ceased to write, is equally copious. Our author intended to have added a fourth volume, but he has abandoned this plan, and we find only a Supplement annexed to the third.
The Introduction contains a general view of literature in Pruffia. The abbe begins with detailing the first progress of letters and arts in the states which at present compose the Prusfian monarchy, till the year 1530. The dawn of literature seeins to have been at the acceffion of the House of Hohenzollern, of which the ancestor of the prefent family was a younger brother; and for two centuries before, though the crusaders illuminated in some degree the minds of the people, and the establishment of the Teutonic order gave some little expansion to the mental exertions, there scarcely exists a single chronicle which proves that the priests and monks could write or read. The Reformation was, in every view, favourable to literature and to science; and the disputes which this great event produced, seemed, in our author's opinion, to have led to the vast fystem of Leibnitz, a philofopher who divides, with Newton, the credit of the deepest penetration and the foundest judgment which ever adorned mankind. Under the great elector, and in the reign of the first king of Prussia, the progress was rapid; and though checked awhile by the brutality of Frederic-William, the delay was compensated by the auspicious influence of Frederic II. This wonderful man, born alternately to raise our admiration of the power of genius, and to depress human pride, by showing how gross the errors were into which minds of fuperior excellence could fall, gave a new impulse to every kind of mental activity, and was the great patron of literature for near half a century, though he turned the course of science into some erroneous channels.