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one of these, strange to tell ! occurs in Mr. Pope's translation of the Iliad.
The second rule, which relates to the assimilation of style and manner, is illustrated with much taste and judgment. The deficient, or too concise interpreters, and those who substitute the vulgar cant of the ftreets for the humour of the Roman authors, among whom Echard holds a conspicuous place, are adduced. We wish rather to copy the remarks on the more elegant versions. The translations of Mr. Vincent Bourne are very justly and properly praised: they are indeed exquisitely beautiful, and highly polished; nor can we object to any thing; but that an additional sentiment is sometimes introduced.' It is done generally with caution and propriety: it is commended also by the critic, on whose judgment and taste we have some confidence; but it seems, we speak it with diffidence, to 'des tract from the fidelity to be expected in a translation. The duke de Nivernois' translation of Horace and Lydia is almost a perfect one in the freer style: we think it not sufficiently known, and shall consequently transcribe it. • Horací. Plus heureux qu'un monarque au faite des grandeurs,
J'ai vu mes jours dignes d'envie,
Vous m'aimiez, charmante Lydie. • Lydie. Que mes jours étoient beaux,' quand des soins les plus
Chloé n'avoit pas sçu vous plaire.
Cholé seule me paroit belle :
Je donnerai les miens pour elle.
Plait seul á mon ame ravie :
Je donnerai deux fois ma vie.
Ecouffoient une amour fatale ;
Cholé vous laifioit sans rivalei Lydie.
Calaïs est charmant: mais je n'aime que vous,
Ingrat, mon coeur vous justifie;
De perdre ou de passer la vie.'
thinks the concluding stanza wants the happy petulance of the original : perhaps it is a greater objection that the sentiment is, altered. In the original, no justification is necessary : love, almighty love, overturns every argument, without waiting for reason to justify her conduct.' Mr. Cumberland's translations of the fragments of the comic poets, the critic praises with great propriety and justice ; but, as he wilhes to know where they are to be found, he will allow us to add, that many occur in the Cambridge edition of the Poetæ Minores. All are not in that collection, but there are fome passages of singular merit not noticed by the author of the Observer.
The rule, respecting the imitation of style, must be limited, our author tells us, by the genius of the language. The Latin admits of a brevity which cannot be successfully imitated in English: the French is, he thinks, more advantageous in this respect. We shall quote one example.
• Pliny to Minutianus, Lib. 3. Ep. 9. says, towards the end of his leiter : Temerè dixi-Succurrit quod præterieram, et quidem però: fed quanquam prepoftere reddetur. Facit hoc Homerus, mulai
que illius exemplo. Eft alioqui per decorum : a me tamen non ideo festa It is no doubt possible to translate this passage into English which a conciseness almoft equal to the original. But in this experiment we must sacrifice all its ease and spirit. « I have said this salhlyan recollect an omiffion — somewhat too late indeed. It Mall now be fupplied, though a little preposterously. Homer does this : and many after his example. Besides, it is not unbecoming; but this is not my reason." Let us mark how Mr. Melmoch, by a happy amplification, has preserved the spirit and ease, though sacrificing the brevity of the original. " But upon ter collecting, I find that I must recall that last word; for I perceive, a little too late indeed, that I have omitted a material circumftance. However, I will mention it here, though something out of its place. In this, I have the authority of Homer, and sever ral other great names, to keep me in countenance ; and the critics will tell you this irregular manner has its beauties; but, upon my . word, it is a beauty I had not at all in my view."
These remarks are, in general, just; but we may ask whether Mr. Melmoth, in this tranflation, has not facrificed the abrupt hasty manner of Pliny in his more elegant flowing verfion? The same error seems to pervade the whole of Mr. Melmoth's attempt: manner is facrificed to elegance, and idiom
The inversions of the Greek and Latin are inconsistent with the English, and consequently limit the rule. The inverted construction of Mr. Gordon's Tacitus; and Mr. Vacpherson's
Homer, are mentioned, and the latter is styled ' a work otherwise valuable, as containing a moft perfet transfusion of the sense of his author. In our review of it we had occasion to forma very different opinion. The English is also incapable of numerous ellipses admillible in the Greek and Latin; but all these defects are probably compensated by other advantages, and, with care, conciseness, in an English version, may be very compatible with elegance.
The question, whether a poem may be translated into prose, is discussed very judiciously. If it be only melody of language, an uniform measure, and regular return that is required, there are not incompatible with profe; but poetical images, the nobly daring language of the poet, is unsuitable to prose, because not usually connected with it. Fenelon is juftly praised for only giving his language a degree of elevation consistent with a highly polished profaic composition.
The third rule is, that a translation should have all the case of original composition. Mr. Melmoth has succeeded in the familiarity of the epiftolary style ; but, as we have said, he fucceeds by facrificing manner. The old translators of Lucian have carried this familiarity to a faulty extreme.
• When we consider those restraints within which a translator finds himself necessarily confined, with regard to the sentiments and manner of his original, it will soon appear that this last requisite includes the most difficult part of his talk. To one who. walks in trammels, it is not easy to exhibit an air of grace and freedom. It is difficuli, even for a capital painter, to preserve in a copy of a picture all the ease and spirit of the original; yet the painter employs precisely the same colours, and has no other care than faithfully to imitate the touch and manner of the piccure that is before him : if the original is easy and graceful, the copy will have the same qualities, in proportion as the imitation is just and perfect. The translator's task is very different: he uses not the same colours with the original, but is required to give his picture the same force and effect, He is not allowed to copy the touches of the original, yet is required, by touches of his own, to produce a perfect resemblance. The more he studies à scrupulous imitation, the less bis copy will reflect the ease and spia rit of the original. How then shall a tran Dator accomplish this difficult union of ease with fidelity? To use a bold expression, he must adopt the very soul of his author, which must f;eak through his own organs."
'These rules are easily given, but perhaps never to be followed, except where a similarity of genius renders this adoption caly; and, to employ an eastern allusion, when the foul can be transmitted, and animate tlre clay-cold body. Poetry must be allowed a little liberty on account of the rigid severity of modern metre; and this is the secret cause of the loss of the. vital fpirit, and the necessary transfusion of some additional fire: the tyrant must be obeyed. Instances of excellence are adduced from fome translations of Horace's Odes by Lowth, Hughes, and Dryden; but we recollect translations of Dryden from Horace superior to those now quoted. That part of the 29th ode of the third book, which begins 'cui licet in diem dixitle vixi,' and, indeed, the whole is rendered with an energy and poetic fire, scarcely inferior to what Horace has displayed in the original. Our author quotes the stanza, which begins · fortuna fævo læta negotio,' as well as that which immediately follows.
In the chapter on the version of idiomatic phrases, some happy instances are quoted from Cotton's translation of Mon, taigne and from Echard; though the last author affords more numerous instances of faults in this respect. Trandations of the names of streets, &c. very often have a ludicrous effect; and indeed proper names of every kind should not be tranflated. The point of an epigram is almost in every instance blunted, fometimes totally destroyed, in a new language. Some of the poems styled epigrams by the Greeks have been translated with astonishing elegance, and many are fully equal to the originals. Among the idiomatical authors Don Quixote is mentioned, and Motteux’s translation preferred to Smollett's. It contains certainly many happy transfusions of idiom, though it offends the more elegant taite, and the nicer ear. Smollett, it is said, we believe without reason, copied almost wholly from Jarvis, whose language he also corrected and polished.
Voltaire's translations are treated very properly, but these afford no new remarks. We fhall preserve the little space that remains for some specimens of a French translation of Hudibras, a work that was supposed impracticable. We have been almoft led to fuspect that this pretended translation is one of the piæ fraudes, and that, in reality, no more has been trans. lated than what appears. After a very diligent enquiry among the admirers of French literature, we have been able to difcover no such version of this truly English poet. — The palfage which begins, ' So learned Taliacotius froin, &c.' is thus rendered.
• Ainfi Talicot d'une fesse
Mais si le cul perdoit la vie,
Le nez tomboit par sympathie.'
• Sa réligion au genie
Orthodoxe, à force de coups.'
Car Hudibras avec raison
Qu'un coté marchant, l'autre arrive.' We shall add only one more passage, 'For he by geometric scale, &c.'
‘En geometre raffiné
A quelle heure il fonne midi.' On the whole, this work may, perhaps, be most advantageously confidered as a specimen of a more extensive one. It certainly may be more fult, more varied, and in fome instances probably more correct: yet it deserves no flight commendation; and the author might, without disgrace, have added his name.
Rights of Man. Par: the Second. Combining Principle and Practice. By T. Paine. 8vo. 35.
35. Jordan, 1792. IF F we had thought it possible that the virulence of party, the
disappointment of soaring ambition, or the rage of innovation could, for a moment, have contributed to bestow a temporary celebrity on ignorance and absurdity, blended with the low yulgarity of colloquial errors, and boldly depending on insig