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additions to his father's description of Devon), which all miscar: tied in the time of the late civil wars in England; as I have been informed by the present honourable colonel fir John Pole, bart, so that the very titles and arguments of them are perished likewise.
“ From all which passages well considered, it plainly appears how very industrivus this gentleman was ; how he chose to lay out his time in higher and nobler gratifications than what sensuality affords; and how he applied himself to this gentile study of antiquities for more than twenty years together. Insomuch he thereby became as the first, so the best antiquary (for certainty and judgement) that we ever had in our county ; it being plain, that with this gentleman's labours most of those who wrote since on this argument have adorned their works.
6 But at length death (that ultima linea rerum) came and add. ed a period to the last line of his life; though not until he had lived to a very great age. He lies interred in the parish church of Colliton, under a flat stone, whose inscription is obliterated by time.”
The first book contains an account of the antient baronies of Devon, the 2d, a list of those which held their lands im. mediately from the crown; the men of most note' in war, * councellors of estate, and eminent men in the government of Devonshire,' and such learned men in the knowledge of the laws of this land as have been borne or dwelt in Devonfhire. From this last lift we shall select two or three short accounts:
• Si John Cary was on of the judges of the King's Bench, temp. R. 2, who sacrificed his estate to preserve his conscience, chusing rather to suffer his goods to be confiscated, and himself banilh'd, than to violate his oath in consenting to the proceedings of the procurators for the resignation of the unhappy king his master,
i Willem Hankford, k', chief justice of ye King's Bench, on of great spirit & wisdome, it was he to whom H. 5, when prince of Wales, gave a box on the eare uppon the bench, because he would not be a servant of his, &c. who, nothing daunted thereby, he is given him a severe check, conimitted him prisoner to the Fleet.'
Si Humfrey Gilbard, a famous hydrographer, who undertook to discover the remotest parts of America, whose spirit may be guessed by his motto, Quid non. He made three several voyages before he could plant any colony, and in the last seis'd to the crown of England, St John's Road, in the south part of Newfoundland; but retorning home, his projects perished wih himself.
• This county challenges the honour of lifting si James Lea in the list of her worthys, as fetching his discent and inheritance
hence, a person of that integrity and worth, that he was made lo. chief justice of Engl. lord high treafurer, & after earl of Marlborough.'
A list of the sheriffs of Devonshire follows; and, in this county, the sherifwick' was hereditary in the families of Baldwyn de Brioniis, or of the barons of Okehampton, till the first of Henry II. A list of the justices itinerant from the same period follows. The third book contains an account of particular places and manors of the county divided into hundreds, and is in reality the principal subject of the work. These antiquarian discussions are unpleasing in general, and we shall only select two passages; one of curiosity, and another which affords some subjects of remark, while it is a general specimen of our author's manner.
Athelstan gave a grant of the church of Axminster to seven priests, to pray for the souls of seven earls, killed in a battle in this neighbourhood.
· I will add hereurto what I have reade in an old written cro. Dicle, treating of this battel, as followeth :
"When kinge Athelstan ruled England, seven Danish kings (for foe ye Saxons called such as had command) landed at a place called Seaton, and foe marchinge about two miles in a bottome, & on a little hill called Bremeldoun, their they encamped, from whence they marched on some three miles, & neere unto Axmister they mett wih kinge Athelstan, whoe had in his companye a bisshop & two dukes, where ye field was foughten, but the Danes were driven to give ground & Aye over ye water, where was made a verye greate slaughter of them, and most of the Danes slayne, & the maymed were sent twoe miles above Axminster to be relieved. Aloe ye bilhop and twoe dukes wch were on ye king's Gide were Nayne & buried at Axmister. Holingsed doth somewhat (agree] with this. M' Cambden writech, Axanminster, a towne of the Saxon princes, uch in y cruel battaile at Brunaburge beinge slayne were thither convayed, & wih their tumbes (famous in ancient histories) hath mad ye place (situated in ye lymics of y' province) famous.
« This story beinge soe famous, & in & neere ye place of my dwellinge, hath made me the more curious and carefull in the searchinge thereof, out of ye names of the places mencioned there. in. And first for theire landinge at Seaton, & the marchinge upp ye bottome, & encampinge at Bremeldoun. The name of Bremeldoun doth yeat remayne unto this day, & the hill lyinge eaft from Colyton (where I dwell) retayneth the name of Eft King's Doun unto this [day], & the place where the battaile was fought conserveth ye name of Kingsfield, being in dillance not above three myles from Kingsdoune; and the place over the water where the
daughter flaughter was made is nowe called Kil men-ton, & yo place above Axminster, where ye hurt and maymed were conveyed unto, re. tayneth ye name of Maimbury unto this day. In this place is to bee seene an old castell, or fortificacion, such as is use in those dayes & liandeth.'
• Otterton lieth westward, & uppon ye South sea, & the river Oter un!adeth his waters at Otermouth, w hin ye said parish. It is a goodly mannor, & in the Conqueror's dayes, contained five hides of land, every hide contayning five plough lands, and every plough land eight score akers, & did belonge unto thabbey of Mount Si Michaell, in periculo Maris; & heere was, by ye abbot & conveni their, a pryory in this place erected, for whose main. tenance this mannor, & ye mannor of Yarkcomb, was allotted. In kinge Henry 4 tyme, by act of parliament, this land, wlh all other in alien's hands, was removed into the kinge's hands, & was by kinge Henry 6 given unto the howse of Syon. And after ye suppression it was purchased by Richard Duke, esq: beinge a clerke in the coorte of augmentations. He builded a fayre howse. in this place uppon an ascent over the river Otter, wch driveth his mylles underneath the howse.'
In this account, we apprehend there are some little inaccu, racies. The abbey of Monte St. Michael de Periculo Maris was in the bishopric of Avranche, subject to the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Rouen. Otterton was undoubtedly the principal manor in England; and Articumba, at prefent Yarcombe, called in the account just transcribed, Yarkcombe, was another. But these manors were by no means solely appropriated to the maintenance of the abbey; nor were they the only manors which it possessed, as our author has in other places properly mentioned. Among these were Yettemeton, at present Yattington, a little village in the parish of Breton; Sidemèr (Sidmouth); Boddeley (Bodley), Marloch, &c. This last" priory was afterwards annexed to Sion abbey, in Middlesex.
Our author afterwards adds the arms of noblemen and gentlemen who anciently dwelt in Devonshire; the arms of the gentry in an alphabetical order; the names of noblemen and gentlemen formerly distinguished, but no longer found in this county; those who have left the county, and dwell in other places, as well as those who still retain their lands, and dwell in the county. The whole is concluded with an index of places, and another of names.
In general, this work is scarcely the subject of criticism; nor is it easy, at a distance, to judge of its accuracy. From the general character of sir William Pole, there is little doubt but, with the means of pofTesling exact information, he was * Crit. Rev. N. AR. (IV.) Feb. 1792.
neither wanting in care nor in industry. The chief errors we have discovered are in the orthography and the etymologies : these are often erroneous; and this part of the subject de ferves considerable attention from the present historian of the county.
Philolophical Tranfagions of the Royal Society of London, Vol.
LXXXI. for the lear 1791. Part I. 410. 7s. 6d. Elm
sley. 1791 VARIOUS causes have prevented our noticing this volume,
sconer; and it is with regrét we must remark, that our delay has not greatly impeded the progress of science : for, though some of the papers in this very small volume are inte. resting, they are not on the whole important, or worthy the refpcciable fociety by whom they are published. Surely the phicsophers of this country could furnish a larger and more scientitic volume by their more active and cordial exertions ?
Art. I. A fecond Paper on Hygrometry. By J. A. De Lúc, Efq. F.R.S.-M. De Luc has laboured greatly in the science of meteorology, and in the construction of its instruments; but, in hydrometry, we have not been able to pay him that tribute of applause which he has merited by his other works, nor will the present paper add greatly to his fame in this department. In an effay, which he presented to the society in 1973, he sketched out the fundamental positions on hygrometry; and these are,"1. That fire, considered as a cause of heat, was the only agent by which absolute dryness could be produced, 2. That water, in its liquid ftate, was the only lure means of producing extreme moisture in hygroscopic bodies; 3. That there was no reason, a priori, to expect from any hygroscopic fubstance, that the measurable effects, produced on it by moisture, were proportional to the intensities of that cause, and consequently, ihat a true hygrometrical fcale was to be a particular object of enquiry; 4. That, perhaps, the comparative changes of the dimensions of a subítance, and of the weight of the same or other substance, by the same variations of moisture, might lead to some discovery in that respect.' The same propositions are again examined and illustrated by our author's more matured experience.
Extreme dryness is undoubtedly produced by heat, and it required not so many words as M. de Luc has employed to explain it. Quick lime is found to have a great capacity for moisture, and to be flow in retaking it. When brought to a state of incandescence, the dryness produced by it was constant, and probably the extreme point; but the nature of the sub
ítance does not interfere with the degree of dryness, which depends wholly on the white heat.
There is, however, little reason, we apprehend, to be anxious about the point of extreme dryness, except the hygrometer is to be employed on the coast of Africa during the harmattan. Extreme moisture is more frequent, and we have great reason to suspect, that water is not its proper measure: we mean not that any thing can be more moist, but veficular vapour seems to have more influence on the hygrocopic substances, and affords a degree more steady, though this degree, from accidental circumitances, not fufficiently understood, seems to vary. Our author adheres to the water, notwithstanding he sometimes finds his hygrometer pointing a degree or two beyond his extreme point; and he concludes, that the water acts in consequence of porous penetration, not of chemical affinity only. But, in this respect, the motion of the hygrometer must be influenced by many circumstances, particularly those in which heat is involved, or again fet loose; and, so far as moisture is concerned at least, can be only a comparative standard. In more accurate observations, the inftrument will require to be corrected by the corresponding changes in the thermometer: what the correction should be is yet unknown. This, however, chiefly relates to the third question, how far the maximum of evaporation corresponds to the maximum of moisture. Some obfervations on this subject we shall select in our author's own words.
· When I had made hygroscopes of various forts of pips; for instance, of different woods and of whalebone, cut across the fibres ; of ivory and horn, reduced first into thin tubes, and then cut in screw; and of quiils, by cutting also in screw their barrels ; I re. peated, with those inftruments, my observations on dew; and to give a short, bui determined idea of the phænomena I observed, I shall reduce them to some general cases, as indicated by one onTy of those hygroscopes, that of quill, which, like all the others, is divided into 100 parts, from extreme dryness to extreme moiffure. These hygroscopes were suspended in the open air, three feet above a grass-plat in the country. First Case. When a clear and calm evening succeeds to a clear and warm day, the grass frequently grows wet, though the above hygroscope stands many hours, and sometimes the whole night, between 50 and 55. Second Case, If the dew increases, so that taler herbaceous plants and shrubs grow wet in succeffion, the hygrofeope moves more and more towards moisture ; and when it is come to about 80, plates of glass and oil-paint also grow wet; but at that period, 'neither metallic plates, exposed like the glass ones, nor some fhrubs and trees ara qet; and this also may last whole nights. Third Case. If the