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he was not greatly given to reading; but from his youth up he observed much, and reflected much ; his apprehension was quick, and his judgment clear and discriminating. Unbiased from education by any early adopted systems, he had immediate recourse to nature herself; he attentively studied her, and by a patience and assiduity indefatigable, attained to a consequence in science not rafhly to be hoped for, without regular initiation by minds of less native energy than his own. He had many friends, and from the great purity and fimplicity of his manners, few or no enemies; unless it were allowable to call those enemies who, without detracting from bis merit openly, might yet, from a jealousy of his superior knowledge, be disposed to lessen it in private.'
Of our author's Treatise on the original State and Formation of the Earth, we have already spoken at some length. The corrections are, seemingly, oniy the minuter ones of the editor : we do not perceive any additions from the author. · The papers communicated to the Royal Society are three only. The first is printed in the fifty-seventh volume of the Transactions, and contains an account of a remarkable degree of cold, January 18th, 1767, observed at Derby. The thermometer, at half an hour after nine in the evening, was i degree below 0.. The second paper is an Account of a Mode of raising Water by its Momentum. The machine was executed at Oulton in Cheshire, the seat of Mr. Egerton, for the service of a private brewhouse; and is a very fimple and commodious one. The third contains Experiments on ignited Bodies, to show that their weight is not increased by heating.
The attempt to attain invariable Measures of Length, &c. from the Menfuration of Time, we have only shortly noticed in our account of Mr. Keith's tract. His object was to obtain a measure of the greatest length that conveniency would allow, from the vibration of two pendulums, whose vibrations are in the ratio of 2 to 1; and the difference of whose lengths coincide with the English standard in whole numbers nearly. The first idea of the machine he ascribes with great candour to Mr. Hatton, who communicated it to the Society for the Improvement of Arts, &c. in confequence of their having offered a premium for this purpose. If the length of a seconds pendulum in the latitude of London is 39.2 inches, the length of one vibrating 42 times in a minute is found to be 80 inches, and another vibrating 84 times must be 20 inches, each vibrating in equal arcs. The difference, 60 inches, or 5 English yards, is the standard of length thus discovered. This, on trying the expsriment, was found not to be quite accurate, for it amounted to 59.892 inches, only from assuming the first to be 39.2 in tead of 39. I 196, its true measure.
CRIT. Rav. N. Ar. (III.) Feb. 1792. M. OF
. Of the machine itself we can convey no idea without the plate, but the rod is a flat tempered Iteel wire, of which do inches weigh only 3 grains. The editor, Dr. Hutton, calculates that, if this rod was square, it would be only the 228th part of an inch: the length and breadth are not given. The Other measures, as we have formerly had occasion to show, are easily derived from this invariable length; but our author's method is fingularly neat, clear, and ingenious. An Appendix, containing some elucidations, and a short defence cf the author, is added by Dr. Hutton.
On the whole, the merit of Mr. Whitehurst's works leads us to regret that they were not more numerous. His clear, accurate, comprehensive ideas, were usually explained in a style equally forcible and perfpicuous. Neither biafled by party or by prejudice, he examined nature with attention, and understood her works ably and accurately. If we except the Appendix, we are only indebted to the present editor for his care in conveying these tracts to the world in their present form: the Life was probably written by a different hand, and has been already inserted in the Universal Magazine. The materials are, however, said to have been furniihed by Mr. Whitehurst's relations.
I he Pope's Journey to the other Worlds, to seek Advice and Af
listance against the National Asembly of France. Svo. 25.
Jewed. Ridgway. 1791. ' W E remember a ludicrous poem, in which the pope is *
supposed to repair to the Pandæmonium of Satan triumphantly, to announce the gun-powder plot. But the French, for the two first parts are a translation, knowing probably more of papal tricks, have sent him to the regions above as well as those below, and conducted their tale with much humour; treading sometimes, with too little reverence, near sacred ground. The first part resembles, in the conduct, the old ballad of the Wife of Bath.
• Then his crown, 'broider'd caffock, and gold flippers on,
Holy saint! I put on what they give me; no more
« Now a sight fó nouvelle as a pope in high heaven,
But Peter, the Pope to his master convey'd.' In Heaven there was but one Pope: it was Gregory the Great : but in Hell, fit venia verbo, there was a numerous conclave. The conversation is humorous, and we shall tranfcribe a specimen :
• First spoke seventh Gregory-My blood, firs, runs cold,
Ah! said Pius, [ threaten’d, but that play is o'er,
Interdictions avail not, said Innocent Third,
For a Perigord Abbé, and Abbé Sieyes,
Cry'd Boniface Eighth, fill’d with fpiritual pride,
Ah ! says Pius, none now a days such reas'ning brings,
And the sun and the moon are the lights of the sky.'The third part is more wholesome in its tendency, but less entertaining. It is adapted professedly to the present disposition and situation of the English nation.
The Chart and Scale of Truth, by which to find the Cause of
Error. Lectures read before the University of Oxford, at the Lecture founded by the 'Rev. John Bampion, MM. A. By
Edward Tatham, D.D. (Concluded from Page 33.) THE second volume is prefaced with divers preliminary ob
servations on "The Logic of Theology ;' in which, the author labours to define its difference from the logic of human fciences. To comprehend this subject, Dr. Tatham remarks, that it is not enough for the student to read over, on the one hand, the bulky volumes of school-divinity with a dronish. and belotted industry, embracing whatever is advanced with an implicit assent; nor, on the other, to run through the gilded volumes of our modern fermonizers, which are calculated to relieve him from the trouble of thinking, and the labour of attention, and to kill an idle hour in all the enfe of an indolent Jiraight-forward reading. Theology is slated by this zealous divine to be the queen of sciences. To this all the other parts of learning should minister and subserve : 'the virgins that be her fellows should bear her company,' to cultivate the understanding, and to prepare the heart, for this sublimer application. : His first chapter is dedicated to the explanation of the
theological principle, and its effect upon the mind.' This appears to be a mere expansion of the maxim professedly borrowed from his good and constant friend Bacon ; viz. Allknowledge is allotted a twofold information; the one originating from fense, the other from inspiration. But we think that the doctor exceeds his instructions, and will not meet the assent of a great proportion of readers, when in asserting the supremacy of faith over reason, he maintains that the former 'immediately, and at one grafp, embraces' (i. e. comprehends) all the mysteries of religion, however dark and incomprehensible.' If this be the case, vain is the Organon of Aristotle, vain are all Charts and Scales of Truth, and just are the censures fulminated against the Stagyrite. Dr. Tatham should have recollected, that in order to establish the theologic system on his own favourite basis, it was by no means necessary to destroy the Aristotelian fabric. As a just instrument of reasoning, we believe it to be universal and immutable. That it may be perverted in the hands of the injudicious, or perplex the understanding of the weak, cannot be denied.
Our lecturer is not sufficiently aware of the ill consequences of too much depressing human reason, and human attainments, in order to exalt the power of divine agency on the mind. If right reason and true religion be set at variance by the professors of either, it will fare ill with the interests of both. Dr. Tatham thinks proper to assert that if Aristotle had been born under the gospel-dispensation, he would have destroyed all his logical works (which are stated to have been very disadvantageous to the Christian cause), and embraced Christianity. From the former part of this supposition we diffent wholly : and the latter is doubtful. As well might Euclid, or any other mathematician, who took nothing for granted without demonftration, have suppressed his labours, because a religious fystem was proposed, requiring faith without proof. Divine subjects would not have been esteemed cognisable by human initruments; as appears from the fact, that none of the ancient philofophers ever applied the rules of logic or mathematics to decide on the assertions of their religion : and we hope it is not imposible that Aristotle and Euclid might, in a Christian æra, have been as found believers as Locke or Newton. Instead of the evasive versatility of the Dialectic,' being 'calculated to thicken and confirm the cloud of ignorance and superstition which continues to invelope the greater part of the Chriftian church,' we believe that certain principles, which Dr. Tatham labours to establish, may rather be considered as the fruitful parents of superstition; and that those systems are most likely to enslave the minds of men, which wholly reject demonftration, and depreciate reason. M3