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answered, that he would speak. Then, quoth Mr. Stanhope, speak if you dare. I will speak, said the other: and thus they changed twice or thrice, if you dare speak, and I will speak. Then some other of the council willed him to sit down, and stop his ears; and so he returned to his company:

Then Mr. Stillington rose up, and went to the council, and Mr. Middleton went with him, and he said thus unto them; behold I beseech you, the extremity we suffer. And if, (as I told your worships yesterday) we be not above measure troubled in our minds with this usage, for God's sake, deal otherwise with us. The council made light of his words, and then all the prisoners rose up, and went forth of the place, towards the lower end of the hall from them, but still to their further hurt; for the keeper's and the council's men hauled them back, in angry mood, and threw some of them down upon the floor, and beat them, unreasonably ; so that Mr. Stanhope called unto them, and commanded them to hold their hands. Then the preacher began, and the prisoners began likewise to murmur, and make such a noise, that the preacher was forced to stay his speech. The council stood up, and commanded silence, and made the preacher to go forward with his

Then the prisoners stopped their ears with their fingers till the sermon was ended. The sermon being ended, Mr. Stillington hastily stood forth, thinking young Palmer had made the sermon, and called for an answer of the sermon he had promised before my Lord. Mr. Fowler courteously answered, he had said nothing to offend him; the other said, he had not heard what he said, but thought him to have been another man. Whilst Mr. Stillman thus spoke, the people broke over the bars, and thronged about him on every side, so desirous they were to hear him speak : then all the company came to, and some spoke to the council, and some to others about them, that the council was much offended thereat, and rose up and left them.

After dinner, Mr. Danby was sent for to come before my lord, who reproved him very sharply for his speeches at the hall. He answered, that he spoke nothing to offend them, but only in defence of his conscience. In the end, notwithstanding he was my lady's cousin, and descended of honour, my lord commanded him to be put into a dungeon, (a dangerous and disgraceful place, there to keep Christmas ; and gave orders, that all the rest of the catholics should be locked up close prisoners in their chambers; and thus they celebrated the joyful time of Christ's nativity, and the beginning of the year of Jubilee.

sermon.

CHAP. VII. What happened at the fifth sermon. From a letter of Mr. Stilling

ton's to the author, the 11th of January 11600. SIR,- This last Sunday, being twelfth-day, we were all hauled forth, save Mr. Holland, (a priest lately committed,) and one Mr. Sweeting, (in whose house he was taken,) and my lord came to the hall, and presently stood up and made a speech unto us, and mentioned what great favours were offered us by the state ; also by what fair means we have been invited to hear the word of God, and our obstinate refusal, and contemning the same. He said he had entered into consideration of these

things, and, upon a desire he had to have us taught, together with the advice of learned men, assuring himself of the lawfulness of this course, and that he might draw us unto it against our wills, he had resolved thus to force us, and though we refused never so much, yet would he make us to hear, with our outward ears, and if any of us were unquiet, and disturbed the preacher, he would severely punish such a one. Here you may observe, good sir, that the ministers are the causers of all these troubles unio us, and set my lord on us, knowing we may resist, and so bring him more against us, than ever by any persuasions they could themselves have drawn him, for they say, (being conscienceless men themselves,) that we refuse, only of will and of no conscience, which makes him to labour the more to overrule us.

When his honour had ended his speech, I stood up, and desired his lordship to give me leave to answer, and I would, by the same authority he had alledged out of Daniel, show our refusal good and lawful. My lord presently answered, I know, Stillington, that you are the ringleader, and ready to answer, but hold your peace, I command you ; you are a prisoner, and, therefore, I say again, hold your peace. I sat down, and divers of our company began to speak. Mr. Danby said, we came not to hear your sermons, and, though you hang us, or burn us, we will not hear them. Thomas Clitheroe said, My lord, if we be heretics, your grandfather was an heretic. My lord had said a little before, that we were all heretics; and at these speeches all the company almost in the hall laughed. Old Mr. Palmer began his sermon, and we all stopped our ears, and then came the jailors and pursuivants, and my lord's men, and took down our hands and held us, and so sat we, striving and doing all that sermon-time.

When the sermon was ended, Mr. Fenton stood up, and desired his honour to perform his promise, so honourably made unto us before that assembly, that we might have some learned men from Wisbich, to answer for us ignorant laymen. My lord gave him no answer, but, without speaking of one word, rose up angry and left us, giving order to the jailor, that we should be kept very straight, and that none, without special warrant, should come at us. And yesterday his honour sent for me to the manor, and, after I had done my duty, asked me, what his promise was to us, for having a priest to dispute ? I said, ' his honour promised us to have a learned priest from Wisbich, or London, whom we should name, to defend our cause against the preachers, or any seminary priest in the country that would, to come and go safe.

You say truth, (quoth he,) but that is more than I may do, or is fit to be allowed in our state. But if you will have any seminary priest or jesuit, that is within my commission, let him come, and I will assure, I will give him leave to come and go, but how he will be looked to aster, I cannot tell you.' I told his honour, • I knew of none that would come in and deal in that matter. Then my lord told me, that some of our company had reported largely of his promise, and had said, that he had promised us a jesuit to preach. I answered, that I had heard no such thing, and I thought none of our company would so overshoot themselves. And so my lord bid me farewell."

CHAP. VIII.—The sixth sermon, made by the archbishop himself, the 13th of

January THERE was a very great audience this day, at the hall. There were divers of the chief gentlemen of the country, there was the lord-mayor and his brethren, the aldermen of the city ; there were many lawyers and other gentlemen, and of other people, a very great multitude. The prisoners were hauled down, and placed within ihe rails, and the bishop in a chair over against them, at the other end. And after the lord president was come in, the two old priests, Sir George Rains and Sir Christopher Wharton stood both up together, and proffered to speak. The bishop stayed them, and said, they should have time to speak, but they should first hear, for they were brought to that place to hear, and not to preach; and presently began the sermon.

Whilst this was in hand, my lord president called for Mr. Stillington, that he should be brought from his company and placed before him at his feet. When he came thither, he stood up, and earnestly sued to my lord, that they might depart. He desired his honour, to be well persuaded of them, they were very loth to offend his lordship, but more loth to offend God. Straight my lord grew offended, the rather, because it was in sermon time, and the other, on purpose, urged that speech at that time, thinking that all the company would have done the like, and that so the bishop, (being troubled,) might, sooner than others that were at command, have taken occasion to have left that exercise, as verily it is like he would, for the speech went, that he disliked of that course. Mr. Stillington again desired my lord, to give him leave to speak, and told his honour that he had no will to offend him; and this made the bishop hold his speech, and more grieved my lord than before ; so that he grew very angry, and called him a rebellious fellow, and charged him to hold his speech. • He again answered, that he was as ready to serve her majesty, as any protestant there, with his body and goods, in all lawful sort, and desired his honour so to think of him.' Divers willed him to be silent, and his brother, Mr. Robert Stillington, a notable puritan, came to him, and asked him, what he meant, so to trouble the company; but he gave him no answer, that I can learn of, but still applied to my lord. My lord struck at him with his staff, and called him rebel, and said, he would hang him the next week, at the jail delivery; and lastly, as marvelling at his standing, said, . what, are you a priest, that you are so earnest ? And one of the council, answered, I do think he is so.

And then my lord stood up, and charged them upon their allegiance, to be silent, and not to stop their ears.

The bishop again began to preach, and the most of the prisoners stopped their ears. And Mr. Stillington, sitting at my lord's feet, laid both his hands

upon
his ears.

Then he commanded two of his gentlemen, Mr. Chapman and Mr. Philip Stapleton, to hold down his hands, so, sitting of either side, they took his hands, and held them forth, that he lay all that sermon-time, as if he had been upon a cross. They took his bible from him, and found certain notes in it, whereof, was given out, that they touched matters of state, and that he should be ged at that jail delivery, being the Tuesday following.

When the bishop had made an end, he willed Mr. Stillington should

stand up, and then he spoke to him, and said something of my lord's purpose in hauling them to the sermons, in which speech, he plainly delivered, that he thought it unlawful to haul them to church, or to force them to receive any sacrament, and, therefore, that place was chosen, being a piece of their prison, for them to hear the word of God. Mr. Stillington began to answer something, but the president staid his speech, and said, my lord archbishop should not hear him, nor should he have that favour to speak, seeing he would not hear them; and so they departed, and order was given, to put Mr. Stillington into the dungeon, and to put Mr. Danby, Mr. Gascoigne, Robert Hallely, John Thackwraie, Thomas Newet, Edward Saughell, and Jerome Bolton, into the low house, among thieves.

CHAP IX.-The seventh sermon, made by Mr. Goodwin,

This day, the prisoners were purposed to speak and make a noise, without ceasing, till the council should leave them, or send them away; and therefore, they began with the preacher, to make a noise, and some said aloud, we came not hither of ourselves, and we will not hear your sermons : others said, we beseech you, let us depart; and others spoke otherwise, and all continued speaking, that neither the preacher nor the council could be heard. The council stood up and demanded silence, but it was not respected. Then Mr. Ferne, called to Mr. Stillington, and said, all this disorder was along of him; and that he should answer for all ; but they all replied, he has no charge of our souls : we speak of ourselves, and for our own discharge. Then, they blamed Mr. Danby, for he spoke very freely, and a note above the rest, and still they desired that they might be sent away. Dr. Bennet went from the bench unto them, and desired them, but now to hear Mr. Goodwin speak in a civil manner unto them; and then they staid their speech.

After dinner, Mr. Danby was sent for to the manor, and my lord sharply reproved him for this matter, and assigned him again to the dungeon ; and, that Thomas Whelehouse and Thomas Clitheroe should be double fettered, and be put into the low house with the thieves : and, on Wednesday following: (as God would,) came a fellow, and complained of some wrong sustained by Mr. Danby, about his farmhold, and craved remedy of my lord. Upon this occasion, my lord sent for Mr. Danby out of the dungeon, and heard the cause, and found the fellow had sustained no wrong; but hearing of Mr. Danby's disgrace with my lord, thought, then to get some advantage against him. This business despatched, Mr. Danby gave a petition to my lord, for his delivery out of the dungeon : and my lord asked him, Why he spoke so much ? I must either speak, quoth he, or stop my ears.

Well then, quoth my lord, do you stop your ears, and hinder not others that would hear. And thus, Mr. Danby was delivered out of the dungeon.

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CHAP. XI.— The prisoners' behaviour at the ninth sermon, made by Mr. Cook.

This week, they changed the sermon day from Sunday to Friday, because these sporting preachers, drew most of the audience from the cathedral to the castle, and so made the congregation there very small, to the great disgrace of their gospel. This day the council being set, and the preacher in his place before all the prisoners were hauled down, in this space, one Edward Soughell, a good poor man, went to Mr. Cook, the preacher, and said thus unto him, sir, you use us strangely in hauling us thus against our wills. I beseech you, satisfy us, if you can, by some authority out of the word of God, that ehristians may be thus used, or by some example, that good christians ever used heretics after this manner. The preacher would give him no answer; but said, he was come there to preach, and willed them to hear him, and then to lay all their heads together, and answer what they could. The poor old sickly man, again instantly desired him for Christ's sake, to give him some answer hereunto : but Cook, for all his learning, was silent to this question, and would make no answer. He began his sermon, and they all stopped their ears ; and then, he said, he had purposed to speak to these asps, meaning the catholics, but seeing they stopped their ears, and would not hear, he would direct his speech to another audience. The sermon ended, they all departed : and, in the afternoon, Mr. Stillington and Mr. Danby were sent for to the manor, before my lord and the council. The manner of their usage, I will recite out of one of Mr. Stillington's letters, as follows :

Mr. Danby and I were sent for to the manor, the last day, and carried by several keepers, that we should not speak, one to the other in the way, so careful are they to bar us of all comfort one of another. When we came into my lord's bed-chamber, there was Mr. Cook standing at the table, and divers books before him. My lord, at the first, began a very sharp speech unto us, and reproved us for stopping our ears, and called us swine and hogs, that despised the word of God, and threatened great punishments to them, that again should dare to stop their ears. I told his lordship, we were of another religion, and it was against our consciences to hear their sermons; and, therefore, we could do no less, being hauled thither, than to stop our ears in sign of dislike ; and it was a means also (keeping us from hearing) to keep us from answering and speaking; by which we should more offend them and the laws, than by stopping our ears.

CHAP. XII.— The tenth Sermon preached by Mr. Bunny. All the sermon time they stopped their ears, which offended so much, that in the afternoon, there came a warrant to put Mr. Stillington and Mr. Danby, both, into the dungeon. What, quoth Mr. Stillington, will my lord have us both in the dungeon ? the place will hardly hold us, being little more than three feet wide. There is no remedy, quoth the keeper, I am commanded to put you both there : and the next

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