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earliest years, I believed that the initia- weary of scepticism, egotism, and moral tive of the third life of Europe would anarchy, receive the new faith with spring from the heart, the action, the acclamations. I saw a new pact foundenthusiasm and sacrifice of our people, ed upon that faith,

a pact of united I heard within me the grand voice of action in the work of human perfectiRome sounding once again, hailed and bility, involving none of the evils or accepted with loving reverence by the dangers of the former pact, because peoples, and telling of moral unity and among the first consequences of a faith fraternity in a faith common to all hu- founded upon the dogma of progress manity. It was not the unity of the would be the justification of heresy, as past, - which, though sacred and con- either a promise or endeavor after producive to civilization for many centu- gress in the future. ries, did but emancipate individual The vision which brightened my first man, and reveal to him an ideal of lib- dream of country has vanished, so far erty and equality only to be realized in as concerns my own life. Even if that Heaven : it was a new unity, emanci- vision be ever fulfilled, - as I believe pating collective humanity, and reveal- it will be, - I shall be in the tomb. ing the formula of Association, through May the young, as yet uncorrupted which liberty and equality are destined by scepticism, prepare the way for its to be realized here on earth ; sanctify- realization; and may they, in the name ing the earth and rendering it what of our national tradition and the future, God wills it should be, a stage upon unceasingly protest against all who the path of perfection, a means given seek to immobilize human life in the to man wherewith to deserve a higher name of a dogma extinct, or to deand nobler existence hereafter.

grade it by diverting it from the eternal And I saw Rome, in the name of worship of the Ideal. God and Republican Italy, substituting The religious question is pre-eminent a declaration of PRINCIPLES for the bar- over every other at the present day, ren declaration of rights, - principles and the moral question is indissolubly the logical consequences of the parent linked with it. We are bound either idea, PROGRESS, — and revealing to the to solve these, or renounce all idea of nations a common aim, and the basis an Italian mission in the world. of a new religion. And I saw Europe,

JOSEPH MAZZINI.

REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.

Miss Ravonel's Conversion from Secession to perfect roads, no doubt, and it may be that

Loyalty. By J. W. DE FORREST, New our social ways have only just now settled York : Harper and Brothers.

into such a state as makes smooth going

for the novelist; nevertheless, the old stageThe light, strong way in which our au- coach was hard to travel in, and what with thor goes forward in this story from the first, drafts upon one's good nature for assistance, and does not leave difficulty to his readers, it must be confessed that our novelists have is pleasing to those accustomed to find an been rather trying to their readers. It is American novel a good deal like the now well enough with us all while the road is extinct American stage-coach, whose passen- good, - a study of individual character, a gers not only walked over bad pieces of road, bit of landscape, a stretch of well-worn plot, but carried fence-rails on their shoulders to gentle slopes of incident; but somewhere pry the vehicle out of the sloughs and miry on the way the passengers are pretty sure to places. It was partly the fault of the im- be asked to step out, — the ladies to walk on ahead, and the gentlemen to fetch fence. his duty to contribute towards the payment rails.

of the accumulated interest in the events of Our author imagines a Southern loyalist the war, by relating his work to them; and and his daughter sojourning in New Boston, the heroes of young-lady writers in the magBarataria, during the first months of the azines have been everywhere fighting the war. Dr. Ravenel has escaped from New låte campaigns over again, as young ladies Orleans just before the Rebellion began, would have fought them. We do not say and has brought away with him the most that this is not well, but we suspect that sarcastic and humorous contempt and ab- Mr. De Forrest is the first to treat the war horrence of his late fellow.citizens, while really and artistically. His campaigns do his daughter, an ardent and charming little not try the reader's constitution, his battles blonde Rebel, remembers Louisiana with are not bores. His soldiers are the soldiers longing and blind admiration. The Doctor, we actually know, — the green wood of the born in South Carolina, and living all his volunteers, the warped stuff of men torn days among slaveholders and slavery, has from civilization and cast suddenly into the not learned to love either ; but Lillie dif- barbarism of camps, the hard, dry, tough, fers from him so widely as to scream with true fibre of the veterans that came out of joy when she hears of Bull Run. Natural- the struggle. There could hardly be a betly she cannot fall in love with Mr. Col. ter type of the conscientious and patriotic burne, the young New Boston lawyer, who soldier than Captain Colburne ; and if goes into the war conscientiously for his Colonel Carter must not stand as type of country's sake, and resolved for his own to the officers of the old army, he must be acmake himself worthy and lovable in Lillie's knowledged as true to the semi-civilization blue eyes by destroying and desolating all of the South. On the whole he is more enthat she holds dear. It requires her mar. tertaining than Colburne, as immoral people riage with Colonel Carter - a Virginia gen- are apt to be to those who suffer nothing tleman, a good-natured drunkard and roué from them. “His contrasts of slanginess and soldier of fortune on our side — to make and gentility, his mingled audacity and insouher see Colburne's worth, as it requires ciance of character, and all the picturesque some comparative study of New Orleans ins and outs of his moral architecture, so and New Boston, on her return to her own different from the severe plainness of the city, to make her love the North. Bereft spiritual temples common in New Boston," of her husband by his own wicked weak- do take the eye of peace-bred Northerners, ness, and then widowed, she can at last though never their sympathy. Throughout, wisely love and marry Colburne ; and, we admire, as the author intends, Carter's cured of Secession by experiencing on her thorough and enthusiastic soldiership, and father's account the treatment received by we perceive the ruins of a generous nature L'nionists in New Orleans, her conversion in his aristocratic Virginian pride, his Virto loyalty is a question of time duly settled ginian profusion, his imperfect Virginian before the story ends.

sense of honor. When he comes to be We sketch the plot without compunction, shot, fighting bravely at the head of his for these people of Mr. De Forrest's are so column, after having swindled his governunlike characters in novels as to be like ment, and half unwillingly done his worst people in life, and none will wish the less to break his wife's heart, we feel that our to see them because he knows the outline side has lost a good soldier, but that the of their history. Not only is the plot good world is on the whole something better for and very well managed, but there is scarce. our loss. The reader must go to the novel ly a feebly painted character or scene in the itself for a perfect conception of this charbook. As to the style, it is so praiseworthy acter, and preferably to those dialogues in that we will not specifically censure occa- which Colonel Carter so freely takes part ; sional defects, – for the most part, slight for in his development of Carter, at least, turgidities notable chiefly from their con- Mr. De Forrest is mainly dramatic.

Intrast to the prevailing simplicity of the nar- deed, all the talk in the book is free and rative.

natural, and, even without the hard swearOur war has not only left us the burden ing which distinguishes the speech of some, of a tremendous national debt, but has laid it would be difficult to mistake one speaker upon our literature a charge under which it for another, as often happens in novels. has hitherto staggered very lamely. Every The character of Dr. Ravenel, though so author who deals in fiction feels it to be simple, is treated in a manner invariably

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delightful and engaging. His native purity, sympathy only and always with what is amiability, and generosity, which a life-long brave and true in life. contact with slavery could not taint; his cordial scorn of Southern ideas; his fine and flawless instinct of honor ; his warm- A Journey to Ashango-Land: and further hearted courtesy and gentleness, and his Penetration into Equatorial Africa. By gayety and wit; his love of his daughter Paul B. DU CHAILLU. With Maps and and of mineralogy; his courage, modesty, Illustrations. New York: D. Appleand humanity, - these are the traits which ton & Co. recur in the differing situations with constant pleasure to the reader.

SOMEWHERE in the heart of the Afri. Miss Lillie Ravenel is as charming as can continent, Mr. Du Chaillu, laying her adored papa, and is never less nor his head upon a rock, aster a day of unmore than a bright, lovable, good, con- common hardship, finds reason to lament stant, inconsequent woman. It is to her the ungratefulness of the traveller's fate, that the book owes its few scenes of ten- which brings him, through perilous advenderness and sentiment ; but she is by no ture and great suffering, to the incre. means the most prominent character in the dulity and coldness of a public unable to novel, as the infelicitous title would imply, receive his story with perfect faith. It is and she serves chiefly to bring into strong- such a meditation as ought to reproach er relief the traits of Colonel Carter and very keenly the sceptics who doubted Mr. Doctor Ravenel. The author seems not Du Chaillu's first book; it certainly renews even to make so much study of her as of in the reader of the present work the satisMrs. Larue, a lady whose peculiar char- faction felt in the comparative reasonableacter is skilfully drawn, and who will be ness of the things narrated, and his consequite probable and explicable to any who quent ability to put an unmurmuring trust have studied the traits of the noble Latin in the author. Here, indeed, is very little race, and a little puzzling to those acquaint- of the gorilla whom we formerly knew : ed only with people of Northern civiliza- his ferocity is greatly abated; he only once tion. Yet in Mrs. Larue the author comes beats his breast and roars; he does not near making his failure. There is a little twist gun-barrels; his domestic habits are too much of her, — it is as if the wily en- much simplified ; his appearance here is relchantress had cast her glamour upon the atively as unimportant as Mr. Pendennis's author himself, — and there is too much in the “Newcomes ”; he is a deposed hero; anxiety that the nature of her intrigue with and Mr. Du Chaillu pushes on to AshangoCarter shall not be misunderstood. Never- Land without him. Otherwise, moreover, theless, she bears that stamp of verity which the narrative is quite credible, and, so far, marks all Mr. De Forrest's creations, and unattractive, though there is still enough which commends to our forbearance rather of incident to hold the idle, and enough more of the highly colored and strongly- of information in the appendices concernflavored parlance of the camps than could ing the characteristics of the African skulls otherwise have demanded reproduction in collected by Du Chaillu, the geographical literature. The bold strokes with which and astronomical observations made en such an amusing and heroic reprobate as route, and the linguistic peculiarities noted, Van Zandt and such a pitiful poltroon as to interest the scientific. The book is perGazaway are painted, are no less admirable haps not a fortunate one for those who than the nice touches which portray the occupy a place between these classes of Governor of Barataria, and some phases of readers, and who are tempted to ask of Mr. the aristocratic, conscientious, truthful, an- Du Chaillu, Have you really four hundred gular, professorial society of New Boston, and thirty-seven royal octavo pages of news with its young college beaux and old col- to tell us of Equatorial Africa ? lege belles, and its life pure, colorless, and Our traveller landed in West Africa in cold to the eye as celery, yet full of rich the autumn of 1863, and, after a short exand wholesome juices. It is the goodness cursion in the coast country in search of of New Boston, and of New England, which, the gorilla, he ascended the Fernand Vaz however unbeautiful, has elevated and saved in a steamer seventy miles, to Goumbi, our whole national character; and in his whence he proceeded by canoe to Obindji. book there is sufficient evidence of our au- Here, provided with a retinue of one hunthor's appreciation of this fact, as well as of dred men of the Commi nation, his over. land journey began, and led him through he found the inhabitants comparatively the hilly country of the Bakalai southeast- hostile and distrustful, and in firing off a wardly to the village of Olenda. From this salute, - with the double purpose of intimipoint, before continuing his route, he visit- dating them and restoring them to confied the falls of the Samba Nagoshi, some dence, - one of his retinue accidentally shot fifty miles to the northward, and Adingo two of the villagers. All hopes of friendly Village, twenty miles below Olenda. Start- intercourse and of further progress were ing anew after these excursions, he pene- now at an end, and Du Chaillu began a trated the continent, on a line deflecting rapid retreat, his men casting away in a little south of east, as far as Mouaou their flight his photographs, journals, and Kombo, which is something more than note-books, and hopelessly impairing the two hundred miles from the sea.

value of the possible narrative which he In first landing from his ship, Mr. Du might survive to write. Chaillu lost his astronomical instruments, Such narrative as he has actually writand was obliged to wait in the coast coun- ten, we have briefly sketched. Its fault is try until a new supply could be obtained want of condensation and of graphic power, from England. Midway on his journey to so that, although you must follow the travMouaou Kombo, his photographic appara- eller through his difficulties and dangers, it tus was stolen, and the chemicals were, as is quite as much by effort of sympathy as he supposes, swallowed by the robbers, to by reason of interest that you do so. For some of whom their dishonest experiments in the paucity of result from all the labor and photography proved fatal. The traveller's hardship undergone, the author - considermeans of usefulness were limited to obser- ing the losses of material he sustained — vation of the general character of the coun- cannot be justly criticised; but certainly try, some investigation of its vegetable and the bulk of his volume makes its meagre animal life, and study of the customs of its substance somewhat too apparent. human inhabitants,- in none of which does he develop much variety or novelty.

Nearly the whole route lay through hilly Liffith Lank, or Lunacy. By C. H. WEBB. or mountainous country, for the most part New York : Carleton. thickly wooded and sparsely peopled. There St: Twelmo, or the Cuneiform Cyclopedist of was a very notable absence of all the larger Chattanooga. By C. H. WEBB. New African animals, and those encountered York: C. H. Webb. seemed to be as peaceful in their characters as their neighbors, the tribes of wild men. In the first of these clever and successful The nations through which Du Chaillu burlesques, Mr. Webb has travestied rather passed after leaving the Commi were the the ideas than the manner of Mr. Reade ; Ashira, the Ishogo, the Apono, and the and one who turned to “ Liffith Lank” Ashango, and none appears to have differed from the wonderful parodies in “ Punch's greatly from the others except in name. In Prize Novelists,” or those exquisitely fin. habits they are all extremely alike, unit ished pieces of mimicry, the “Condensed ing a primitive simplicity of costume and Novelists” of the Californian Harte, would architecture to highly sophisticated traits of feel its want of fidelity to the method and lying and stealing. They are not warlike, style of the author burlesqued. Yet the and not very cruel, except in cases of witch- essential absurdities of “Griffith Gaunt" craft, which are extremely dealt with, are most amusingly brought out in “Lif. indeed, they used to be in New England. fith Lank”; and as the little work makes Fetichism is the only religion of these tribes, the reader laugh at the great one, he has and they seem to believe firmly in no su- no right, perhaps, to ask more of it, or to perior powers but those of evil. They complain that it trusts too much to the are docile, however, and susceptible of con- facile pun for its effects, which are oftener trol. Du Chaillu had the misfortune to broad than poignant. spread the small - pox among them from Nevertheless, in spite of our logical consome infected members of his train ; and tent with “Liffith Lank,” we are very glad although all their superstitious fears were to find “ St. Twel'mo" much better, and we excited against him, the people were held only doubt whether the game is worth the in check by their principal men ; and Du candle; but as the candle is Mr. Webb's, Chaillu met with no serious molestation he can burn it, we suppose, upon whatever until he reached Mouaou Kombo. Here occasion he likes. He has here made a

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closer parody than in his first effort, and Backwoodsman,” a poem ; the Salmagundi has lost nothing of the peculiar power with papers in a second series; “Koningsmarke, which he there satirized ideas. That quality the Long Finne, a story of the New World," of the Bronté sisters, of which Miss Evans in two volumes ; "The Merry Tales of the of Mobile is one of the many American di- Three Wise Men of Gotham,” satirizing lutions, — that quality by which any sort Owen's theories of society, law, and science; of masculine wickedness and brutality short “The New Mirror for Travellers, and of refusing ladies seats in horse-cars is Guide to the Springs,” a satire of fashionmade lovely and attractive to the well- able life in the days before ladies with sevread and well-bred of the sex, - is very enty-five trunks were born ; " Tales of the pleasantly derided, while the tropical luxu- Good Woman,” a collection of short storiance of general information characteristic ries; “A Life of Washington”; “ American of " St. Elmo " is unsparingly ridiculed, Comedies”; “The Old Continental,” and with the help of frequent extracts from the “The Puritan and his Daughter,” historical novel itself.

novels; and innumerable political papers of Mr. Webb appears in “St. Twel’mo " as a serious or a satirical sort. As it has been both publisher and author, and, with a good the purpose of the author of this memoir to feeling significant of very great changes let Paulding's life in great part develop itin the literary world since a poet toasted self from his letters, so it has also been his Napoleon because he hanged a bookseller, plan to spare comment on his father's litdedicates his little work "To his best erary labors, and to allow their character to friend and nearest relative, the publisher.” be estimated by extracts from his poems,

romances, and satires.

From these we

gather the idea of greater quantity than The Literary Life of James K. Paulding quality; of a poetical taste rather than poCompiled by his Son, William I. Paul- etic faculty; of a whimsical rather than a

New York: Charles Scribner humorous or witty man. There is a very and Company

marked resemblance to Washington Ir

ving's manner in the prose, which is inevi. JAMES K. PAULDING was born in 1778 at tably, of course, less polished than that of Great-Nine Partners, in Dutchess County, the more purely literary man, and which is New York, and nineteen years later came apt to be insipid and strained in greater deto the city of New York to fill a clerkship gree in the same direction. It would not in a public office. His family was related be just to say that Paulding's style was to that of Washington Irving by marriage; formed upon that of Irving ; but both had he was himself united to Irving by literary given their days and nights to the virtuous sympathy and ambition, and the two young poverty of the essayists of the last century; men now formed a friendship which endured and while one grew into something fresher through life. They published the Salma- and more original by dint of long and gundi papers together, and they always cor- constant literary effort, the other, writing responded; but with Irving literature be only occasionally, remained an old-fashcame all in all, and with Paulding a favorite ioned mannerist to the last. When he died, relaxation from political life and a merely he passed out of a world in which Macaulay, collateral pursuit. He wrote partisan satires Dickens, Thackeray, and Hawthorne had and philippics, waxing ever more bitter never lived. The last delicacy of touch is against the party to which Irving belonged, wanting in all his work, whether verse or and against England, where Irving was tast- prose ; yet the reader, though unsatisfied, ing the sweets of appreciation and success. does not turn from it without respect. If it He came to be Navy Agent at New York is second-rate, it is not tricksy ; its dulness in 1823, and in 1838 President Van Bu- is not antic, but decorous and quiet ; its ren made him his Secretary of the Navy. dignity, while it bores, enforces a sort of Three years later he retired from public reverence which we do not pay to the ineflife, and spent his remaining days in the fectual fire-works of our own more pyrotranquil and uneventful indulgence of his technic literary time. literary tastes.

Of Paulding himself one thinks, after Dying in 1859, he had survived nearly all reading the present memoir, with much his readers, and the present memoir was re- regard and some regret. He was a sturdy quired to remind many, and to inform more, patriot and cordial democrat, but he seems of the existence of such works as “The not to have thought human slavery so very

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