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Which of these doctrines will be eminence of the fatherland over indimost potent to lead our nation to high viduals, and the certainty that their things? Let us not forget that, although devotion and martyrdom will, in the the educated, intellectual, and virtuous fulness of time, advance the honor, may be willing to admit that the well- greatness, or virtue of their nation ? being of the individual should be found- There are materialists, illogical and ed - even at the cost of sacrifice — up- carried away by the impulses of a heart on the well-being of the many, the ma- superior to their doctrines, who do both jority will, as they always have done, feel and act upon this worship of the understand their well-being to mean ideal; but materialism denies it. Matheir positive satisfaction or enjoyment; terialism, as a doctrine, only recognizes they will reject the notion of sacrifice in the universe a finite and determinate as painful, and endeavor to realize their quantity of matter, gifted with a definite own happiness, even to the injury of number of properties, and susceptible others. They will seek it one day from of modification, but not of progress; in liberty, the next from the deceitful which certain productive forces act by promises of a despot; but the practical the fortuitous agglomeration of circumresult of encouraging them to strive for stances not to be predicated or foreseen, the realization of their own happiness or through the necessary succession of as a right, will inevitably be to lead causes and effects, -of events inevitable them to the mere gratification of their and independent of all human action. own individual egotism.

Materialism admits neither the inIf you reject all supreme law, all tervention of any creative intelligence, Providential guidance, all aim, all obli- Divine initiative, nor human free-will; gation imposed by the belief in a mis- by denying the law-giving Intellect, it sion towards humanity, you have no denies all intelligent Providential law; right to prescribe your conception of and the philosophy of the squirrel in its well-being to others, as worthier or cage, which men term Pantheism at the better. You have no certain basis, no present day, by confounding the subject principle upon which to found a system and the object in one, cancels alike the of education ; you have nothing left but Ego and non-Ego, good and evil, God force, if you are strong enough to im- and man, and, consequently, all individpose it. Such was the method adopted ual mission or free-will. The wretched by the French Revolutionists, and they, doctrine, recognizing no higher historic in their turn, succumbed to the force of formula than the necessary alternation others, without knowing in the name of of vicissitudes, condemns humanity to what to protest. And you would have tread eternally the same circle, being to do the same. Without God, you incapable of comprehending the conmust either accept anarchy as the nor- ception of the spiral path of indefinite mal condition of things, — and this is progress upon which humanity traces impossible, — or you must seek your its gradual ascent towards an ideal beauthority in the force of this or that yond. individual, and thus open the way to Strange contradiction! Men whose despotism and tyranny.

aim it is to combat the practice of egoBut what then becomes of the idea of tism instilled into the Italian people by progress ? - what of the conception we tyranny, to inspire them with a sacred have lately gained from historic science devotion to the fatherland, and make of the gradual but infallible education of them a great nation, the artificer of of humanity, — of the link of solidary the progress of humanity, present as ascending life which unites succeeding the first intellectual food of this peogenerations, — of the duty of sacrific- ple now awakening to new life, whose ing, if need be, the present generation whole strength lies in their good in10 the elevation and morality of the stincts and virginity of intellect, a thegenerations of the future, -of the pre- ory the ultimate consequences of which

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man conscience and intuition, to limit from their long habit of slavery, of rethemselves to the mechanism of ana- lapsing into egotism. lytical observation, and substitute their Now the tendency of the doctrines narrow, undirected physiology for biol- of materialism is to lead the mass to ogy

and psychology, - if then, finding egotism through the path of interest. themselves unable by that imperfect Therefore it grieves me to hear them method to comprehend the primary preached by many worthy but inconlaws and origin of things, they child- siderate young men amongst us; and ishly deny the existence of such laws, I conjure them, by all they hold most and declare all humanity before their sacred, to meditate deeply the moral time to have been deluded and inca- consequences of the doctrines they pable, so be it. Nor should I, had preach, and especially to study their Italy been a nation for half a century, effect in the case of a neighboring nahave regarded their doctrines as fraught tion, which carried negation to the with any real danger. Humanity will extreme during the past century, and not abandon its appointed path for which we behold at the present day utthem; and to hear them — in an age terly corrupted by the worship of temin which the discoveries of all great porary and material interest, disinheritthinkers combine to demonstrate the ed of all noble activity, and sunk in the existence of an intelligent preordained degradation and infamy of slavery. law of unity and progress-spouting Every error is a crime in those whose materialism in the name of science, be- duty it is to watch over the cradle of a cause they have skimmed a volume of nation. Vogt, or attended a lecture by Mole- Either we must admit the idea of a schott, might rather move to God, — of the moral law, which is an amusement than anger.

emanation from him, — and the idea of But Italy is not a nation ; she is on- human duty, freely accepted by manly in the way to become one. And the kind, as the practical consequence of present is therefore a moment of grave that law, or we must admit the idea importance ; for, even as the first ex- of a ruling force of things, and its pracamples set before infancy, so the first tical consequence, the worship of indilessons taught to a people emerging vidual force or success, the omnipofrom a long past of error and corrup- tence of fact. From this dilemma there tion, and hesitating as to the choice of is no escape. its future, may be of serious import. Either we must accept the sovereignThe doctrines of federalism, which, if ty of an aim prescribed by conscience, preached in France at the present in which all the individuals composing day, would be but an innocent Utopia, a nation are bound to unite, and the threatened the dissolution of the coun- pursuit of which constitutes the nationtry during the first years of the Revo- ality of a given people among the many lution. They laid bare the path for of which humanity is composed, foreign conquest, and roused the Moun- aim recognized by them all, and supetain to bloody and terrible means of re- rior to them all, and therefore religpression.

ious; or we must accept the soverSuch for us are the wretched doc- eignty of the right, arbitrarily defined, trines of which I speak. Fate has set of each nation, and its practical consebefore us a great and holy mission, quences, the pursuit by each indi. which, if we fail to accomplish it now, vidual of his own interest and his own may be postponed for half a century. well-being, the satisfaction of his own Every delay, every error, may be fatal. desires, - and the impossibility of any And the people through whom we have sovereign duty, to which all the citito work are uneducated, liable to ac- zens, from those who govern down to cept any error which wears a semblance the humblest of the governed, owe obeof war against the past, and in danger, dience and sacrifice.

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Which of these doctrines will be eminence of the fatherland over indimost potent to lead our nation to high viduals, and the certainty that their things? Let us not forget that, although devotion and martyrdom will, in the the educated, intellectual, and virtuous fulness of time, advance the honor, may be willing to admit that the well- greatness, or virtue of their nation ? being of the individual should be found- There are materialists, illogical and ed - even at the cost of sacrifice up- carried away by the impulses of a heart on the well-being of the many, the ma- superior to their doctrines, who do both jority will, as they always have done, feel and act upon this worship of the understand their well-being to mean ideal ; but materialism denies it. Matheir positive satisfaction or enjoyment; terialism, as a doctrine, only recognizes they will reject the notion of sacrifice in the universe a finite and determinate

a as painful, and endeavor to realize their quantity of matter, gifted with a definite own happiness, even to the injury of number of properties, and susceptible others. They will seek it one day from of modification, but not of progress; in liberty, the next from the deceitful which certain productive forces act by promises of a despot; but the practical the fortuitous agglomeration of circumresult of encouraging them to strive for stances not to be predicated or foreseen, the realization of their own happiness or through the necessary succession of as a right, will inevitably be to lead causes and effects, -of events inevitable them to the mere gratification of their and independent of all human action. own individual egotism.

Materialism admits neither the inIf you reject all supreme law, all tervention of any creative intelligence, Providential guidance, all aim, all obli- Divine initiative, nor human free-will; gation imposed by the belief in a mis- by denying the law-giving Intellect, it sion towards humanity, you have no denies all intelligent Providential law; right to prescribe your conception of and the philosophy of the squirrel in its well-being to others, as worthier or cage, which men term Pantheism at the better. You have no certain basis, no present day, by confounding the subject principle upon which to found a system and the object in one, cancels alike the of education ; you have nothing left but Ego and non-Ego, good and evil, God force, if you are strong enough to im- and man, and, consequently, all individpose it. Such was the method adopted ual mission or free-will. The wretched by the French Revolutionists, and they, doctrine, recognizing no higher historic in their turn, succumbed to the force of formula than the necessary alternation others, without knowing in the name of of vicissitudes, condemns humanity to what to protest. And you would have tread eternally the same circle, being to do the same. Without God, you incapable of comprehending the conmust either accept anarchy as the nor- ception of the spiral path of indefinite mal condition of things, — and this is progress upon which humanity traces impossible, - or you must seek your its gradual ascent towards an ideal beauthority in the force of this or that yond. individual, and thus open the way to Strange contradiction! Men whose despotism and tyranny.

aim it is to combat the practice of egoBut what then becomes of the idea of tism instilled into the Italian people by progress ? — what of the conception we tyranny, to inspire them with a sacred have lately gained from historic science devotion to the fatherland, and make of the gradual but infallible education of them a great nation, the artificer of of humanity, — of the link of solidary the progress of humanity, present as ascending life which unites succeeding the first intellectual food of this peogenerations, - of the duty of sacrific- ple now awakening to new life, whose ing, if need be, the present generation whole strength lies in their good into the elevation and morality of the stincts and virginity of intellect, a thegenerations of the future, - of the pre- ory the ultimate consequences of which

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are to establish egotism upon a basis idea, which find expression in our counof right!

try at the present day in the betrayal They call upon their people worthily of national duty by our higher classes, to carry on the grand traditions of their and in the stupid resignation of our past, when all around them— popes, princes, military leaders, literati, and the servile herd — have either insolent

IV. ly trampled liberty under foot, or deserted its cause in cowardly indiffer- I INVOKE the rising -- and I should ence; and they preach to them a die consoled, even in exile, could I see doctrine which deprives them of every the first signs of its advent, but this I pledge of future progress, every stimu- dare not hope — I invoke the rising of lus to affection, every noble aspiration a truly Italian school ; - a school which, towards sacrifice, – they take from them comprehending the causes of the downthe faith that inspires confidence in fall of the Papacy, and the impotence victory, and renders even the defeat of of the merely negative doctrine which to-day fruitful of triumph on the mor- our Italian youth have borrowed from row. The same men who urge upon superficial French materialists and the them the duty of shedding their blood German copyists, should elevate itself for an idea begin by declaring to them: above both, and come forward to anThere is no hope of any future for you. nounce the approaching and inevitable Faith in immortality the lesson trans- religious transformation which will put mitted to you by all past humanity is an end to the existing divorce between a falsehood; a breath of air, or trifling thought and action, and to the crisis of want of equilibrium in the animal func- egotism and immorality through which tions, destroys you wholly and forever. Europe is passing. There is even no certainty that the re- I invoke the rising of a school dessults of your labors will endure; there tined to prepare the way for the initiais no Providential law or 'design, con- tive of Italy; - which shall, on the one sequently no possible theory of the fu- side, undertake the examination of the ture; you are but building up to-day dogma upon which Catholicism was what any unforeseen fact, blind force, founded, and prove it to be worn out, or fortuitous circumstance may over- exhausted, and in contradiction to our throw to-morrow.

new conception of life and its laws; and, They teach these brothers of theirs, on the other hand, the refutation of mawhom they desire to elevate and enno- terialism under whatsoever form it may ble, that they are but dust,-a neces- present itself, and prove that it also is in sary, unconscious secretion of I know contradiction of that new conception, — not what material substance; that the that it is a stupid, fatal negation of all thought of a Kepler or Dante is dust, or moral law, of human free-will, of our rather phosphorus; that genius, from every sacred hope, and of the calm and Prometheus to Jesus, brought down no constant virtue of sacrifice. divine spark from heaven; that the mor- I invoke a school which shall philoal law, free-will, merit, and the conse- sophically develop all the consequences, quent progress of the Ego, are illusions; the germ of which — neglected or igth events are successively our mas- nored by superficial intellects — is conters, - inexorable, irresponsible, and in- tained in the word Progress considered superable to human will.

as a new term in the great historical And they see not that they thus con- synthesis, the expression of the ascendfirm that servile submission to the ing advance of humanity from epoch accomplished fact, that doctrine of op- to epoch, from religion to religion, toportunity, that bastard Machiavellism, wards a vaster conception of its own that worship of temporary interests, aim and its own law. and that indifference to every great I invoke the rising of a school des

tined to demonstrate to the youth of Italy as I have said - is a religItaly that rationalism is but an instru- ion. ment, — the instrument adopted in all Some have affirmed this of France. periods of transition by the human intel- They were mistaken. France - if we lect to aid its progress from a worn-out except the single moment when the form of religion to one new and supe- Revolution and Napoleon summed up rior,- and science only an accumula- the achievements of the epoch of indition of materials to be arranged and or- · viduality - has never had any external ganized in fruitful synthesis by a new mission, other than, occasionally, as an moral conception ;-a school that will arm of the Church, the instrument of recall philosophy from this puerile con- an idea emanating from Papal Rome. fusion of the means with the aim, to But the mission of Italy in the world bring it back to its sole true basis, the was at all times religious, and the esknowledge of life and comprehension sential character of Italian genius was of its law.

at all times religious. I invoke a school which will seek the The essence of every religion lies in truth of the epoch, not in mere analysis, a power, unknown to mere science, of - always barren and certain to mislead, compelling man to reduce thought to if undirected by a ruling principle, – action, and harmonize his practical life but in an earnest study of universal with his moral conception. The genius tradition, which is the manifestation of of our nation, whenever it has been the collective life of humanity; and of spontaneously revealed, and exercised conscience, which is the manifestation independently of all foreign inspiration, of the life of the individual.

has always evinced the religious char1 invoke a school which shall redeem acter, the unifying power to which I from the neglect cast upon it by theo- allude. Every conception of the Italries deduced from one of our human ian mind sought its incarnation in acfaculties alone that intuition which is tion, strove to assume a form in the the concentration of all the faculties up- political sphere. The ideal and the real, on a given subject;-a school which, elsewhere divided, have always tended even while declaring it exhausted, will to be united in our land. Sabines and respect the past, without which the Etruscans alike derived their civil orfuture would be impossible, — which ganization and way of life from their will protest against those intellectual conception of Heaven. The Pythagobarbarians for whom every religion is reans founded their philosophy, religious falsehood, every form of civilization associations, and political institutions now extinct a folly, every great pope, at one and the same time. The source king, or warrior now in the course of of the vitality and power of Rome lay things surpassed a criminal or a hypo- in a religious sense of a collective miscrite, and revoke the condemnation, thus sion, of an aim to be achieved, in the uttered by presumption in the present, contemplation of which the individual of the past labors and intellect of entire was submerged. Our democratic rehumanity ; – a school which may con- publics were all religious. Our early demn, but will not defame, — will judge, philosophical thinkers were all tormentbut never, through frenzy of rebellion, ed by the idea of translating their ideal falsify history; – a school which will conceptions into practical rules of govdeclare the death that is, without deny- ernment. ing the life that was, — which will call And as to our external mission. opon Italy to emancipate herself for the We alone have twice given moral achievement of new glories, but strip unity to Europe, to the known world. not a single leaf from her wreath of The voice that issued from Rome in

the past was addressed to and reverSuch a school would regain for Italy enced by humanity, — “ Urbs Orbi.” her European initiative, her primacy. Italy is a religion. And when, in my

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glories past.

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