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Which of these doctrines will be eminence of the fatherland over indimost potent to lead our nation to high viduals, and the certainty that their things? Let us not forget that, although devotion and martyrdom will, in the the educated, intellectual, and virtuous fulness of time, advance the honor, may be willing to admit that the well- greatness, or virtue of their nation ? being of the individual should be found- There are materialists, illogical and ed — even at the cost of sacrifice — up- carried away by the impulses of a heart on the well-being of the many, the ma- superior to their doctrines, who do both jority will, as they always have done, feel and act upon this worship of the understand their well-being to mean ideal; but materialism denies it. Matheir positive satisfaction or enjoyment; terialism, as a doctrine, only recognizes they will reject the notion of sacrifice in the universe a finite and determinate as painful, and endeavor to realize their quantity of matter, gifted with a definite own happiness, even to the injury of number of properties, and susceptible others. They will seek it one day from of modification, but not of progress; in liberty, the next from the deceitful which certain productive forces act by promises of a despot; but the practical the fortuitous agglomeration of circumresult of encouraging them to strive for stances not to be predicated or foreseen, the realization of their own happiness or through the necessary succession of as a right, will inevitably be to lead causes and effects,- of events inevitable them to the mere gratification of their and independent of all human action. own individual egotism.
Materialism admits neither the inIf you reject all supreme law, all tervention of any creative intelligence, Providential guidance, all aim, all obli- Divine initiative, nor human free-will; gation imposed by the belief in a mis- by denying the law-giving Intellect, it sion towards humanity, you have no denies all intelligent Providential law; right to prescribe your conception of and the philosophy of the squirrel in its well-being to others, as worthier or cage, which men term Pantheism at the better. You have no certain basis, no present day, by confounding the subject principle upon which to found a system and the object in one, cancels alike the of education ; you have nothing left but Ego and non-Ego, good and evil, God force, if you are strong enough to im- and man, and, consequently, all individpose it. Such was the method adopted ual mission or free-will. The wretched by the French Revolutionists, and they, doctrine, recognizing no higher historic in their turn, succumbed to the force of formula than the necessary alternation others, without knowing in the name of of vicissitudes, condemns humanity to what to protest. And you would have tread eternally the same circle, being to do the same. Without God, you incapable of comprehending the conmust either accept anarchy as the nor- ception of the spiral path of indefinite mal condition of things, - and this is progress upon which humanity traces impossible, or you must seek your its gradual ascent towards an ideal beauthority in the force of this or that yond. individual, and thus open the way to Strange contradiction! Men whose despotism and tyranny.
aim it is to combat the practice of egoBut what then becomes of the idea of tism instilled into the Italian people by progress ? — what of the conception we tyranny, to inspire them with a sacred have lately gained from historic science devotion to the fatherland, and make of the gradual but infallible education of them a great nation, the artificer of of humanity, — of the link of solidary the progress of humanity, present as ascending life which unites succeeding the first intellectual food of this peogenerations, - of the duty of sacrific- ple now awakening to new life, whose ing, if need be, the present generation whole strength lies in their good into the elevation and morality of the stincts and virginity of intellect, a thegenerations of the future, — of the pre- ory the ultimate consequences of which
are to establish egotism upon a basis idea, which find expression in our counof right!
try at the present day in the betrayal They call upon their people worthily of national duty by our higher classes, to carry on the grand traditions of their and in the stupid resignation of our past, when all around them— popes, princes, military leaders, literati, and the servile herd — have either insolent
IV. ly trampled liberty under foot, or deserted its cause in cowardly indiffer- I INVOKE the rising - and I should ence; and they preach to them a die consoled, even in exile, could I see doctrine which deprives them of every the first signs of its advent, but this I pledge of future progress, every stimu- dare not hope — I invoke the rising of lus to affection, every noble aspiration a truly Italian school ; - a school which, towards sacrifice, — they take from them comprehending the causes of the downthe faith that inspires confidence in fall of the Papacy, and the impotence victory, and renders even the defeat of of the merely negative doctrine which to-day fruitful of triumph on the mor- our Italian youth have borrowed from row. The same men who urge upon superficial French materialists and the them the duty of shedding their blood German copyists, should elevate itself for an idea begin by declaring to them: above both, and come forward to anThere is no hope of any future for you. nounce the approaching and inevitable Faith in immortality — the lesson trans- religious transformation which will put mitted to you by all past humanity - is an end to the existing divorce between a falsehood; a breath of air, or trifling thought and action, and to the crisis of want of equilibrium in the animal func- egotism and immorality through which tions, destroys you wholly and forever. Europe is passing. There is even no certainty that the re- I invoke the rising of a school dessults of your labors will endure; there tined to prepare the way for the initiais no Providential law or 'design, con- tive of Italy; - which shall, on the one sequently no possible theory of the fu- side, undertake the examination of the ture; you are but building up to-day dogma upon which Catholicism was what any unforeseen fact, blind force, founded, and prove it to be worn out, or fortuitous circumstance may over- exhausted, and in contradiction to our throw to-morrow.
new conception of life and its laws; and, They teach these brothers of theirs, on the other hand, the refutation of mawhom they desire to elevate and enno- terialism under whatsoever form it may ble, that they are but dust,-a neces- present itself, and prove that it also is in sary, unconscious secretion of I know contradiction of that new conception, not what material substance; that the that it is a stupid, fatal negation of all thought of a Kepler or Dante is dust, or moral law, of human free-will, of our rather phosphorus; that genius, from every sacred hope, and of the calm and Prometheus to Jesus, brought down no constant virtue of sacrifice. divine spark from heaven; that the mor- I invoke a school which shall philoal law, free-will
, merit, and the conse- sophically develop all the consequences, quent progress of the Ego, are illusions; the germ of which — neglected or igthat events are successively our mas- nored by superficial intellects — is conters, — inexorable, irresponsible, and in- tained in the word Progress considered superable to human will.
as a new term in the great historical And they see not that they thus con- synthesis, the expression of the ascend. firm that servile submission to the ing advance of humanity from epoch accomplished fact, that doctrine of op- to epoch, from religion to religion, toportunity, that bastard Machiavellism, wards a vaster conception of its own that worship of temporary interests, aim and its own law. and that indifference to every great I invoke the rising of a school des
tined to demonstrate to the youth of Italy - as I have said - is a religItaly that rationalism is but an instru- ion. ment, — the instrument adopted in all Some have affirmed this of France. periods of transition by the human intel- They were mistaken. France - if we lect to aid its progress from a worn-out except the single moment when the form of religion to one new and supe- Revolution and Napoleon summed up rior,-and science only an accumula- the achievements of the epoch of indition of materials to be arranged and or- · viduality — has never had any external ganized in fruitful synthesis by a new mission, other than, occasionally, as an moral conception ;-a school that will arm of the Church, the instrument of recall philosophy from this puerile con- an idea emanating from Papal Rome. fusion of the means with the aim, to But the mission of Italy in the world bring it back to its sole true basis, the was at all times religious, and the esknowledge of life and comprehension sential character of Italian genius was of its law.
at all times religious. I invoke a school which will seek the The essence of every religion lies in truth of the epoch, not in mere analysis, a power, unknown to mere science, of - always barren and certain to mislead, compelling man to reduce thought to if undirected by a ruling principle, action, and harmonize his practical life but in an earnest study of universal with his moral conception. The genius tradition, which is the manifestation of of our nation, whenever it has been the collective life of humanity; and of spontaneously revealed, and exercised conscience, which is the manifestation independently of all foreign inspiration, of the life of the individual.
has always evinced the religious charI invoke a school which shall redeem acter, the unifying power to which I from the neglect cast upon it by theo- allude. Every conception of the Italries deduced from one of our human ian mind sought its incarnation in acfaculties alone that intuition which is tion, - strove to assume a form in the the concentration of all the faculties up- political sphere. The ideal and the real, on a given subject; -a school which, elsewhere divided, have always tended even while declaring it exhausted, will to be united in our land. Sabines and respect the past, without which the Etruscans alike derived their civil orfuture would be impossible, — which ganization and way of life from their will protest against those intellectual conception of Heaven. The Pythagobarbarians for whom every religion is reans founded their philosophy, religious falsehood, every form of civilization associations, and political institutions now extinct a folly, every great pope, at one and the same time. The source king, or warrior now in the course of of the vitality and power of Rome lay things surpassed a criminal or a hypo- in a religious sense of a collective miscrite, and revoke the condemnation, thus sion, of an aim to be achieved, in the uttered by presumption in the present, contemplation of which the individual of the past labors and intellect of entire was submerged. Our democratic rehumanity; -a school which may con- publics were all religious. Our early demn, but will not defame, - will judge, philosophical thinkers were all tormentbut never, through frenzy of rebellion, ed by the idea of translating their ideal falsify history; - - a school which will conceptions into practical rules of govdeclare the death that is, without deny- ernment. ing the life that was, - which will call And as to our external mission. upon Italy to emancipate herself for the We alone have twice given moral achievement of new glories, but strip unity to Europe, to the known world. not a single leaf from her wreath of The voice that issued from Rome in glories past.
the past was addressed to and reverSuch a school would regain for Italy enced by humanity, — “ Urbs Orbi." her European initiative, her primacy. Italy is a religion. And when, in my
earliest years, I believed that the initia- weary of scepticism, egotism, and moral tive of the third life of Europe would anarchy, receive the new faith with spring from the heart, the action, the acclamations. I saw a new pact foundenthusiasm and sacrifice of our people, ed upon that faith,
-a pact of united heard within me the grand voice of action in the work of human perfectiRome sounding once again, hailed and bility, involving none of the evils or accepted with loving reverence by the dangers of the former pact, because peoples, and telling of moral unity and among the first consequences of a faith fraternity in a faith common to all hu- founded upon the dogma of progress manity. It was not the unity of the would be the justification of heresy, as past, — which, though sacred and con- either a promise or endeavor after producive to civilization for many centu
gress in the future. ries, did but emancipate individual The vision which brightened my first man, and reveal to him an ideal of lib- dream of country has vanished, so far erty and equality only to be realized in as concerns my own life. Even if that Heaven : it was a new unity, emanci- vision be ever fulfilled, - as I believe pating collective humanity, and reveal- it will be, - I shall be in the tomb. ing the formula of Association, through May the young, as yet uncorrupted which liberty and equality are destined by scepticism, prepare the way for its to be realized here on earth ; sanctify- realization; and may they, in the name ing the earth and rendering it what of our national tradition and the future, God wills it should be, a stage upon unceasingly protest against all who the path of perfection, a means given seek to immobilize human life in the to man wherewith to deserve a higher name of a dogma extinct, or to deand nobler existence hereafter.
grade it by diverting it from the eternal And I saw Rome, in the name of worship of the Ideal. God and Republican Italy, substituting The religious question is pre-eminent a declaration of PRINCIPLES for the bar- over every other at the present day, ren declaration of rights, — principles and the moral question is indissolubly the logical consequences of the parent linked with it. We are bound either idea, PROGRESS, — and revealing to the to solve these, or renounce all idea of nations a common aim, and the basis an Italian mission in the world. of a new religion. And I saw Europe,
REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES.
Miss Ravenel's Conversion from Secession to perfect roads, no doubt, and it may be that
Loyalty. By J. W. DE FORREST. New our social ways have only just now settled York: Harper and Brothers.
into such a state as makes smooth going
for the novelist; nevertheless, the old stageThe light, strong way in which our au- coach was hard to travel in, and what with thor goes forward in this story from the first, drafts upon one's good nature for assistance, and does not leave difficulty to his readers, it must be confessed that our novelists have is pleasing to those accustomed to find an been rather trying to their readers. It is American novel a good deal like the now well enough with us all while the road is extinct American stage-coach, whose passen- good, - a study of individual character, a gers not only walked over bad pieces of road, bit of landscape, a stretch of well-worn plot, but carried fence-rails on their shoulders to gentle slopes of incident; but somewhere pry the vehicle out of the sloughs and miry on the way the passengers are pretty sure to places. It was partly the fault of the im- be asked to step out, — the ladies to walk
on ahead, and the gentlemen to fetch fence- his duty to contribute towards the payment rails.
of the accumulated interest in the events of Our author imagines a Southern loyalist the war, by relating his work to them; and and his daughter sojourning in New Boston, the heroes of young-lady writers in the magBarataria, during the first months of the azines have been everywhere fighting the
Dr. Ravenel has escaped from New låte campaigns over again, as young ladies Orleans just before the Rebellion began, would have fought them.
We do not say and has brought away with him the most that this is not well, but we suspect that sarcastic and humorous contempt and ab- Mr. De Forrest is the first to treat the war horrence of his late fellow-citizens, while really and artistically. His campaigns do his daughter, an ardent and charming little not try the reader's constitution, his battles blonde Rebel, remembers Louisiana with are not bores. His soldiers are the soldiers longing and blind admiration. The Doctor, we actually know, — the green wood of the born in South Carolina, and living all his volunteers, the warped stuff of men torn days among slaveholders and slavery, has from civilization and cast suddenly into the not learned to love either ; but Lillie dif- barbarism of camps, the hard, dry, tough, fers from him so widely as to scream with true fibre of the veterans that came out of joy when she hears of Bull Run. Natural- the struggle. There could hardly be a betly she cannot fall in love with Mr. Col- ter type of the conscientious and patriotic burne, the young New Boston lawyer, who soldier than Captain Colburne ; and if goes into the war conscientiously for his Colonel Carter must not stand as type of country's sake, and resolved for his own to the officers of the old army, he must be acmake himself worthy and lovable in Lillie's knowledged as true to the semi-civilization blue eyes by destroying and desolating all of the South. On the whole he is more enthat she holds dear. It requires her mar- tertaining than Colburne, as immoral people riage with Colonel Carter — a Virginia gen- are apt to be to those who suffer nothing tleman, a good-natured drunkard and roué from them. “ His contrasts of slanginess and soldier of fortune on our side - to make and gentility, his mingled audacity and insouher see Colburne's worth, as it requires ciance of character, and all the picturesque some comparative study of New Orleans ins and outs of his moral architecture, so and New Boston, on her return to her own different from the severe plainness of the city, to make her love the North. Bereft spiritual temples common in New Boston,” of her husband by his own wicked weak- do take the eye of peace-bred Northerners, ness, and then widowed, she can at last though never their sympathy. Throughout, wisely love and marry Colburne ; and, we admire, as the author intends, Carter's cured of Secession by experiencing on her thorough and enthusiastic soldiership, and father's account the treatment received by we perceive the ruins of a generous nature Unionists in New Orleans, her conversion in his aristocratic Virginian pride, his Virto loyalty is a question of time duly settled ginian profusion, his imperfect Virginian before the story ends.
sense of honor. When he comes to be We sketch the plot without compunction, shot, fighting bravely at the head of his for these people of Mr. De Forrest's are so column, after having swindled his governunlike characters in novels as to be like ment, and half unwillingly done his worst people in life, and none will wish the less to break his wife's heart, we feel that our to see them because he knows the outline side has lost a good soldier, but that the of their history. Not only is the plot good world is on the whole something better for and very well managed, but there is scarce- our loss. The reader must go to the novel ly a feebly painted character or scene in the itself for a perfect conception of this charbook. As to the style, it is so praiseworthy acter, and preferably to those dialogues in that we will not specifically censure occa- which Colonel Carter so freely takes part ; sional defects, — for the most part, slight for in his development of Carter, at least, turgidities notable chiefly from their con- Mr. De Forrest is mainly dramatic. Intrast to the prevailing simplicity of the nar- deed, all the talk in the book is free and rative.
natural, and, even without the hard swearOur war has not only left us the burden ing which distinguishes the speech of some, of a tremendous national debt, but has laid it would be difficult to mistake one speaker upon our literature a charge under which it for another, as often happens in novels. has hitherto staggered very lamely. Every The character of Dr. Ravenel, though so author who deals in fiction feels it to be simple, is treated in a manner invariably